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Lidiany C da Silva Carvalho, Philip M Fearnside, Marcelo T Nascimento, Reinaldo I Barbosa
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) derived from charcoal particles (paleo + modern) deposited in the soil column has been little studied in the Amazon, and our understanding of the factors that control the spatial and vertical distribution of these materials in the region's forest soils is still unclear. The objective of this study was to test the effect of forest type and distance from the ignition source on the PyC stocks contained in macroscopic particles of soil charcoal (≥ 2 mm; 1-m depth) dispersed in ecotone forests of the northern Brazilian Amazon...
April 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
Kelsey D Galimba, Jesús Martínez-Gómez, Verónica S Di Stilio
The floral organ identity gene APETALA3 ( AP3 ) is a MADS-box transcription factor involved in stamen and petal identity that belongs to the B-class of the ABC model of flower development. Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae), an emerging model in the non-core eudicots, has AP3 homologs derived from both ancient and recent gene duplications. Prior work has shown that petals have been lost repeatedly and independently in Ranunculaceae in correlation with the loss of a specific AP3 paralog, and Thalictrum represents one of these instances...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hanna Tuomisto, Matleena Tuomisto, Jouni T Tuomisto
Various hypotheses have been proposed for why the traits distinguishing humans from other primates originally evolved, and any given trait may have been explained both as an adaptation to different environments and as a result of demands from social organization or sexual selection. To find out how popular the different explanations are among scientists, we carried out an online survey among authors of recent scientific papers in journals covering relevant fields of science (paleoanthropology, paleontology, ecology, evolution, human biology)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Nicolaas Glock, Zeynep Erdem, Klaus Wallmann, Christopher J Somes, Volker Liebetrau, Joachim Schönfeld, Stanislav Gorb, Anton Eisenhauer
Anthropogenic impacts are perturbing the global nitrogen cycle via warming effects and pollutant sources such as chemical fertilizers and burning of fossil fuels. Understanding controls on past nitrogen inventories might improve predictions for future global biogeochemical cycling. Here we show the quantitative reconstruction of deglacial bottom water nitrate concentrations from intermediate depths of the Peruvian upwelling region, using foraminiferal pore density. Deglacial nitrate concentrations correlate strongly with downcore δ13 C, consistent with modern water column observations in the intermediate Pacific, facilitating the use of δ13 C records as a paleo-nitrate-proxy at intermediate depths and suggesting that the carbon and nitrogen cycles were closely coupled throughout the last deglaciation in the Peruvian upwelling region...
March 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Francesco M Galassi, Elena Varotto, Alberto Zanatta, Fabio Zampieri
It has been believed for a long time that the Paduan scholar Antonio Vallisneri (1661-1730) described the second historical case of the frontal sinus osteoma in 1733. By historico-medically reexamining this case, we conclude that the brain concretions he described were not a case of frontal sinus osteoma, while they appear to have been pathological outcomes of neurocysticercosis, whose larval stages would only be described by Johann Goeze (1731-1793) later, in 1784. Thus, this case becomes relevant for the history of neuroparasitology...
March 22, 2018: Neurological Sciences
J Surma, S Assonov, D Herwartz, C Voigt, M Staubwasser
This study demonstrates the potential of triple O-isotopes to quantify evaporation with recharge on a salt lake from the Atacama Desert, Chile. An evaporative gradient was found in shallow ponds along a subsurface flow-path from a groundwater source. Total dissolved solids (TDS) increased by 177 g/l along with an increase in δ18 O by 16.2‰ and in δD by 65‰.17 O-excess decreased by 79 per meg, d-excess by 55‰. Relative humidity (h), evaporation over inflow (E/I), the isotopic composition of vapor (* RV ) and of inflowing water (* RWI ) determine the isotope distribution in17 O-excess over δ18 O along a well-defined evaporation curve as the classic Craig-Gordon model predicts...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated
The Nam Pat Group of the Nam Pat Basin, Uttaradit Province, Thailand is situated in the Nan Suture Zone. Two contrasting tectonic framework models of the Nan Suture have previously been proposed: as a main Paleo-Tethyan suture and as a remnant of a closed back-arc basin. The goal of this study is to analyze the tectonic framework of the Nan Suture and reevaluate the existing tectonic models. This research infers the tectonic setting of the basin based on basin-filled lithofacies distributions, provenance, and paleocurrents...
January 2018: Heliyon
Leah J Mische, Ellen M Mowry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive...
March 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
E Armynot du Châtelet, F Francescangeli, V M P Bouchet, F Frontalini
On the basis of the available databases including 700 sampling stations from subtidal to salt marsh areas, the purpose of this paper is to synthesise the regional distribution of living benthic foraminifera in transitional environments along the English Channel and southern North Sea. Indicator species analyses assign 37 foraminiferal taxa to high salt marsh, middle salt marsh, low salt marsh, tidal flat, tidal channel, and subtidal environmental units. Species are indicator of a single unit (e.g., Elphidium gunteri for tidal flat) up to four units (e...
February 24, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
El Molto, Peter Sheldrick
This article describes six cases of cancer from the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. A mummy had a confirmed 'primary' diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. The remaining diagnoses were based on the distribution and types of skeletal lesions in conjunction with age, sex, and/or the molecular phylogeny of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a confirmed cause of cancer of the uterine cervix (UC) and testes (TC) and it evolved in Africa long before Homo sapiens emerged. Today these cancers are common in young adult females and males, a fact which was pivotal in respectively including them in the differential diagnosis of UC and TC...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Alexander Ströhle, Christian Löser, Isabel Behrendt, Claus Leitzmann, Andreas Hahn
Alternative diets (AD) differ from the current common mixed diet; AD are recommended as a permanent diet. These diets are based on ethical, philosophical and health promoting principles and lead to very different recommendations for food selection. Even within a particular AD there is usually a broad spectrum of versions, so that a general evaluation is only possible to a limited extent. This is also true for single AD. Vegetarian diets and partly paleo-diets have been investigated to a reasonable extent. Plant based diets are appropriate as permanent diets and offer health benefits as compared with currently practiced diets (risk reduction of cancers by 10-18% and of heart diseases by 30%; favorable effect on blood pressure and lipid profile; no risk reduction on cancer and total mortality)...
February 2018: Die Rehabilitation
R Dietmar Müller, Adriana Dutkiewicz
Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) data for the last 420 million years (My) show long-term fluctuations related to supercontinent cycles as well as shorter cycles at 26 to 32 My whose origin is unknown. Periodicities of 26 to 30 My occur in diverse geological phenomena including mass extinctions, flood basalt volcanism, ocean anoxic events, deposition of massive evaporites, sequence boundaries, and orogenic events and have previously been linked to an extraterrestrial mechanism. The vast oceanic crustal carbon reservoir is an alternative potential driving force of climate fluctuations at these time scales, with hydrothermal crustal carbon uptake occurring mostly in young crust with a strong dependence on ocean bottom water temperature...
February 2018: Science Advances
Yuheng Wang, Pierre Le Pape, Guillaume Morin, Maria Asta, Georgina King, Barbora Bartova, Elena Suvorova, Manon Frutschi, Maya Ikogou, Vu Hoai Cong Pham, Phu Le Vo, Frédéric Herman, Laurent Charlet, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani
Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater is pervasive throughout deltaic regions of Southeast Asia and threatens the health of millions. The speciation of As in sediments overlying contaminated aquifers is poorly constrained. Here, we investigate the chemical and mineralogical compositions of sediment cores collected from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, elucidate the speciation of iron and arsenic, and relate them to the sediment depositional environment. Gradual dissolution of ferric (oxyhydr)oxides with depth is observed down to 7 m, corresponding to the establishment of reducing conditions...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Frances L Forrest, Thomas W Plummer, Ryan L Raaum
The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Rui Borges, Warren E Johnson, Stephen J O'Brien, Cidália Gomes, Christopher P Heesy, Agostinho Antunes
BACKGROUND: Based on evolutionary patterns of the vertebrate eye, Walls (1942) hypothesized that early placental mammals evolved primarily in nocturnal habitats. However, not only Eutheria, but all mammals show photic characteristics (i.e. dichromatic vision, rod-dominated retina) suggestive of a scotopic eye design. RESULTS: Here, we used integrative comparative genomic and phylogenetic methodologies employing the photoreceptive opsin gene family in 154 mammals to test the likelihood of a nocturnal period in the emergence of all mammals...
February 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
Roozbeh Behrooz, Mohammad Kaboli, Véronique Arnal, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Atefeh Asadi, Amin Salmanian, Mohsen Ahmadi, Claudine Montgelard
Northern and western mountains of Iran are among the most important biodiversity and endemism hot spots for reptiles in the Middle East. Among herpetofauna, the montivipers represent an emblematic and fragmented endemic group for which estimating their level of genetic differentiation and defining conservation priorities is urgently needed. Here, we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic study on the Montivipera raddei species group comprising all five known taxa, among which three are endemic to Iran...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Andrea Madella, Romain Delunel, Naki Akçar, Fritz Schlunegger, Marcus Christl
Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide concentrations of detrital minerals yield catchment-wide rates at which hillslopes erode. These estimates are commonly used to infer millennial scale denudation patterns and to identify the main controls on mass-balance and landscape evolution at orogenic scale. The same approach can be applied to minerals preserved in stratigraphic records of rivers, although extracting reliable paleo-denudation rates from Ma-old archives can be limited by the target nuclide's half-life and by exposure to cosmic radiations after deposition...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jacopo Boaga, Massimiliano Ghinassi, Andrea D'Alpaos, G P Deidda, G Rodriguez, Giorgio Cassiani
Whether or not one can detect relict signatures of the past imprinted in current landscapes is a question of the utmost theoretical and practical relevance for meandering tidal channels, owing to their influence on the morphodynamic evolution of tidal landscapes, a critically fragile environment, especially in face of expected climatic changes. Unravelling the sedimentary patterns of ancient channels is an expensive process that usually requires high resolution sediment coring. Here we use a novel inversion process of multi-frequency electromagnetic measurements to reveal the signature and characterize the dynamics of a salt-marsh paleo-meander in the Venice Lagoon...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan J Negro, Clive Finlayson, Ismael Galván
Paleo-colour scientists have recently made the transition from describing melanin-based colouration in fossil specimens to inferring life-history traits of the species involved. Two such cases correspond to counter-shaded dinosaurs: dark-coloured due to melanins dorsally, and light-coloured ventrally. We believe that colour reconstruction of fossils based on the shape of preserved microstructures-the majority of paleo-colour studies involve melanin granules-is not without risks. In addition, animals with contrasting dorso-ventral colouration may be under different selection pressures beyond the need for camouflage, including, for instance, visual communication or ultraviolet (UV) protection...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
João Neiva, Cristina Paulino, Mette M Nielsen, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Gary W Saunders, Jorge Assis, Ignacio Bárbara, Éric Tamigneaux, Licínia Gouveia, Tânia Aires, Núria Marbà, Annette Bruhn, Gareth A Pearson, Ester A Serrão
Glacial vicariance is regarded as one of the most prevalent drivers of phylogeographic structure and speciation among high-latitude organisms, but direct links between ice advances and range fragmentation have been more difficult to establish in marine than in terrestrial systems. Here we investigate the evolution of largely disjunct (and potentially reproductively isolated) phylogeographic lineages within the amphi-boreal kelp Saccharina latissima s. l. Using molecular data (COI, microsatellites) we confirm that S...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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