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Eduardo Carvalho da Silva Neto, Marcia Regina Calegari, Marcos Gervasio Pereira, Deyvid Diego Carvalho Maranhão, Jolimar Antonio Schiavo, Ademir Fontana, Júlio César Feitosa Fernandes
This study aims to contribute toward a better understanding of the current biodiversity patterns existing in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Rio de Janeiro from a paleo-ecological approach. Three soil profiles, each formed from distinct source materials under varied climate and vegetation conditions were selected from the coastal regions of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Soil horizon samples for chemical and physical characterization were collected from 10 cm-interval depths, and the total organic carbon was determined in addition to performing isotype and phytolithic analyses...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nicole E Adams, Kentaro Inoue, Richard A Seidel, Brian K Lang, David J Berg
Vicariance and dispersal events affect current biodiversity patterns in desert springs. Whether major diversification events are due to environmental changes leading to radiation or due to isolation resulting in relict species is largely unknown. We seek to understand whether the Gammarus pecos species complex underwent major diversification events due to environmental changes in the area leading either to radiation into novel habitats, or formation of relicts due to isolation. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that Gammarus in the northern Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico and Texas, USA are descendants of an ancient marine lineage now containing multiple undescribed species...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Nicholas J Roberts, René W Barendregt, John J Clague
We provide lithostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic data derived from a Plio-Pleistocene continental sediment sequence underlying the Altiplano plateau at La Paz, Bolivia. The record comprises six sections along the upper Río La Paz valley, totaling over one kilometre of exposure and forming a ~20-km transect oblique to the adjacent Cordillera Real. Lithostratigraphic characterization includes lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions of units and their contacts. We targeted gravel and diamicton units for paleomagnetic sampling to address gaps in the only previous magnetostratigraphic study from this area...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Rodolfo J Angulo, Paulo C F Giannini, Maria Cristina DE Souza, Guilherme C Lessa
Discussions are useful to the advance of science, and we appreciate the opportunity to discuss the paper by Castro et al. (2014) for the second time. Here we maintain the interpretations presented in our discussion paper (Angulo et al. 2016). In the discussion paper we emphasized that the vertical position of a paleo-sea level indicator is not the position of the paleo-sea level. We pointed out that: (1) to reconstruct paleo-sea levels it is crucial to determine the vertical distance between the indicators to their present homologous one; (2) margin of errors can only be established if considering the indicator's intrinsic characteristics and (3) the interpretation of a sea level 3...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
João Wagner A Castro, José C S Seoane, Aline M DA Cunha, Julia V Malta, Camila A DE Oliveira, Stella R Vaz, Kenitiro Suguio
Interpretation of sea-level indicators is essential when studying paleo sea-level fluctuations during the Holocene. Sea-level indicators may have different origins, such as geological (beachrocks) and biological (vermetids and barnacles). In order to reconstruct paleo sea-level, it is necessary to attribute an indicative meaning to each sea-level indicator. This paper aims to discuss issues raised by Angulo et al. (2016) regarding to the sea-level fluctuations curve proposed by Castro et al. (2014) to the Rio de Janeiro State coast, Brazilian southeast...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Patrick Ludwig, Juan J Gómez-Navarro, Joaquim G Pinto, Christoph C Raible, Sebastian Wagner, Eduardo Zorita
Regional climate modeling bridges the gap between the coarse resolution of current global climate models and the regional-to-local scales, where the impacts of climate change are of primary interest. Here, we present a review of the added value of the regional climate modeling approach within the scope of paleoclimate research and discuss the current major challenges and perspectives. Two time periods serve as an example: the Holocene, including the Last Millennium, and the Last Glacial Maximum. Reviewing the existing literature reveals the benefits of regional paleo climate modeling, particularly over areas with complex terrain...
June 4, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Nathan J Steiger, Jason E Smerdon, Edward R Cook, Benjamin I Cook
Hydroclimate extremes critically affect human and natural systems, but there remain many unanswered questions about their causes and how to interpret their dynamics in the past and in climate change projections. These uncertainties are due, in part, to the lack of long-term, spatially resolved hydroclimate reconstructions and information on the underlying physical drivers for many regions. Here we present the first global reconstructions of hydroclimate and associated climate dynamical variables over the past two thousand years...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
Casey L Kirkpatrick, Roselyn A Campbell, Kathryn J Hunt
This article serves as an introduction to the International Journal of Paleopathology's special issue, Paleo-oncology: Taking Stock and Moving Forward. Reflecting the goals of the special issue, this paper has been designed to provide an overview of the current state of paleo-oncology, to introduce new and innovative paleo-oncological research and ideas, and to serve as a catalyst for future discussions and progress. This paper begins with an overview of the paleo-oncological evidence that can be found in ancient remains, followed by a summary of significant paleo-oncological findings and methodological advances to date...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Kathryn J Hunt, Charlotte Roberts, Casey Kirkpatrick
This study summarizes data from 154 paleopathological studies documenting 272 archaeologically recovered individuals exhibiting skeletal or soft tissue evidence of cancer (malignant neoplastic disease) between 1.8 million years ago and 1900 CE. The paper reviews and summarizes the temporal, spatial and demographic distribution of the evidence and the methods used to provide the cancer diagnoses. Metastasis to bone is the most widely reported evidence (n = 161), followed by multiple myeloma (n = 55)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Rocío Paleo-López, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran, María Josefina Poupin, Thomas Ledger, Juan Diego Gaitan-Espitia, Andrzej Antoł, Michael Travisano, Roberto F Nespolo
There have been over 25 independent unicellular to multicellular evolutionary transitions, which have been transformational in the complexity of life. All of these transitions likely occurred in communities numerically dominated by unicellular organisms, mostly bacteria. Hence, it is reasonable to expect that bacteria were involved in generating the ecological conditions that promoted the stability and proliferation of the first multicellular forms as protective units. In this study, we addressed this problem by analyzing the occurrence of multicellularity in an experimental phylogeny of yeasts ( Sacharomyces cerevisiae ) a model organism that is unicellular but can generate multicellular clusters under some conditions...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ben Krause-Kyora, Julian Susat, Felix M Key, Denise Kühnert, Esther Bosse, Alexander Immel, Christoph Rinne, Sabin-Christin Kornell, Diego Yepes, Sören Franzenburg, Henrike O Heyne, Thomas Meier, Sandra Lösch, Harald Meller, Susanne Friederich, Nicole Nicklisch, Kurt W Alt, Stefan Schreiber, Andreas Tholey, Alexander Herbig, Almut Nebel, Johannes Krause
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most widespread human pathogens known today, yet its origin and evolutionary history are still unclear and controversial. Here, we report the analysis of three ancient HBV genomes recovered from human skeletons found at three different archaeological sites in Germany. We reconstructed two Neolithic and one medieval HBV genomes by de novo assembly from shotgun DNA sequencing data. Additionally, we observed HBV-specific peptides using paleo-proteomics. Our results show that HBV circulates in the European population for at least 7000 years...
May 10, 2018: ELife
Qi Zhou, Juan Li, Jian Xu, Xiaofei Qin, Congrui Deng, Joshua S Fu, Qiongzhen Wang, Mijiti Yiming, Kan Huang, Guoshun Zhuang
We firstly conducted a long-term in-situ field measurement at a marginal area (Hotan) of the southern Taklimakan Desert covering all four seasons. Detailed chemical characterization of dust aerosol over Hotan showed several unconventional features, including (1) ubiquity of high Na+ and Cl- abundances in the Taklimakan dust aerosol and its Cl- /Na+ ratio close to seawater; (2) high Ca content in the Taklimakan dust (7.4~8.0%) which was about two times of that in the natural crust; (3) high abundance of soluble sulfate concentrations and strong correlations between sulfate and Na+ and Cl- as well as typical mineral tracers such as Al and Ca...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Debabrata Sarkar, Swades Pal
Avulsion is a natural fluvial process but considered it as a hazard in the populated region due to the chance of immense failure of lives and properties. So, early warning indicates that the zone of avulsion can facilitate the people living there. About 317 numbers of local and regional historical imprints of channel cutoff along river Kulik claim the need of this work. The present study tried to identify avulsion potential zone (APZ) of Kulik river of Indo-Bangladesh using multi-parametric weighted combination approach...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Lidiany C da Silva Carvalho, Philip M Fearnside, Marcelo T Nascimento, Reinaldo I Barbosa
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) derived from charcoal particles (paleo + modern) deposited in the soil column has been little studied in the Amazon, and our understanding of the factors that control the spatial and vertical distribution of these materials in the region's forest soils is still unclear. The objective of this study was to test the effect of forest type and distance from the ignition source on the PyC stocks contained in macroscopic particles of soil charcoal (≥2 mm; 1 m depth) dispersed in ecotone forests of the northern Brazilian Amazon...
April 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
Kelsey D Galimba, Jesús Martínez-Gómez, Verónica S Di Stilio
The floral organ identity gene APETALA3 ( AP3 ) is a MADS-box transcription factor involved in stamen and petal identity that belongs to the B-class of the ABC model of flower development. Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae), an emerging model in the non-core eudicots, has AP3 homologs derived from both ancient and recent gene duplications. Prior work has shown that petals have been lost repeatedly and independently in Ranunculaceae in correlation with the loss of a specific AP3 paralog, and Thalictrum represents one of these instances...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hanna Tuomisto, Matleena Tuomisto, Jouni T Tuomisto
Various hypotheses have been proposed for why the traits distinguishing humans from other primates originally evolved, and any given trait may have been explained both as an adaptation to different environments and as a result of demands from social organization or sexual selection. To find out how popular the different explanations are among scientists, we carried out an online survey among authors of recent scientific papers in journals covering relevant fields of science (paleoanthropology, paleontology, ecology, evolution, human biology)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Nicolaas Glock, Zeynep Erdem, Klaus Wallmann, Christopher J Somes, Volker Liebetrau, Joachim Schönfeld, Stanislav Gorb, Anton Eisenhauer
Anthropogenic impacts are perturbing the global nitrogen cycle via warming effects and pollutant sources such as chemical fertilizers and burning of fossil fuels. Understanding controls on past nitrogen inventories might improve predictions for future global biogeochemical cycling. Here we show the quantitative reconstruction of deglacial bottom water nitrate concentrations from intermediate depths of the Peruvian upwelling region, using foraminiferal pore density. Deglacial nitrate concentrations correlate strongly with downcore δ13 C, consistent with modern water column observations in the intermediate Pacific, facilitating the use of δ13 C records as a paleo-nitrate-proxy at intermediate depths and suggesting that the carbon and nitrogen cycles were closely coupled throughout the last deglaciation in the Peruvian upwelling region...
March 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Francesco M Galassi, Elena Varotto, Alberto Zanatta, Fabio Zampieri
It has been believed for a long time that the Paduan scholar Antonio Vallisneri (1661-1730) described the second historical case of the frontal sinus osteoma in 1733. By historico-medically reexamining this case, we conclude that the brain concretions he described were not a case of frontal sinus osteoma, while they appear to have been pathological outcomes of neurocysticercosis, whose larval stages would only be described by Johann Goeze (1731-1793) later, in 1784. Thus, this case becomes relevant for the history of neuroparasitology...
March 22, 2018: Neurological Sciences
J Surma, S Assonov, D Herwartz, C Voigt, M Staubwasser
This study demonstrates the potential of triple O-isotopes to quantify evaporation with recharge on a salt lake from the Atacama Desert, Chile. An evaporative gradient was found in shallow ponds along a subsurface flow-path from a groundwater source. Total dissolved solids (TDS) increased by 177 g/l along with an increase in δ18 O by 16.2‰ and in δD by 65‰. 17 O-excess decreased by 79 per meg, d-excess by 55‰. Relative humidity (h), evaporation over inflow (E/I), the isotopic composition of vapor (* R V ) and of inflowing water (* R WI ) determine the isotope distribution in 17 O-excess over δ18 O along a well-defined evaporation curve as the classic Craig-Gordon model predicts...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated
The Nam Pat Group of the Nam Pat Basin, Uttaradit Province, Thailand is situated in the Nan Suture Zone. Two contrasting tectonic framework models of the Nan Suture have previously been proposed: as a main Paleo-Tethyan suture and as a remnant of a closed back-arc basin. The goal of this study is to analyze the tectonic framework of the Nan Suture and reevaluate the existing tectonic models. This research infers the tectonic setting of the basin based on basin-filled lithofacies distributions, provenance, and paleocurrents...
January 2018: Heliyon
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