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Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Didier Raoult, Rezak Drali, Kosta Mumcuoglu
Lice are a classic example of cospeciation. Human lice confirm this cospeciation with lice specialized in hominids which differ from those of gorillas and chimpanzees. Head lice and body lice seem to belong to closely related species with different ecotypes and a different geographical distribution which may reflect population movements. Paleo-entomology allows us in some cases to trace the migrations of archaic human populations. The analysis of lice found on mummies in Egypt and South America has clarified a certain number of these migrations, also the study of lice and the diseases they transmit has shed a new light on the epidemics of the past...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Dan Matsumoto, Yuki Sawai, Masaki Yamada, Yuichi Namegaya, Tetsuya Shinozaki, Daisuke Takeda, Shigehiro Fujino, Koichiro Tanigawa, Atsunori Nakamura, Jessica E Pilarczyk
Erosional and sedimentary features associated with flooding have been documented in both modern and past cases. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the relationship between these features and the corresponding hydraulic conditions that produced them, making it difficult to evaluate the magnitude of paleo-flooding. This study describes the characteristics associated with inundation depth and flow direction, as well as the erosional and sedimentary features resulting from the disastrous flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan, in September 2015...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
W Daniel Kissling, Anne Blach-Overgaard, Roelof E Zwaan, Philipp Wagner
To what extent deep-time dispersal limitation shapes present-day biodiversity at broad spatial scales remains elusive. Here, we compiled a continental dataset on the distributions of African lizard species in the reptile subfamily Agaminae (a relatively young, Neogene radiation of agamid lizards which ancestors colonized Africa from the Arabian peninsula) and tested to what extent historical colonization and dispersal limitation (i.e. accessibility from areas of geographic origin) can explain present-day species richness relative to current climate, topography, and climate change since the late Miocene (~10 mya), the Pliocene (~3 mya), and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 0...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Frank Heberling, Leonie Paulig, Zhe Nie, Dieter Schild, Nicolas Finck
Environmental scientists and geoscientists working in different fields regard the reactivity of calcite and corresponding changes in its trace elemental- or isotopic composition from diametrically opposed points of view. As one extreme, calcite based environmental remediation strategies rely on the fast recrystallization of calcite and the concurrent uptake and immobilization of pollutants. Paleo-ecological investigations denote the other extreme, and rely on the invariability of calcite composition over geological periods of time...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Susanne A Fritz, Jussi T Eronen, Jan Schnitzler, Christian Hof, Christine M Janis, Andreas Mulch, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Catherine H Graham
At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guogang Li, Yongtao Tang, Renyi Zhang, Kai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Phylogeography and historical demography of the cyprinid fish Diptychus maculatus (subfamily Schizothoracinae) are evaluated across three river systems in the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Tien Shan range: the Indus River, Tarim River and Ili River. RESULTS: Results from both mtDNA (16S rRNA, Cyt b and D-loop) and nucDNA (RAG-2) resolved four reciprocally monophyletic clades, representing populations from Indus River, South Tarim River, North Tarim River and Ili River, respectively...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
M Baskaran, T S Bianchi, T R Filley
(14)C is the most widely utilized geochronometer to investigate geological, geochemical and geophysical problems over the past 5 decades. Establishment of precise sedimentation rates is crucial for the reconstruction of paleo-climate, -ecological and - environmental studies when extrapolation of sedimentation rates is utilized for time scales beyond the dating range. However, agreement between short-term and long-term sedimentation rates in anthropogenically unperturbed sediment cores has not been shown. Here we show that the AMS (14)C-based long-term mass accumulation rate (MAR) of an organic-rich (>70%) sediment core from Mud Lake, Florida to be ∼5 times lower than the short-term MAR obtained using (239,240)Pu, (137)Cs and excess (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs)...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M K Pavićević, V Cvetković, S Niedermann, V Pejović, G Amthauer, B Boev, F Bosch, I Aničin, W F Henning
This paper focuses on constraining the erosion rate in the area of the Allchar Sb-As-Tl-Au deposit (Macedonia). It contains the largest known reserves of lorandite (TlAsS2), which is essential for the LORanditeEXperiment (LOREX), aimed at determining the long-term solar neutrino flux. Because the erosion history of the Allchar area is crucial for the success of LOREX, we applied terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides including both radioactive ((26)Al and (36)Cl) and stable ((3)He and (21)Ne) nuclides in quartz, dolomite/calcite, sanidine, and diopside...
February 2016: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G³
Adrián Ortega-Guerrero
High arsenic concentrations in groundwater have been documented in La Laguna Region (LLR) in arid northern Mexico, where arsenic poisoning is both chronic and endemic. A heated debate has continued for decades on its origin. LLR consisted of a series of ancient connected lakes that developed at the end of a topographic depression under closed basin conditions. This study addresses the isotopic, chemical composition of the groundwater and geochemical modeling in the southeasternmost part of the LLR to determine the origin of arsenic...
August 18, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Rocío Paleo-López, Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran, Angela M Sanchez-Salazar, Juan D Gaitan-Espitia, Roberto F Nespolo
When novel sources of ecological opportunity are available, physiological innovations can trigger adaptive radiations. This could be the case of yeasts (Saccharomycotina), in which an evolutionary novelty is represented by the capacity to exploit simple sugars from fruits (fermentation). During adaptive radiations, diversification and morphological evolution are predicted to slow-down after early bursts of diversification. Here, we performed the first comparative phylogenetic analysis in yeasts, testing the "early burst" prediction on species diversification and also on traits of putative ecological relevance (cell-size and fermentation versatility)...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Sofianos Andrikopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Linda M Reynard, Noreen Tuross
RATIONALE: The δ(2) H values of some nitrogen-containing organic compounds measured by High-Temperature Conversion (HTC) with a glassy carbon reactor have been shown to be inaccurate. A probable explanation for these analytical inaccuracies is the formation of HCN, allowing some hydrogen atoms to escape isotope ratio measurement. We assess this isotopic effect in sample types commonly used for (paleo)ecological, environmental, archaeological, and forensic investigations. METHODS: The δ(2) HVSMOW-SLAP values and mass fraction H using a factory-recommended glassy carbon HTC reactor packing were compared with those obtained from using two Cr-containing reactor packings for a variety of N-containing substances, including amino acids, collagen, hair, and silk...
August 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Irina Morozova, Pavel Flegontov, Alexander S Mikheyev, Sergey Bruskin, Hosseinali Asgharian, Petr Ponomarenko, Vladimir Klyuchnikov, GaneshPrasad ArunKumar, Egor Prokhortchouk, Yuriy Gankin, Evgeny Rogaev, Yuri Nikolsky, Ancha Baranova, Eran Elhaik, Tatiana V Tatarinova
The term 'ancient DNA' (aDNA) is coming of age, with over 1,200 hits in the PubMed database, beginning in the early 1980s with the studies of 'molecular paleontology'. Rooted in cloning and limited sequencing of DNA from ancient remains during the pre-PCR era, the field has made incredible progress since the introduction of PCR and next-generation sequencing. Over the last decade, aDNA analysis ushered in a new era in genomics and became the method of choice for reconstructing the history of organisms, their biogeography, and migration routes, with applications in evolutionary biology, population genetics, archaeogenetics, paleo-epidemiology, and many other areas...
August 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Mišel Jelić, Göran I V Klobučar, Frédéric Grandjean, Nicolas Puillandre, Damjan Franjević, Momir Futo, Julien Amouret, Ivana Maguire
In this study, the evolutionary history of the white-clawed crayfish (WCC) was evaluated using large-scale datasets comprising >1350 specimens from the entire distribution range. Using species delimitation methods on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, we propose four primary species hypotheses for WCC. Sequences for several nuclear regions were screened but none showed significant variation within WCC. This result favours a single secondary species hypothesis and indicates the existence of a mito-nuclear discordance in WCC...
October 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Koryu Kin, Jamie Maziarz, Arun R Chavan, Manasi Kamat, Sreelakshmi Vasudevan, Alyssa Birt, Deena Emera, Vincent J Lynch, Troy L Ott, Mihaela Pavlicev, Günter P Wagner
The endometrial stromal fibroblast (ESF) is a cell type present in the uterine lining of therian mammals. In the stem lineage of eutherian mammals, ESF acquired the ability to differentiate into decidual cells in order to allow embryo implantation. We call the latter cell type "neo-ESF" in contrast to "paleo-ESF" which is homologous to eutherian ESF but is not able to decidualize. In this study, we compare the transcriptomes of ESF from six therian species: Opossum (Monodelphis domestica; paleo-ESF), mink, rat, rabbit, human (all neo-ESF), and cow (secondarily nondecidualizing neo-ESF)...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Maxim Nabozhenko, Nikolay Nikitsky, Rolf Aalbu
Three North American species of Helops are reassigned to the genus Nalassus: N. aereus (Germar, 1824), comb. n., N. californicus (Mannerheim, 1843), comb. n., N. convexulus (LeConte, 1861), comb. n. Current distributions as well as paleo distributions are discussed. A lectotype is designated for Helops californicus.
2016: Zootaxa
Yue Wang, ZhiMin Jian, Ping Zhao, Dong Xiao, JunMing Chen
In a 250-kyr transient simulation of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we identified a precessional forced seesaw of the summer middle-upper tropospheric eddy temperature between Asia and the North Pacific as the paleo-APO (Asian-Pacific oscillation). The paleo-APO variability is out of phase with the precession parameter. Corresponding to a positive paleo-APO phase, both the subtropical anticyclonic circulation over the North Pacific and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) strengthen. Summer anomalous sea surface temperature shows a western cold-eastern warm pattern over the extratropical North Pacific and a zonal positive-negative-positive pattern over the tropical Pacific...
2016: Scientific Reports
Andres E Carrillo, Natalie A Davies, Christina L Mongelli, Melissa R Joseph, Edward J Ryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alexander Gehler, Philip D Gingerich, Andreas Pack
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a remarkable climatic and environmental event that occurred 56 Ma ago and has importance for understanding possible future climate change. The Paleocene-Eocene transition is marked by a rapid temperature rise contemporaneous with a large negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Both the temperature and the isotopic excursion are well-documented by terrestrial and marine proxies. The CIE was the result of a massive release of carbon into the atmosphere. However, the carbon source and quantities of CO2 and CH4 greenhouse gases that contributed to global warming are poorly constrained and highly debated...
July 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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