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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064314/-gene-pool-of-siberian-tatars-five-ways-of-origin-for-five-subethnic-groups
#1
A T Agdzhoyan, E V Balanovska, A D Padyukova, D O Dolinina, M A Kuznetsova, V V Zaporozhchenko, R A Skhalyakho, S M Koshel, M K Zhabagin, Y M Yusupov, Kh Kh Mustafin, M V Ulyanova, Z A Tychinskih, M B Lavryashina, O P Balanovsky
Siberian Tatars form the largest Turkic-speaking ethnic group in Western Siberia. The group has a complex hierarchical system of ethnographically diverse populations. Five subethnic groups of Tobol-Irtysh Siberian Tatars (N = 388 samples) have been analyzed for 50 informative Y-chromosomal SNPs. The subethnic groups have been found to be extremely genetically diverse (FST = 21%), so the Siberian Tatars form one of the strongly differentiated ethnic gene pools in Siberia and Central Asia. Every method employed in our studies indicates that different subethnic groups formed in different ways...
November 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009565/a-practical-local-tomography-reconstruction-algorithm-based-on-a-known-sub-region
#2
Pierre Paleo, Michel Desvignes, Alessandro Mirone
A new method to reconstruct data acquired in a local tomography setup is proposed. This method uses an initial reconstruction and refines it by correcting the low-frequency artifacts, known as the cupping effect. A basis of Gaussian functions is used to correct the initial reconstruction. The coefficients of this basis are found by optimizing iteratively a fidelity term under the constraint of a known sub-region. Using a coarse basis reduces the degrees of freedom of the problem while actually correcting the cupping effect...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008083/infidelity-in-the-outback-climate-signal-recorded-in-%C3%AE-18o-of-leaf-but-not-branch-cellulose-of-eucalypts-across-an-australian-aridity-gradient
#3
Alexander W Cheesman, Lucas A Cernusak
The isotopic composition of leaf water in terrestrial plants is highly dependent upon a plant's environment. This isotopic signature can become integrated into organic molecules, allowing the isotopic composition of biomarkers such as cellulose to be used as sensitive paleo and climatic proxies. However, the mechanisms by which cellulose isotopic composition reflect environmental conditions are complex, and may vary between leaf and woody tissues. To date few empirical tests have been made on the relative roles of leaf-water enrichment and source water on the isotopic composition of leaf and wood cellulose within the same plant...
December 21, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997756/evidence-of-molybdenum-association-with-particulate-organic-matter-under-sulfidic-conditions
#4
T W Dahl, A Chappaz, J Hoek, C J McKenzie, S Svane, D E Canfield
The geochemical behavior of molybdenum (Mo) in the oceans is closely linked to the presence of sulfide species in anoxic environments, where Fe availability may play a key role in the Mo scavenging. Here, we show that Mo(VI) is reduced in the presence of particulate organic matter (represented by sulfate-reducing bacteria). Molybdenum was immobilized at the surface of both living cells and dead/lysed cells, but not in cell-free control experiments. Experiments were carried out at four different Mo concentrations (0...
December 20, 2016: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997045/dynamics-of-escherichia-coli-type-i-e-crispr-spacers-over-42-000-years
#5
Ekaterina Savitskaya, Anna Lopatina, Sofia Medvedeva, Mikhail Kapustin, Sergey Shmakov, Alexey Tikhonov, Irena I Artamonova, Maria Logacheva, Konstantin Severinov
CRISPR-Cas are nucleic acids-based prokaryotic immune systems. CRISPR arrays accumulate spacers from foreign DNA and provide resistance to mobile genetic elements containing identical or similar sequences. Thus, the set of spacers present in a given bacterium can be regarded as a record of encounters of its ancestors with genetic invaders. Such records should be specific for different lineages and change with time, as earlier acquired spacers get obsolete and are lost. Here, we studied Type I-E CRISPR spacers of Escherichia coli from extinct pachyderm...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991953/barium-and-its-importance-as-an-indicator-of-paleo-productivity
#6
Bianca T P Liguori, Marcelo G DE Almeida, Carlos E DE Rezende
Barium (Ba) is a trace element which occurs predominantly as barite mineral (BaSO4) in the marine environment. Previous work suggests that barite concentrations are related to the organic carbon flux and marine biological debris in the water column suggesting a direct or indirect involvement in the marine biological cycling. In addition, barite has a high preservation rate (~30%) in sediments and it is less affected by early diagenesis than other proxies for productivity such as carbonates (~10%) and organic carbon (~1%), for example...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991945/first-occurrence-and-paleo-ecological-implications-of-insects-orthoptera-ensifera-gryllidae-in-the-romualdo-member-of-the-santana-formation-eo-cretaceous-of-the-araripe-basin
#7
Luís C B Freitas, Geraldo J B DE Moura, Antônio A F Saraiva
The Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation, a lithostatigraphic unit attributed to a marine intrusion, is famous for its preserved fossils in calcareous concretions, which stand out for their diversity and excellent preservation levels. This paper aims to record the first occurrence of the Class Insecta in the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation of the Araripe Basin, as well as to describe and discuss the paleo-ecological implications of such finding. The first occurrence of the order Orthoptera (family Gryllidae) is presented for this unit...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911776/evaluating-early-warning-indicators-of-critical-transitions-in-natural-aquatic-ecosystems
#8
Alena Sonia Gsell, Ulrike Scharfenberger, Deniz Özkundakci, Annika Walters, Lars-Anders Hansson, Annette B G Janssen, Peeter Nõges, Philip C Reid, Daniel E Schindler, Ellen Van Donk, Vasilis Dakos, Rita Adrian
Ecosystems can show sudden and persistent changes in state despite only incremental changes in drivers. Such critical transitions are difficult to predict, because the state of the system often shows little change before the transition. Early-warning indicators (EWIs) are hypothesized to signal the loss of system resilience and have been shown to precede critical transitions in theoretical models, paleo-climate time series, and in laboratory as well as whole lake experiments. The generalizability of EWIs for detecting critical transitions in empirical time series of natural aquatic ecosystems remains largely untested, however...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894994/a-new-genus-of-anostomidae-ostariophysi-characiformes-diversity-phylogeny-and-biogeography-based-on-cytogenetic-molecular-and-morphological-data
#9
Jorge L Ramirez, José L O Birindelli, Pedro M Galetti
A new genus of Anostomidae (Characiformes) is described to include ten valid extant species previously classified in Leporinus or Hypomasticus and distributed throughout most major river basins in South America: L. brinco, L. conirostris, L. elongatus, H. garmani, L. macrocephalus, L. muyscorum, L. obtusidens, L. piavussu, L. reinhardti, and L. trifasciatus. The monophyly of Megaleporinus is well-supported in a phylogenetic analysis based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, as well as its sister group relationship to Abramites...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884104/phylogeography-reveals-an-ancient-cryptic-radiation-in-east-asian-tree-frogs-hyla-japonica-group-and-complex-relationships-between-continental-and-island-lineages
#10
Christophe Dufresnes, Spartak N Litvinchuk, Amaël Borzée, Yikweon Jang, Jia-Tang Li, Ikuo Miura, Nicolas Perrin, Matthias Stöck
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the Western Palearctic and Nearctic biogeographic regions, the phylogeography of Eastern-Palearctic terrestrial vertebrates has received relatively little attention. In East Asia, tectonic events, along with Pleistocene climatic conditions, likely affected species distribution and diversity, especially through their impact on sea levels and the consequent opening and closing of land-bridges between Eurasia and the Japanese Archipelago. To better understand these effects, we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear markers to determine phylogeographic patterns in East-Asian tree frogs, with a particular focus on the widespread H...
November 23, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878213/holocene-paleo-sea-level-changes-along-the-coast-of-rio-de-janeiro-southern-brazil-comment-on-castro-et-al-2014
#11
Rodolfo J Angulo, Paulo C F Giannini, Maria Cristina DE Souza, Guilherme C Lessa
The present work discusses and reinterprets paleo-sea level indicators used to build Holocene sea-level curve for the coast of Rio de Janeiro at former works. We conclude that: (a) the paleo-sea levels inferred by vermetid remains show that sea-level has fallen over the past 4400 years, at least; (b) the paleo-sea level inferred by the beachrock facies and dated shells of Jaconé shows that sea-level was near the present elevation between 8198 and 5786 years before present; and (c) several shells from other beachrocks were deposited probably thousands of years after the specimens died and consequently do not allow precise reconstructions of paleo-sea levels...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875538/seasonal-cyclicity-in-trace-elements-and-stable-isotopes-of-modern-horse-enamel
#12
Niels J de Winter, Christophe Snoeck, Philippe Claeys
The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824887/the-bacteriohopanepolyol-inventory-of-novel-aerobic-methane-oxidising-bacteria-reveals-new-biomarker-signatures-of-aerobic-methanotrophy-in-marine-systems
#13
Darci Rush, Kate A Osborne, Daniel Birgel, Andreas Kappler, Hisako Hirayama, Jörn Peckmann, Simon W Poulton, Julia C Nickel, Kai Mangelsdorf, Marina Kalyuzhnaya, Frances R Sidgwick, Helen M Talbot
Aerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is one of the primary biologic pathways regulating the amount of methane (CH4) released into the environment. AMO acts as a sink of CH4, converting it into carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. It is of interest for (paleo)climate and carbon cycling studies to identify lipid biomarkers that can be used to trace AMO events, especially at times when the role of methane in the carbon cycle was more pronounced than today. AMO bacteria are known to synthesise bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP) lipids...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824339/dna-evidence-of-bowhead-whale-exploitation-by-greenlandic-paleo-inuit-4-000-years-ago
#14
Frederik Valeur Seersholm, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Martin Jensen Søe, Hussein Shokry, Sarah Siu Tze Mak, Anthony Ruter, Maanasa Raghavan, William Fitzhugh, Kurt H Kjær, Eske Willerslev, Morten Meldgaard, Christian M O Kapel, Anders Johannes Hansen
The demographic history of Greenland is characterized by recurrent migrations and extinctions since the first humans arrived 4,500 years ago. Our current understanding of these extinct cultures relies primarily on preserved fossils found in their archaeological deposits, which hold valuable information on past subsistence practices. However, some exploited taxa, though economically important, comprise only a small fraction of these sub-fossil assemblages. Here we reconstruct a comprehensive record of past subsistence economies in Greenland by sequencing ancient DNA from four well-described midden deposits...
November 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797199/uranium-isotope-fractionation-during-adsorption-co-precipitation-and-biotic-reduction
#15
Duc Huy Dang, Breda Novotnik, Wei Wang, R Bastian Georg, R Douglas Evans
Uranium contamination of surface environments is a problem associated with both U-ore extraction/processing and situations in which groundwater comes into contact with geological formations high in uranium. Apart from the environmental concerns about U contamination, its accumulation and isotope composition have been used in marine sediments as a paleoproxy of the Earth's oxygenation history. Understanding U isotope geochemistry is then essential either to develop sustainable remediation procedures as well as for use in paleotracer applications...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779217/responses-of-the-summer-asian-pacific-zonal-thermal-contrast-and-the-associated-evolution-of-atmospheric-circulation-to-transient-orbital-changes-during-the-holocene
#16
Dong Xiao, Ping Zhao, Yue Wang, Xiuji Zhou
This study investigates the response of large-scale atmospheric circulation over the Asian-Pacific sector and precipitation over eastern China to transient orbital changes during the Holocene summer using an intermediate-complexity climate model. Corresponding to variations in the incoming solar radiation, the eddy sea level pressure (SLP) exhibited an out-of-phase relationship between the North Pacific and the Eurasian landmass that was similar to the present-day Asia-Pacific Oscillation (APO) pattern and was defined as the paleo-APO...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768316/the-two-alternative-rate-determining-steps-in-benzylic-lithiation-reactions-of-esters-and-carbamates
#17
Fernando Fernández-Nieto, M Rita Paleo, Roberto Colunga, M Luz Raposo, Luis Garcia-Rio, F Javier Sardina
Lithiation reactions of tertiary benzylic esters and carbamates have been studied. Kinetic methodology revealed that a two-step reaction pathway should be considered for these reactions, where either the lithium precomplexation and/or the proton transfer steps can be rate determining. Kinetic isotopic effects were evaluated by comparison of the lithiations of the corresponding protio/deutero substrates, and the results obtained support the notion that lithium precomplexation is taking place on the reaction pathway and that it is the rate-determining step in this transformation...
October 21, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766703/a-simple-and-reliable-anion-exchange-resin-method-for-sulfate-extraction-and-purification-suitable-for-multiple-o-and-s-isotope-measurements
#18
Erwann Le Gendre, Erwan Martin, Benoit Villemant, Pierre Cartigny, Nelly Assayag
RATIONALE: The O- and S-isotope compositions of sulfates can be used as key tracers of the fate and sink of sulfate in both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial environments. However, their application remains limited in those geological systems where sulfate occurs in low concentrations. Here we present a simple and reliable method to extract, purify and concentrate sulfate from natural samples. The method allows us to take into account the separation of nitrate, which is known to be an issue in O-isotope analysis...
January 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753214/how-to-make-stone-soup-is-the-paleo-diet-a-missed-opportunity-for-anthropologists
#19
Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726759/human-lice-in-paleoentomology-and-paleomicrobiology
#20
Didier Raoult, Rezak Drali, Kosta Mumcuoglu
Lice are a classic example of cospeciation. Human lice confirm this cospeciation with lice specialized in hominids which differ from those of gorillas and chimpanzees. Head lice and body lice seem to belong to closely related species with different ecotypes and a different geographical distribution which may reflect population movements. Paleo-entomology allows us in some cases to trace the migrations of archaic human populations. The analysis of lice found on mummies in Egypt and South America has clarified a certain number of these migrations, also the study of lice and the diseases they transmit has shed a new light on the epidemics of the past...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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