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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242470/gastropods-from-the-late-jurassic-early-cretaceous-seep-deposits-in-spitsbergen-svalbard
#1
Andrzej Kaim, Krzysztof Hryniewicz, Crispin T S Little, Hans Arne Nakrem
Eleven gastropod species from seven latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous hydrocarbon seep deposits from central Spitsbergen, Svalbard are described and illustrated. Six new species and one new genus are introduced. Sassenfjordia gen. nov. is tentatively classified as a naticoid and is characterized by a naticiform gross teleoconch morphology and a large protoconch ornamented with spiral ribs, similar to those present in the subfamily Sininae. The patellogastropod ?Pectinodonta borealis sp. nov. represents the oldest occurrence of pectinodontid limpets in chemosynthesis-based associations...
October 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209659/imaging-paleoslabs-in-the-d%C3%A2-layer-beneath-central-america-and-the-caribbean-using-seismic-waveform-inversion
#2
Anselme F E Borgeaud, Kenji Kawai, Kensuke Konishi, Robert J Geller
D″ (Dee double prime), the lowermost layer of the Earth's mantle, is the thermal boundary layer (TBL) of mantle convection immediately above the Earth's liquid outer core. As the origin of upwelling of hot material and the destination of paleoslabs (downwelling cold slab remnants), D″ plays a major role in the Earth's evolution. D″ beneath Central America and the Caribbean is of particular geodynamical interest, because the paleo- and present Pacific plates have been subducting beneath the western margin of Pangaea since ~250 million years ago, which implies that paleoslabs could have reached the lowermost mantle...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201561/phylogeographic-and-population-insights-of-the-asian-common-toad-bufo-gargarizans-in-korea-and-china-population-isolation-and-expansions-as-response-to-the-ice-ages
#3
Amaël Borzée, Joana L Santos, Santiago Sánchez-RamÍrez, Yoonhyuk Bae, Kyongman Heo, Yikweon Jang, Michael Joseph Jowers
The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166850/fishes-in-the-desert-mitochondrial-variation-and-phylogeography-of-danakilia-actinopterygii-cichlidae-and-aphanius-actinopterygii-cyprinodontidae-in-the-danakil-depression-of-northeastern-africa
#4
Giorgio Chiozzi, Melanie L J Stiassny, S Elizabeth Alter, Giuseppe De Marchi, Yohannes Mebrahtu, Misikire Tessema, Berhan Asmamaw, Mauro Fasola, Adriana Bellati
The Danakil Depression in northeastern Africa represents one of the harshest arid environments on Earth, yet two genera of fishes, Danakilia (Cichlidae) and Aphanius (Cyprinodontidae), share its sparse aquatic habitats. The evolutionary history of these fishes is investigated here in the context of genetic, geological and paleoenvironmental information. We collected samples from seven sites and assessed phylogeographic relationships using concatenated COI and cytb mtDNA genes. Danakilia morphospecies show low differentiation at mitochondrial markers, but variation is partitioned between a northern cluster containing D...
November 22, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166653/testing-the-applicability-of-a-benthic-foraminiferal-based-transfer-function-for-the-reconstruction-of-paleowater-depth-changes-in-rhodes-greece-during-the-early-pleistocene
#5
Yvonne Milker, Manuel F G Weinkauf, Jürgen Titschack, Andre Freiwald, Stefan Krüger, Frans J Jorissen, Gerhard Schmiedl
We present paleo-water depth reconstructions for the Pefka E section deposited on the island of Rhodes (Greece) during the early Pleistocene. For these reconstructions, a transfer function (TF) using modern benthic foraminifera surface samples from the Adriatic and Western Mediterranean Seas has been developed. The TF model gives an overall predictive accuracy of ~50 m over a water depth range of ~1200 m. Two separate TF models for shallower and deeper water depth ranges indicate a good predictive accuracy of 9 m for shallower water depths (0-200 m) but far less accuracy of 130 m for deeper water depths (200-1200 m) due to uneven sampling along the water depth gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163386/evaluating-production-of-cyclopentyl-tetraethers-by-marine-group-ii-euryarchaeota-in-the-pearl-river-estuary-and-coastal-south-china-sea-potential-impact-on-the-tex86-paleothermometer
#6
Jin-Xiang Wang, Wei Xie, Yi Ge Zhang, Travis B Meador, Chuanlun L Zhang
TEX86 [TetraEther indeX of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with 86 carbon atoms] has been widely applied to reconstruct (paleo-) sea surface temperature. Marine Group I (MG-I) Thaumarchaeota were thought to be the primary source of GDGTs constituting the TEX86 formula; however, recent research has suggested that Marine Group II (MG-II) Euryarchaeota may also contribute significantly to the GDGT pool in the ocean. Little is known regarding the potential impact of MG-II Euryarchaeota-derived GDGTs on TEX86 values recorded in marine sediments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154403/paleo-inspired-systems-durability-sustainability-and-remarkable-properties
#7
Loïc Bertrand, Claire Gervais, Admir Masic, Luc Robbiola
We designate as paleo-inspiration, the process of mimicking properties of specific interest (mechanical, optical, structural, etc.) observed in ancient and historical systems. For instance, recovery in archaeology or paleontology identifies materials that are a posteriori extremely resilient to alteration. This is all the more enthusing that many ancient materials were synthesized in soft chemical ways, often using low energy resources, and sometimes rudimentary manufacturing equipment. In this review, we highlight ancient systems as a source of inspiration for innovative conception in the Anthropocene...
November 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151192/impact-of-oral-ketamine-augmentation-on-hospital-admissions-in-treatment-resistant-depression-and-ptsd-a-retrospective-study
#8
John Hartberg, Simone Garrett-Walcott, Angelo De Gioannis
RATIONALE: Depressive episodes are the leading cause of mental health-related hospital admissions in Australia, and 44% of those admitted have a previous history of hospitalisations for depression (Admitted patient mental health-related care: (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Aust Hospital Stat 2011-12, 2013). Despite numerous available antidepressant treatments, many patients do not respond to conventional therapy, having what is called 'treatment resistance' (Fava Biol Psychiatry 53:649-659, 2003)...
November 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124370/popular-weight-loss-strategies-a-review-of-four-weight-loss-techniques
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan Obert, Michelle Pearlman, Lois Obert, Sarah Chapin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss...
November 9, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099937/the-paleo-indian-entry-into-south-america-according-to-mitogenomes
#10
Stefania Brandini, Paola Bergamaschi, Marco Fernando Cerna, Francesca Gandini, Francesca Bastaroli, Emilie Bertolini, Cristina Cereda, Luca Ferretti, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Vincenza Battaglia, Antonio Salas, Ornella Semino, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri, Antonio Torroni
Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 thousand years ago (Kya) at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 Kya, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080673/inferring-the-demographic-history-of-an-oligophagous-grasshopper-effects-of-climatic-niche-stability-and-host-plant-distribution
#11
Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J Cordero, Joaquín Ortego
Understanding the consequences of past environmental changes on the abiotic and biotic components of the landscape and deciphering their impacts on the demographic trajectories of species is a major issue in evolutionary biogeography. In this study, we combine nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to study the phylogeographical structure and lineage-specific demographic histories of the scrub-legume grasshopper (Chorthippus binotatus binotatus), a montane taxon distributed in the Iberian Peninsula and France that exclusively feeds on certain scrub-legume species...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075012/evidence-of-long-term-nao-influence-on-east-central-europe-winter-precipitation-from-a-guano-derived-%C3%AE-15-n-record
#12
Daniel M Cleary, Jonathan G Wynn, Monica Ionita, Ferenc L Forray, Bogdan P Onac
Currently there is a scarcity of paleo-records related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), particularly in East-Central Europe (ECE). Here we report δ(15)N analysis of guano from a cave in NW Romania with the intent of reconstructing past variation in ECE hydroclimate and examine NAO impacts on winter precipitation. We argue that the δ(15)N values of guano indicate that the nitrogen cycle is hydrologically controlled and the δ(15)N values likely reflect winter precipitation related to nitrogen mineralization prior to the growing season...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073895/spatial-phylogenetics-of-the-native-california-flora
#13
Andrew H Thornhill, Bruce G Baldwin, William A Freyman, Sonia Nosratinia, Matthew M Kling, Naia Morueta-Holme, Thomas P Madsen, David D Ackerly, Brent D Mishler
BACKGROUND: California is a world floristic biodiversity hotspot where the terms neo- and paleo-endemism were first applied. Using spatial phylogenetics, it is now possible to evaluate biodiversity from an evolutionary standpoint, including discovering significant areas of neo- and paleo-endemism, by combining spatial information from museum collections and DNA-based phylogenies. Here we used a distributional dataset of 1.39 million herbarium specimens, a phylogeny of 1083 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 9 genes, and a spatial randomization test to identify regions of significant phylogenetic diversity, relative phylogenetic diversity, and phylogenetic endemism (PE), as well as to conduct a categorical analysis of neo- and paleo-endemism (CANAPE)...
October 26, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065499/an-overview-of-dietary-interventions-and-strategies-to-optimize-the-management-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Brandon J Perumpail, Rosann Cholankeril, Eric R Yoo, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Aim: To investigate the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment strategies as a preventive measure and/or treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. Method: A systematic review of literature through 1 July 2017 on the PubMed Database was performed. A comprehensive search was conducted using key terms, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), combined with lifestyle intervention, diet, and exercise. All of the articles and studies obtained from the search were reviewed. Redundant literature was excluded...
October 22, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055575/review-of-levoglucosan-in-glacier-snow-and-ice-studies-recent-progress-and-future-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Chao You, Chao Xu
Levoglucosan (LEV) in glacier snow and ice layers provides a fingerprint of fire activity, ranging from modern air pollution to ancient fire emissions. In this study, we review recent progress in our understanding and application of LEV in glaciers, including analytical methods, transport and post-depositional processes, and historical records. We firstly summarize progress in analytical methods for determination of LEV in glacier snow and ice. Then, we discuss the processes influencing the records of LEV in snow and ice layers...
October 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045412/self-domestication-in-homo-sapiens-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Constantina Theofanopoulou, Simone Gastaldon, Thomas O'Rourke, Bridget D Samuels, Angela Messner, Pedro Tiago Martins, Francesco Delogu, Saleh Alamri, Cedric Boeckx
This study identifies and analyzes statistically significant overlaps between selective sweep screens in anatomically modern humans and several domesticated species. The results obtained suggest that (paleo-)genomic data can be exploited to complement the fossil record and support the idea of self-domestication in Homo sapiens, a process that likely intensified as our species populated its niche. Our analysis lends support to attempts to capture the "domestication syndrome" in terms of alterations to certain signaling pathways and cell lineages, such as the neural crest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036207/little-ice-age-climatic-erraticism-as-an-analogue-for-future-enhanced-hydroclimatic-variability-across-the-american-southwest
#17
Julie Loisel, Glen M MacDonald, Marcus J Thomson
The American Southwest has experienced a series of severe droughts interspersed with strong wet episodes over the past decades, prompting questions about future climate patterns and potential intensification of weather disruptions under warming conditions. Here we show that interannual hydroclimatic variability in this region has displayed a significant level of non-stationarity over the past millennium. Our tree ring-based analysis of past drought indicates that the Little Ice Age (LIA) experienced high interannual hydroclimatic variability, similar to projections for the 21st century...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029269/an-overlooked-paleo-tetraploidization-in-cucurbitaceae
#18
Jinpeng Wang, Pengchuan Sun, Yuxian Li, Yinzhe Liu, Nanshan Yang, Jigao Yu, Xuelian Ma, Sangrong Sun, Ruiyan Xia, Xiaojian Liu, Dongcen Ge, Sainan Luo, Yinmeng Liu, Youting Kong, Xiaobo Cui, Tianyu Lei, Li Wang, Zhenyi Wang, Weina Ge, Lan Zhang, Xiaoming Song, Min Yuan, Di Guo, Dianchuan Jin, Wei Chen, Yuxin Pan, Tao Liu, Guixian Yang, Yue Xiao, Jinshuai Sun, Cong Zhang, Zhibo Li, Haiqing Xu, Xueqian Duan, Shaoqi Shen, Zhonghua Zhang, Sanwen Huang, Xiyin Wang
Cucurbitaceae plants are of considerable biological and economic importance, and genomes of cucumber, watermelon, and melon have been sequenced. However, a comparative genomics exploration of their genome structures and evolution has not been available. Here, we aimed at performing a hierarchical inference of genomic homology resulted from recursive paleo-polyploidizations. Unexpectedly, we found that, shortly after a core-eudicot-common hexaploidy (ECH), a cucurbit-common tetraploidization (CCT) occurred, overlooked by previous reports...
September 28, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990235/application-of-10-13-ohm-faraday-cup-current-amplifiers-for-boron-isotopic-analyses-by-solution-mode-and-laser-ablation-mc-icp-ms
#19
Nicholas S Lloyd, Aleksey Yu Sadekov, Sambuddha Misra
RATIONALE: Boron isotope ratios (δ(11) B values) are used as a proxy for seawater paleo-pH, amongst several other applications. The analytical precision can be limited by the detection of low intensity ion beams from limited sample amounts. High-gain amplifiers offer improvements in signal/noise ratio and can be used to increase measurement precision and reduce sample amounts. METHODS: 10(13) ohm amplifier technology has previously been applied to several radiogenic systems, but has thus far not been applied to non-traditional stable isotopes...
October 9, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979799/network-analysis-of-the-hominin-origin-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-from-fossil-data
#20
Simon J Underdown, Krishna Kumar, Charlotte Houldcroft
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) is a human herpesvirus found worldwide that causes genital lesions and more rarely causes encephalitis. This pathogen is most common in Africa, and particularly in central and east Africa, an area of particular significance for the evolution of modern humans. Unlike HSV1, HSV2 has not simply co-speciated with humans from their last common ancestor with primates. HSV2 jumped the species barrier between 1.4 and 3 MYA, most likely through intermediate but unknown hominin species. In this article, we use probability-based network analysis to determine the most probable transmission path between intermediate hosts of HSV2, from the ancestors of chimpanzees to the ancestors of modern humans, using paleo-environmental data on the distribution of African tropical rainforest over the last 3 million years and data on the age and distribution of fossil species of hominin present in Africa between 1...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
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