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Jesus D Castaño, Jiwei Zhang, Jonathan S Schilling
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a critical role in generating oxygen radicals as fungi attack and deconstruct plant cell walls. Its concentrations in planta, however, are often low during decomposition and evade detection by traditional methods. Here, we compared relevant methods and selected the best based on detection limits and selectivity.
December 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Li-Chao Yang, Yong-Liang Gan, Li-Yan Yang, Bo-Le Jiang, Ji-Liang Tang
The essential stages of bacterial cell separation are described as the synthesis and hydrolysis of septal peptidoglycan (PG). The amidase, AmiC, which cleaves the peptide side-chains linked to the glycan strands, contributes critically to this process and has been extensively studied in model strains of Escherichia coli. However, insights into the contribution of this protein to other processes in the bacterial cell have been limited. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a phytopathogen that causes black rot disease in many economically important plants...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Pranav Chettri, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Rosie E Bradshaw
Genes required for fungal secondary metabolite production are usually clustered, co-regulated and expressed in stationary growth phase. Chromatin modification has an important role in co-regulation of secondary metabolite genes. The virulence factor dothistromin, a relative of aflatoxin, provided a unique opportunity to study chromatin level regulation in a highly fragmented gene cluster that is switched on during early exponential growth phase. We analysed three histone modification marks by ChIP-qPCR and gene deletion in the pine pathogen Dothistroma septosporum to determine their effects on dothistromin gene expression across a time course and at different loci of the dispersed gene cluster...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Anastasis Antoniou, Maria-Dimitra Tsolakidou, Ioannis A Stringlis, Iakovos S Pantelides
Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects. While suppressiveness is usually attributed to the compost's microorganisms, the mechanisms governing microbial recruitment by the roots and the composition of selected microbial communities are not fully elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Matthias Kretschmer, Scott Lambie, Daniel Croll, James W Kronstad
The fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis causes disease on maize by mating to establish an infectious filamentous cell type that invades the host and induces tumours. We previously found that β-oxidation mutants were defective in virulence and did not grow on acetate. Here we demonstrate that acetate inhibits filamentation during mating and in response to oleic acid. We therefore examined the influence of different carbon sources by comparing the transcriptomes of cells grown on acetate, oleic acid or glucose, with expression changes for the fungus during tumour formation in planta...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Christian B Oehlenschlæger, Lotte B A Gersby, Nagib Ahsan, Jesper T Pedersen, Astrid Kristensen, Tsvetelina V Solakova, Jay J Thelen, Anja T Fuglsang
PSY1R is a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinase (RLK) previously shown to act as receptor for the plant peptide hormone PSY1 (peptide containing sulfated tyrosine 1) and to regulate cell expansion. PSY1R phosphorylates and thereby regulates the activity of plasma membrane-localized H+-ATPases. While this mechanism has been studied in detail, little is known about how PSY1R itself is activated. Here we studied the activation mechanism of PSY1R. We show that full-length PSY1R interacts with members of the SERK co-receptor family in planta...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Haruyasu Hamada, Qianyan Linghu, Yozo Nagira, Ryuji Miki, Naoaki Taoka, Ryozo Imai
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiao-Ren Chen, Shen-Xin Huang, Ye Zhang, Gui-Lin Sheng, Bo-Yue Zhang, Qi-Yuan Li, Feng Zhu, Jing-You Xu
Phytophthora cactorum, an oomycete pathogen, infects more than 200 plant species within several plant families. To gain insight into the repertoire of the infection-related genes of P. cactorum, Illumina RNA-Seq was used to perform a global transcriptome analysis of three life cycle stages of the pathogen, mycelia (MY), zoospores (ZO) and germinating cysts with germ tubes (GC). From over 9.8 million Illumina reads for each library, 18,402, 18,569 and 19,443 distinct genes were identified for MY, ZO and GC libraries, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Philip D Townsend, Christopher H Dixon, Erik J Slootweg, Octavina Ca Sukarta, Ally Wh Yang, Timothy R Hughes, Gary J Sharples, Lars-Olof Palsson, Frank L W Takken, Aska Goverse, Martin J Cann
Plant NLR proteins enable the immune system to recognise and respond to pathogen attack. An early consequence of immune activation is transcriptional reprogramming and some NLRs have been shown to act in the nucleus and interact with transcription factors. The Rx1 NLR protein of potato is further able to bind and distort double-stranded DNA. However, Rx1 host targets that support a role for Rx1 in transcriptional reprogramming at DNA are unknown. Here we report a functional interaction between Rx1 and NbGlk1, a Golden2- like transcription factor...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eva Knoch, Satoko Sugawara, Tetsuya Mori, Ryo Nakabayashi, Kazuki Saito, Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara
UGT79B31 encodes flavonol 3- O -glycoside: 2″- O -glucosyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for the terminal modification of pollen-specific flavonols in Petunia hybrida. Flavonoids are known to be involved in pollen fertility in petunia (P. hybrida) and maize (Zea mays). As a first step toward elucidating the role of flavonoids in pollen, we have identified a glycosyltransferase that is responsible for the terminal modification of petunia pollen-specific flavonoids. An in silico search of the petunia transcriptome database revealed four candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes...
December 6, 2017: Planta
Itzell E Hernández-Sánchez, Israel Maruri-López, Steffen P Graether, Juan F Jiménez-Bremont
Dehydrins (DHNs) are intrinsically disordered proteins that play central roles in plant abiotic stress responses; however, how they work remains unclear. Herein, we report the in planta subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana DHNs AtCOR47, AtERD10, and AtRAB18 through GFP translational fusions. To explore the dimerization ability of the Arabidopsis acidic DHNs AtCOR47 and AtERD10, we conducted an in planta DHN binding assay using the Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) technique. Our analyses revealed homodimeric interactions for AtCOR47 and AtERD10; interestingly, heterodimeric associations also occurred with these DHNs, and these interactions were observed in the cytosol of tobacco cells...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Poonguzhali Selvaraj, Qing Shen, Fan Yang, Naweed I Naqvi
The cAMP-Protein Kinase A signaling, anchored on CpkA, is necessary for appressorium development and host penetration, but indispensable for infectious growth in Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, we identified and characterized the gene encoding the second catalytic subunit, CPK2, whose expression was found to be lower compared to CPKA at various stages of pathogenic growth in M. oryzae. Deletion of CPK2 caused no alterations in vegetative growth, conidiation, appressorium formation, or pathogenicity. Surprisingly, the cpkAΔcpk2Δ double deletion strain displayed significant reduction in growth rate and conidiation compared to the single deletion mutants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aldo Almeida, Lemeng Dong, Bekzod Khakimov, Jean-Etienne André Bassard, Tessa Moses, Frederic Lota, Alain Goossens, Giovanni Appendino, Soren Bak
8,14-seco-triterpenoids are characterized by their unusual open C-ring. Their distribution in nature is rare and scattered in taxonomically unrelated plants. The 8,14-seco-triterpenoid α-onocerin is only known from the evolutionarily distant clubmoss genus Lycopodium and leguminous genus Ononis, which makes the biosynthesis of this seco-triterpenoid intriguing from an evolutionary standpoint. In our experiments with Ononis spinosa, α-onocerin was detected only in the roots. Through transcriptome analysis of the roots, an oxidosqualene cyclase, OsONS1, was identified that produces α-onocerin from squalene-2,3;22,23-dioxide, when transiently expressed in Nicotiana bethaminana...
December 4, 2017: Plant Physiology
Andreas Toepfer, Norbert Harrasser, Florian Dreyer, Carolin Mogler, Markus Walther, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe
Plantar fibromatosis, also known as Morbus Ledderhose, is a well known and frequently encountered disorder of the planta pedis. When conservative treatment fails, surgical therapy with complete resection is the therapeutical procedure of choice. Soft tissue sarcoma is a heterogeneous and rare malignant disease of the musculoskeletal system with over 50 histopathological subtypes which can potentially arise in any localization but is most commonly found at the extremities. Here, we report the case of an epithelioid sarcoma of the sole of the foot which was initially and repeatedly clinically and histopathologically misinterpreted as plantar fibromatosis, receiving insufficient resection and subsequently ending in amputation of the lower leg...
December 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Xing-Feng Huang, Farhad Nazarian, Jean-Paul Vincken, Richard G F Visser, Luisa M Trindade
BACKGROUND: Starch-binding domains from carbohydrate binding module family 20 have been used as a tool for starch engineering. Previous studies showed that expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins in planta resulted in modified starch granule structures and physicochemical properties. However, although 13 carbohydrate binding module families have been reported to contain starch-binding domains, only starch-binding domains from carbohydrate binding module family 20 have been well studied and introduced into plants successfully...
December 4, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
Celso Gaspar Litholdo, Andrew Leigh Eamens, Peter Michael Waterhouse
In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved in parallel to the protein-coding genes that they target for expression regulation, and miRNA-directed gene expression regulation is central to almost every cellular process. MicroRNA, miR163, is unique to the Arabidopsis genus and is processed into a 24-nucleotide (nt) mature small regulatory RNA (sRNA) from a single precursor transcript transcribed from a single locus, the MIR163 gene. The MIR163 locus is a result of a recent inverted duplication event of one of the five closely related S-ADENOSYL-METHYLTRANSFERASE genes that the mature miR163 sRNA targets for expression regulation...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Simon Kelly, John T Sullivan, Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Simona Radutoiu, Clive W Ronson, Jens Stougaard
The Lotus japonicus symbiont Mesorhizobium loti R7A encodes two copies of nodD and here we identify striking differences in Nod factor biosynthesis gene induction by NodD1 and NodD2 both in vitro and in planta. We demonstrate that induction of Nod factor biosynthesis genes is preferentially controlled by NodD1 and NodD2 at specific stages of symbiotic infection. NodD2 is primarily responsible for induction in the rhizosphere and within nodules, while NodD1 is primarily responsible for induction within root hair infection threads...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Madhvi Soni, Kalyan K Mondal
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Xap) causing bacterial blight is an important pathogen that incurs significant losses to the exportability of pomegranate. Xap employs Xop TTSS-effector via type three secretion system to suppress pomegranate immunity. Here, we investigate the role of XopL during blight pathogenesis. We found that XopL is essential for its in planta growth and full virulence. Leaves inoculated with Xap ΔxopL produced restricted water-soaked lesions compared to that inoculated with Xap wild...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Ling Wang, Xue-Lian Zhang, Lu Wang, Yanan Tian, Ning Jia, Shuzhen Chen, Ning-Bo Shi, Xuemei Huang, Chu Zhou, Yaowen Yu, Zhao-Qi Zhang, Xue-Qun Pang
WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in stress responses in planta. However, the function of WRKY TFs in the regulation of fruit ripening is unclear. Here, 23 tomato SlWRKYs that are similar to ethylene-responsive WRKY genes from other plant species, or show up-regulation during fruit ripening in previous genome-wide study, were selected, and their function in fruit ripening was investigated. Twelve SlWRKYs were found to be responsive to ethylene (SlER-WRKYs), showing expression patterns similar to those of genes related to fruit ripening...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sandhya Tripathi, Rajender Singh Sangwan, Lokesh Kumar Narnoliya, Yashdeep Srivastava, Bhawana Mishra, Neelam Singh Sangwan
Transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators of cellular and metabolic functions including secondary metabolism. Deep and intensive RNA-seq analysis of Withania somnifera using transcriptomic databases provided 3532 annotated transcripts of transcription factors in leaf and root tissues, belonging to 90 different families with major abundance for WD-repeat (174 and 165 transcripts) and WRKY (93 and 80 transcripts) in root and leaf tissues respectively, followed by that of MYB, BHLH and AP2-ERF. Their detailed comparative analysis with Arabidopsis thaliana, Capsicum annum, Nicotiana tabacum and Solanum lycopersicum counterparts together gave interesting patterns...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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