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Wentao Xiong, Peng Wang, Tianze Yan, Baobao Cao, Jun Xu, Defang Liu, Meizhong Luo
Heterogeneous expression of the rice genes "fruit-weight 2.2-like" (OsFWL) affects Cd resistance in yeast, and OsFWL4 mediates the translocation of Cd from roots to shoots. Cadmium (Cd) induces chronic and toxic effects in humans. In a previous study (Xu et al. in Planta 238:643-655, 2013), we cloned the rice genes, designated OsFWL1-8, homologous to the tomato fruit-weight 2.2. Here, we show that expression of genes OsFWL3-7 in yeast confers resistance to Cd. The Cd contents of OsFWL3-, -4-, -6- and -7-transformed Cd(II)-sensitive yeast mutant ycf1 cells were strongly decreased compared with those of empty vector, with the strongest resistance to Cd observed in cells expressing OsFWL4...
February 7, 2018: Planta
Rita de Brito Francisco, Enrico Martinoia
The plant vacuole is a cellular compartment that is essential to plant development and growth. Often plant vacuoles accumulate specialized metabolites, also called secondary metabolites, which constitute functionally and chemically diverse compounds that exert in planta many essential functions and improve the plant's fitness. These metabolites provide for example chemical defence against herbivorous and pathogens or chemical attractants (colour and fragrance) to attract pollinators. The chemical composition of the vacuole is dynamic and is altered during development and as a response to environmental changes...
February 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Tzu-Yin Liu, Wen-Chun Chou, Wei-Yuan Chen, Ching-Yi Chu, Chen-Yi Dai, Pei-Yu Wu
Despite a great interest of identification of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in biological systems, only few attempts have been made for a large-scale PPI screen in planta. Unlike biochemical assays, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) allows visualization of the transient and weak PPIs in vivo at the subcellular resolution. However, when the non-fluorescent fragments are highly expressed, the spontaneous and irreversible self-assembly of the split halves can easily generate false positives...
February 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Emmanouil Domazakis, Doret Wouters, Richard Visser, Sophien Kamoun, Matthieu Haj Joosten, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers
The ELICITIN RESPONSE (ELR) protein from Solanum microdontum can recognize INF1 elicitin of Phytophthora infestans and trigger defense responses. ELR is a receptor-like protein (RLP) that lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain and is anticipated to require interaction with a signaling-competent receptor-like kinase (RLK). SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1 (SOBIR1) has been proposed as a general interactor for RLPs involved in immunity and as such, is a potential interactor for ELR. Here we investigate whether SOBIR1 is required for response to INF1 and resistance to P...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Zongwang Ma, Jiangchun Hu
Certain Bacillus species have the capacity to produce cyclic lipopeptides and these lipopeptides are promising determinants contributing to the biocontrol of plant diseases. In the current study, a cyclic lipopeptide plipastatin A1 was isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine sediment-derived Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SH-B74 by the combination of solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and its structure was identified by tandem mass spectrometry, high-resolution electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry together with nuclear magnetic resonance analysis...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Karina Van Der Linde, Ljudmilla Timofejeva, Rachel L Egger, Birger Ilau, Reza Hammond, Chong Teng, Blake C Meyers, Gunther Doehlemann, Virginia Walbot
Small proteins are crucial signals during development, host defense, and physiology. Spatiotemporal restricted functions of signaling proteins remain challenging to study in planta. The several month span required to assess transgene expression, particularly in flowers, combined with the uncertainties from transgene position effects and ubiquitous or overexpression, makes monitoring of spatiotemporally restricted signaling proteins lengthy and difficult. This situation could be rectified with a transient assay in which protein deployment is controlled spatially and temporally in planta to assess protein functions, timing, and cellular targets as well as to facilitate rapid mutagenesis to define functional protein domains...
February 15, 2018: Plant Cell
Dequan Sun, Hashmath I Hussain, Zhifeng Yi, James E Rookes, Lingxue Kong, David M Cahill
An intracellular glutathione (GSH) responsive phytochemical delivery system based on thiol gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was developed and tested on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, monodispersed MSNs with particle diameters of ~20 nm and pore sizes of ~2.87 nm were synthesized and modified. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone, was entrapped in the mesopores of MSNs and then the pore entrances of MSNs were covered with decanethiol gatekeepers through GSH-cleavable disulfide linkages...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Patrick J Dickinson, Manoj Kumar, Claudia Martinho, Seong Jeon Yoo, Hui Lan, George Artavanis, Varodom Charoensawan, Mark Aurel Schöttler, Ralph Bock, Katja E Jaeger, Philip A Wigge
Temperature is a key environmental variable influencing plant growth and survival. Protection against high temperature stress in eukaryotes is coordinated by heat shock factors (HSFs), transcription factors that activate the expression of protective chaperones such as HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 (HSP70); however, the pathway by which temperature is sensed and integrated with other environmental signals into adaptive responses is not well understood. Plants are exposed to considerable diurnal variation in temperature, and we have found that there is diurnal variation in thermotolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, with maximal thermotolerance coinciding with higher HSP70 expression during the day...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Inês Carqueijeiro, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Arnaud Lanoue, Thu-Thuy Dang, Christiana Teijaro, Christian Paetz, Kevin Billet, Angela Mosquera, Audrey Oudin, Sébastien Besseau, Nicolas Papon, Gaëlle Glévarec, Lucia Atehortùa, Marc Clastre, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Bernd Schneider, Benoit St-Pierre, Rodrigo B Andrade, Sarah E O'Connor, Vincent Courdavault
While the characterization of the biosynthetic pathway of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) in leaves of Catharanthus roseus is now reaching completion, only two enzymes from the root counterpart dedicated to tabersonine metabolism have been identified to date, namely tabersonine 19-hydroxylase (T19H) and minovincine 19-O-acetyltransferase (MAT). Albeit the recombinant MAT catalyzes MIA acetylation at low efficiency in vitro, we demonstrated that MAT was inactive when expressed in yeast and in planta, suggesting an alternative function for this enzyme...
February 13, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hui-Min Ji, Min Zhao, Ying Gao, Xin-Xin Cao, Hui-Ying Mao, Yi Zhou, Wen-Yu Fan, Katherine A Borkovich, Shou-Qiang Ouyang, Peng Liu
The vast majority of plant disease resistance (R) genes encode nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins, which specifically determine the plant immune response and have been demonstrated to be targets of several microRNA (miRNA) families. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) causes vascular wilt disease in tomato worldwide. Here, we explored a possible role for FGR3 in tomato defense against FOL. FRG3 is a predicted NBS-LRR like gene that is targeted by slmiR482e-3p, a member of slmiR482 miRNA family...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dong Guo, Zi-Ping Yang, Hui-Liang Li, Ying Wang, Jia-Hong Zhu, Shi-Qing Peng
Hevea brasiliensis is a key commercial natural rubber (cis 1,4-polyisoprene) source. In H. brasiliensis, rubber transferase is responsible for cis-1,4-polymerization of isoprene units from isopentenyl diphosphate and implicated in natual rubber yield. Little is known about the regulatory mechanism of rubber transferase gene at molecular levels. Here, we showed that 5'UTR intron of the promoter of rubber transferase gene (HRT2) suppresses the expression of HRT2. A Hevea RING zinc finger protein (designated as HbRZFP1) was able to interact specifically with the HRT2 promoter to down-regulate its transcription in vivo...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hironobu Yanagisawa, Yosuke Matsushita
For viroids, pollen transmission is an important transmission pathway to progeny seeds and new hosts. In the current study, we found that Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd)-but not Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)-was horizontally transmitted by pollen from petunia plants. Using tissue-printing hybridization to track the changes in viroid distribution after pollination, we noted that TPMVd was present in petunia stigma, styles, and eventually ovaries, whereas PSTVd was detected in the stigma and upper style but not the ovary...
February 6, 2018: Virology
Beom Ryong Kang, Anne J Anderson, Young Cheol Kim
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are parasites that attack many field crops and orchard trees, and affect both the quantity and quality of the products. A root-colonizing bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, possesses beneficial traits including strong nematicidal activity. To determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the nematicidal activity of P. chlororaphis O6, we constructed two mutants; one lacking hydrogen cyanide production, and a second lacking an insecticidal toxin, FitD. Root drenching with wild-type P...
February 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Silvia De Simone, Anna Planta, Gianfranco Cicotto
BACKGROUND: Nurses' voluntary turnover is a worrying global phenomenon which affects service quality. Retaining nursing staff within a hospital is important to eliminate the negative influence of voluntary turnover on the quality of care and organisation costs. OBJECTIVES: This research helps explain nurses' voluntary turnover by analysing the role of self-efficacy, agentic capacities, job satisfaction, and work engagement on hospital turnover intention, and to study the relationships between these variables and patient satisfaction...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Sam W Henderson, Stefanie Wege, Matthew Gilliham
Genomes of unicellular and multicellular green algae, mosses, grasses and dicots harbor genes encoding cation-chloride cotransporters (CCC). CCC proteins from the plant kingdom have been comparatively less well investigated than their animal counterparts, but proteins from both plants and animals have been shown to mediate ion fluxes, and are involved in regulation of osmotic processes. In this review, we show that CCC proteins from plants form two distinct phylogenetic clades (CCC1 and CCC2). Some lycophytes and bryophytes possess members from each clade, most land plants only have members of the CCC1 clade, and green algae possess only the CCC2 clade...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kamonwan Weerawanich, Gina Webster, Julian K-C Ma, Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Supaart Sirikantaramas
Defensins are a group of plant antimicrobial peptides. In a previous study, it was reported that two recombinant rice (Oryza sativa L.) defensin (OsDEF) genes (OsDEF7 and OsDEF8) produced heterologously by bacteria inhibited the growth of several phytopathogen. Here, we analyzed gene expression patterns in Thai jasmine rice (O. sativa L. ssp. indica 'KDML 105') using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and compared them with those in Japanese rice (O. sativa L. ssp. japonica 'Nipponbare')...
January 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
John J Fraser, L Colby Mangum, Jay Hertel
OBJECTIVE: To establish test-retest reliability of Intrinsic Foot Muscle (IFM) motor function measured using ultrasound imaging (USI). SETTING: Laboratory. DESIGN: Reliability Study. PARTICIPANTS: 24 healthy young adults without history of ankle-foot injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrasound measures of Abductor hallucis (AbdH), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), quadratus plantae (QP) and flexor hallucis brevis (FHB) cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness were assessed on 2 occasions, 3-10 days apart...
December 2, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
Anthony Perrier, Xavier Barlet, Rémi Peyraud, David Rengel, Alice Guidot, Stéphane Genin
The global regulator PhcA controls numerous traits associated to virulence and bacterial proliferation in strains of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. Here, we conducted a genome-wide RNA sequencing study of the GMI1000 wild-type strain and a derived phcA mutant grown in complete medium. The PhcA regulon we identified is the largest regulon described to date in the R. solanacearum species complex with 1581 regulated genes, representing about 30% of the bacterial genome. Among these genes, 166 transcription regulators were identified including known regulators controlling major cellular functions such as the Type 3 secretion system and 27 novel regulators that were not identified in previous transcriptomic studies...
January 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Maria De Benedictis, Cecilia Brunetti, Elizabeth K Brauer, Andrea Andreucci, Sorina C Popescu, Mauro Commisso, Flavia Guzzo, Adriano Sofo, Monica Ruffini Castiglione, Olena K Vatamaniuk, Luigi Sanità di Toppi
The enzyme phytochelatin synthase (PCS) has long been studied with regard to its role in metal(loid) detoxification in several organisms, i.e., plants, yeasts, and nematodes. It is in fact widely recognized that PCS detoxifies a number of heavy metals by catalyzing the formation of thiol-rich oligomers, namely phytochelatins, from glutathione and related peptides. However, recent investigations have highlighted other possible roles played by the PCS enzyme in the plant cell, e.g., the control of pathogen-triggered callose deposition...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
S A Sheshadri, M J Nishanth, V Yamine, Bindu Simon
The role of Melatonin in influencing diverse genes in plants has gained momentum in recent years and many reports have employed qRT-PCR for their quantification. Relative quantification of gene expression relies on accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data against a stably-expressing internal reference-gene. Although researchers have been using commonly available reference-genes to assess Melatonin-induced gene expression, but to-date, there have been no attempts to validate the reference-gene stability under Melatonin-supplementation in planta...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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