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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229907/expression-and-functional-evaluation-of-biopharmaceuticals-made-in-plant-chloroplasts
#1
REVIEW
Bei Zhang, Balamurugan Shanmugaraj, Henry Daniell
After approval of the first plant-made biopharmaceutical by FDA for human use, many protein drugs are now in clinical development. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in expression of heterologous complex/large proteins in chloroplasts of edible plants using codon optimized human or viral genes. Furthermore, advances in quantification enable determination of in-planta drug dosage. Oral delivery of plastid-made biopharmaceuticals (PMB) is affordable because it eliminates prohibitively expensive fermentation, purification processes addressing major challenges of short shelf-life after cold storage...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223991/the-comparison-of-expressed-candidate-secreted-proteins-from-two-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-unravels-common-and-specific-molecular-tools-to-invade-different-host-plants
#2
Laurent Kamel, Nianwu Tang, Mathilde Malbreil, Hélène San Clemente, Morgane Le Marquer, Christophe Roux, Nicolas Frei Dit Frey
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), belonging to the fungal phylum Glomeromycota, form mutualistic symbioses with roots of almost 80% of land plants. The release of genomic data from the ubiquitous AMF Rhizophagus irregularis revealed that this species possesses a large set of putative secreted proteins (RiSPs) that could be of major importance for establishing the symbiosis. In the present study, we aimed to identify SPs involved in the establishment of AM symbiosis based on comparative gene expression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218463/closed-reference-metatranscriptomics-enables-in-planta-profiling-of-putative-virulence-activities-in-the-grapevine-trunk-disease-complex
#3
Abraham Morales-Cruz, Gabrielle Allenbeck, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Vanessa E Ashworth, Daniel P Lawrence, Renaud Travadon, Rhonda J Smith, Kendra Baumgartner, Philippe E Rolshausen, Dario Cantu
Grapevines, like other perennial crops, are affected by so-called 'trunk diseases', which damage the trunk and other woody tissues. Mature grapevines typically contract more than one trunk disease and often multiple grapevine trunk pathogens (GTPs) are recovered from infected tissues. The co-existence of different GTP species in complex and dynamic microbial communities complicates the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease development especially under vineyard conditions. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a community-level transcriptomics (i...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215348/in%C3%A2-vitro-secretomic-analysis-identifies-putative-pathogenicity-related-proteins-of-sporisorium-scitamineum-the-sugarcane-smut-fungus
#4
Leonard Barnabas, N M R Ashwin, Kalimuthu Kaverinathan, Anna Rita Trentin, Micaela Pivato, Amalraj Ramesh Sundar, Palaniyandi Malathi, Rasappa Viswanathan, Paolo Carletti, Giorgio Arrigoni, Antonio Masi, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal
Sporisorium scitamineum, the sugarcane smut pathogen, relies predominantly on its secretome to successfully colonise its host, in accordance with other related smut fungi. Considering the significance of deciphering its secretome, we have examined alterations in the in vitro secretome of S. scitamineum in response to synthetic and sugarcane meristem tissue-amended growth media, so as to identify host signal responsive secretory proteins. Secretory proteins that were differentially abundant and exclusively secreted in response to host extract media were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213920/potato-aphid-macrosiphum-euphorbiae-performance-is-determined-by-aphid-genotype-and-not-mycorrhizal-fungi-or-water-availability
#5
Alison Jane Karley, Matthew Emslie-Smith, Alison Elizabeth Bennett
Intra- and inter-specific variation in plant and insect traits can alter the strength and direction of insect-plant interactions, with outcomes modified by soil biotic and abiotic conditions. We used the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) feeding on cultivated S. tuberosum and wild S. berthaulti to study the impact of water availability and plant mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on aphid performance and susceptibility to a parasitoid wasp (Aphidius ervi Haliday). Plants were grown under glass with live or sterile AM fungal spores and supplied with sufficient or reduced water supply...
February 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212623/lysozyme-enhances-the-bactericidal-effect-of-bp100-peptide-against-erwinia-amylovora-the-causal-agent-of-fire-blight-of-rosaceous-plants
#6
Jordi Cabrefiga, Emilio Montesinos
BACKGROUND: Fire blight is an important disease affecting rosaceous plants. The causal agent is the bacteria Erwinia amylovora which is poorly controlled with the use of conventional bactericides and biopesticides. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as a new compounds suitable for plant disease control. BP100, a synthetic linear undecapeptide (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2), has been reported to be effective against E. amylovora infections. Moreover, BP100 showed bacteriolytic activity, moderate susceptibility to protease degradation and low toxicity...
February 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211124/in-planta-expression-searching-for-the-genuine-chromophores-of-cryptochrome-3-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Wolfgang Gärtner
Göbel et al. present in this issue an exemplary study of identification of chromophores from Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome-3. Usually taken for granted, proteins and cofactors, respective chromophores, from heterologous expression are considered identical to material isolated from their genuine host. Cryptochromes carry two chromophores, an antenna cofactor and a functional flavin chromophore, both noncovalently embedded into the protein. In particular the antenna chromophore is loosely bound and often lost during protein purification...
January 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207977/adaptation-of-the-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae-during-experimental-evolution-on-a-native-versus-alternative-host-plant
#8
Sean Meaden, Britt Koskella
The specialization and distribution of pathogens among species has substantial impact on disease spread, especially when reservoir hosts can maintain high pathogen densities or select for increased pathogen virulence. Theory predicts that optimal within-host growth rate will vary among host genotypes/species, and therefore that pathogens infecting multiple hosts should experience different selection pressures depending on the host environment in which they are found. This should be true for pathogens with broad host ranges, but also those experiencing opportunistic infections on novel hosts or that spill over among host populations...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197164/isolation-characterization-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-a-cytokinin-receptor-mutant-osckt1-in-rice
#9
Wona Ding, Huishan Tong, Wenjuan Zheng, Jing Ye, Zhichong Pan, Botao Zhang, Shihua Zhu
Cytokinins play important roles in regulating plant development, including shoot and root meristems, leaf longevity, and grain yield. However, the in planta functions of rice cytokinin receptors have not been genetically characterized yet. Here we isolated a rice mutant, Osckt1, with enhanced tolerance to cytokinin treatment. Further analysis showed that Osckt1 was insensitive to aromatic cytokinins but responded normally to isoprenoid and phenylurea-type cytokinins. Map-based cloning revealed that the mutation occurred in a putative cytokinin receptor gene, histidine kinase 6 (OsHK6)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194564/xylogenesis-in-zinnia-zinnia-elegans-cell-cultures-unravelling%C3%A2-the-regulatory-steps-in-a-complex-developmental-programmed-cell-death-event
#10
REVIEW
Elena T Iakimova, Ernst J Woltering
Physiological and molecular studies support the view that xylogenesis can largely be determined as a specific form of vacuolar programmed cell death (PCD). The studies in xylogenic zinnia cell culture have led to many breakthroughs in xylogenesis research and provided a background for investigations in other experimental models in vitro and in planta . This review discusses the most essential earlier and recent findings on the regulation of xylem elements differentiation and PCD in zinnia and other xylogenic systems...
February 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194561/xanthine-alkaloids-occurrence-biosynthesis-and-function-in-plants
#11
Hiroshi Ashihara, Kouichi Mizuno, Takao Yokota, Alan Crozier
Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid found in non-alcoholic beverages such as tea, coffee, and cocoa. It was discovered in tea and coffee in the 1820s, but it was not until 2000 that details of molecular events associated with caffeine biosynthesis began to be unraveled. Reviewed are the occurrence of xanthine alkaloids in the plant kingdom and the elucidation of the caffeine biosynthesis pathway, providing details of the N-methyltransferases, belonging to the motif B' methyltransferase family, which catalyze three steps in the four-step pathway leading from xanthosine to caffeine...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188928/the-papain-like-cysteine-proteinases-nbcysp6-and-nbcysp7-are-highly-processive-enzymes-with-substrate-specificities-complementary-to-nicotiana-benthamiana-cathepsin-b
#12
Melanie Paireder, Stefan Tholen, Andreas Porodko, Martin L Biniossek, Bettina Mayer, Marko Novinec, Oliver Schilling, Lukas Mach
The tobacco-related plant Nicotiana benthamiana is gaining interest as a versatile host for the production of monoclonal antibodies and other protein therapeutics. However, the susceptibility of plant-derived recombinant proteins to endogenous proteolytic enzymes limits their use as biopharmaceuticals. We have now identified two previously uncharacterized N. benthamiana proteases with high antibody-degrading activity, the papain-like cysteine proteinases NbCysP6 and NbCysP7. Both enzymes are capable of hydrolysing a wide range of synthetic substrates, although only NbCysP6 tolerates basic amino acids in its specificity-determining S2 subsite...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188265/the-kinase-cipk23-inhibits-ammonium-transport-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Tatsiana Straub, Uwe Ludewig, Benjamin Neuhaeuser
Ion transport in plants is not only strictly regulated on a transcriptional level, but it is also regulated posttranslationally. Enzyme modifications such as phosphorylation provide rapid regulation of many plant ion transporters and channels. Upon exposure to high ammonium concentrations in the rhizosphere, the high-affinity AMmonium Transporters (AMT) in Arabidopsis thaliana are efficiently inactivated by phosphorylation to avoid toxic accumulation of cytoplasmic ammonium. External ammonium stimulates the phosphorylation of a conserved threonine in the cytosolic AMT1 C-terminus, which allosterically inactivates AMT1 trimers...
February 10, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188093/efficacy-of-epiphytic-bacteria-to-prevent-northern-leaf-blight-caused-by-exserohilum-turcicum-in-maize
#14
Melina Sartori, Andrea Nesci, Julián García, María A Passone, Analía Montemarani, Miriam Etcheverry
Eight potential biological control agents (BCAs) were evaluated in planta in order to assess their effectiveness in reducing disease severity of northern leaf blight caused by Exserohilum turcicum. The assay was carried out in greenhouse. Twenty-six-day-old plants, V4 phenological stage, were inoculated with antagonists by foliar spray. Only one biocontrol agent was used per treatment. Ten days after this procedure, all treatments were inoculated with E. turcicum by foliar application. Treatments performed were: C-Et: control of E...
February 7, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186158/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-a-complex-interplay-between-resistance-and-effector-genes-during-the-compatible-lentil-colletotrichum-lentis-interaction
#15
Vijai Bhadauria, Perumal Vijayan, Yangdou Wei, Sabine Banniza
Colletotrichum lentis is a hemibiotrophic pathogen and causes anthracnose on lentil. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the symptomatic phase of infection, a cDNA plasmid library was developed from the susceptible lentil cultivar Eston infected with an isolate of the virulent race 0 of C. lentis. The library was sequenced on the Sanger sequencing platform, generating a total of 11,094 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) representing 3,488 unigenes. Mapping of unigenes onto the C. lentis and the L. culinaris genomes resulted in the identification of 2,418 unigenes of fungal origin and 1,070 unigenes of plant origin...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174583/accumulation-and-transport-of-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid-acc-in-plants-current-status-considerations-for-future-research-and-agronomic-applications
#16
REVIEW
Lisa Vanderstraeten, Dominique Van Der Straeten
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a non-protein amino acid acting as the direct precursor of ethylene, a plant hormone regulating a wide variety of vegetative and developmental processes. ACC is the central molecule of ethylene biosynthesis. The rate of ACC formation differs in response to developmental, hormonal and environmental cues. ACC can be conjugated to three derivatives, metabolized in planta or by rhizobacteria using ACC deaminase, and is transported throughout the plant over short and long distances, remotely leading to ethylene responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163203/the-high-variability-of-the-chiasma-plantare-and-the-long-flexor-tendons-anatomical-aspects-of-tendon-transfer-in-foot-surgery
#17
Bettina Pretterklieber
As tendon transfer of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is an established procedure, exact knowledge of the formation of the chiasma plantare is of great interest. Although the quadratus plantae (QP) appears to play a major role, it has been rarely addressed in previous studies. The aim of the present study was to reinvestigate the formation of the chiasma plantare and the composition of the long flexor tendons in order to clarify the inexact and partly contradictory descriptions published from 1865 onward...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162049/biochemical-synthesis-of-uniformly-13-c-labeled-diterpene-hydrocarbons-and-their-bioconversion-to-diterpenoid-phytoalexins-in-planta
#18
Zhongfeng Ye, Kazuya Nakagawa, Masahiro Natsume, Hideaki Nojiri, Hiroshi Kawaide, Kazunori Okada
Phytocassanes and momilactones are the major diterpenoid phytoalexins inductively produced in rice as bioactive substances. Regardless of extensive studies on the biosynthetic pathways of these phytoalexins, bioconversion of diterpene hydrocarbons is not shown in planta. To elucidate the entire biosynthetic pathways of these phytoalexins, uniformly (13)C-labeled ent-cassadiene and syn-pimaradiene were enzymatically synthesized with structural verification by GC-MS and (13)C-NMR. Application of the (13)C-labeled substrates on rice leaves led to the detection of (13)C-labeled metabolites using LC-MS/MS...
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157265/atserpin1-is-an-inhibitor-of-the-metacaspase-atmc1-mediated-cell-death-and-autocatalytic-processing-in-planta
#19
Saul Lema Asqui, Dominique Vercammen, Irene Serrano, Marc Valls, Susana Rivas, Frank van Breusegem, Frank L Conlon, Jeffery L Dangl, Núria S Coll
The hypersensitive response (HR) is a localized programmed cell death phenomenon that occurs in response to pathogen recognition at the site of attempted invasion. Despite more than a century of research on HR, little is known about how it is so tightly regulated and how it can be contained spatially to a few cells. AtMC1 is an Arabidopsis thaliana plant metacaspase that positively regulates the HR. Here, we used an unbiased approach to identify new AtMC1 regulators. Immunoaffinity purification of AtMC1-containing complexes led us to the identification of the protease inhibitor AtSerpin1...
February 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139457/the-unprecedented-versatility-of-the-plant%C3%A2-thioredoxin-system
#20
REVIEW
Peter Geigenberger, Ina Thormählen, Danilo M Daloso, Alisdair R Fernie
Thioredoxins are ubiquitous enzymes catalyzing reversible disulfide-bond formation to regulate structure and function of many proteins in diverse organisms. In recent years, reverse genetics and biochemical approaches were used to resolve the functions, specificities, and interactions of the different thioredoxin isoforms and reduction systems in planta and revealed the most versatile thioredoxin system of all organisms. Here we review the emerging roles of the thioredoxin system, namely the integration of thylakoid energy transduction, metabolism, gene expression, growth, and development under fluctuating environmental conditions...
January 27, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
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