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Xiaoli Xiang, Yongrui Wu, José Planta, Joachim Messing, Thomas Leustek
Maize kernels do not contain enough of the essential sulfur-amino acid methionine (Met) to serve as a complete diet for animals, even though maize has the genetic capacity to store Met in kernels. Prior studies indicated that the availability of the sulfur (S)-amino acids may limit their incorporation into seed storage proteins. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) is a key control point for S-assimilation leading to Cys and Met biosynthesis and SAT overexpression is known to enhance S-assimilation without negative impact on plant growth...
October 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Vladimir Gorshkov, Bakhtiyar Islamov, Polina Mikshina, Olga Petrova, Gennady Burygin, Elena Sigida, Alexander Shashkov, Amina Daminova, Marina Ageeva, Bulat Idiyatullin, Vadim Salnikov, Yuriy Zuev, Tatyana Gorshkova, Yuri Gogolev
In the present study, we identified exopolysaccharides of the harmful phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 and characterized the molecular structure of these polymers. The synthesis of the target polysaccharides was shown to be induced under starvation conditions. Moreover, intensive accumulation of exopolysaccharides occurred during the colonization by bacteria of the xylem vessels of infected plants, where microorganisms formed specific 3D "multicellular" structures-bacterial emboli...
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Thomas Nakel, Dawit G Tekleyohans, Yanbo Mao, Golo Fuchert, Dieu Vo, Rita Groß-Hardt
It is considered an inviolable principle that sexually reproducing organisms have no more than two parents and fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm (polyspermy) is lethal in many eukaryotes. In flowering plants polyspermy has remained a hypothetical concept, due to the lack of tools to unambiguously identify and trace this event. We established a high-throughput polyspermy detection assay, which uncovered that supernumerary sperm fusion does occur in planta and can generate viable polyploid offspring. Moreover, polyspermy can give rise to seedlings with one mother and two fathers, challenging the bi-organismal concept of parentage...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Daniel Tran, Roberta Galletti, Enrique D Neumann, Annick Dubois, Reza Sharif-Naeini, Anja Geitmann, Jean-Marie Frachisse, Olivier Hamant, Gwyneth C Ingram
Responses of cells to mechanical stress are thought to be critical in coordinating growth and development. Consistent with this idea, mechanically activated channels play important roles in animal development. For example, the PIEZO1 channel controls cell division and epithelial-layer integrity and is necessary for vascular development in mammals. In plants, the actual contribution of mechanoperception to development remains questionable because very few putative mechanosensors have been identified and the phenotypes of the corresponding mutants are rather mild...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Verena Kriechbaumer, Stanley W Botchway
Metabolons are protein complexes that contain all the enzymes necessary for a metabolic pathway but also scaffolding proteins. Such a structure allows efficient channeling of intermediate metabolites from one active site to the next and is highly advantageous for labile or toxic intermediates. Here we describe two methods currently used to identify metabolons via protein-protein interaction methodology: immunoprecipitations using GFP-Trap(®)_A beads to find novel interaction partners and potential metabolon components and FRET-FLIM to test for and quantify protein-protein interactions in planta...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dietmar G Mehlhorn, Niklas Wallmeroth, Kenneth W Berendzen, Christopher Grefen
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play vital roles in all subcellular processes and a number of tools have been developed for their detection and analysis. Each method has its unique set of benefits and drawbacks that need to be considered prior to their application. In fact, researchers are spoilt for choice when it comes to deciding which method to use for the initial detection of a PPI, and which to corroborate the findings. With constant improvements in microscope development, the possibilities of techniques to study PPIs in vivo, and in real time, are continuously enhanced, and expanded...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masafumi Mikami, Seiichi Toki, Masaki Endo
In CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in plants, Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) protein and the required guide RNA (gRNA) are, in most cases, expressed from a stably integrated transgene. Generally, SpCas9 protein is expressed from an RNA polymerase (pol) II promoter, while gRNA is expressed from a pol III promoter. However, pol III promoters have not been much characterized other than in model plants, making it difficult to select appropriate promoters for specific applications, while pol II transcripts have to be processed to generate functional gRNAs...
October 12, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mariana Rocha Maximiano, Osmundo B Oliveira-Neto, Octávio L Franco, Angela Mehta
Several minimal media capable of inducing pathogenicity genes have been used to study plant-pathogen interactions. An in planta assay to study a closer interaction between the bacteria and the host was also developed and has been employed by our group. In order to determine whether growth medium could be improved to better approximate in planta conditions beyond that offered by the defined minimal medium XVM1, we compared the expression of twenty Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) genes by qRT-PCR under in vivo (bacteria recovered from the plant) and in vitro (rich medium NYG, minimal medium XVM1 and XVM1 + leaf extract) growth systems...
October 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Chinh-Nghia Nguyen, Laetitia Perfus-Barbeoch, Michaël Quentin, Jianlong Zhao, Marc Magliano, Nathalie Marteu, Martine Da Rocha, Nicolas Nottet, Pierre Abad, Bruno Favery
Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are obligate endoparasites that maintain a biotrophic relationship with their hosts. They infect roots as microscopic vermiform second-stage juveniles, and establish specialized feeding structures called 'giant-cells', from which they withdraw water and nutrients. The nematode effector proteins secreted in planta are key elements in the molecular dialogue of parasitism. Here, we compared Illumina RNA-seq transcriptomes for M. incognita obtained at various points in the lifecycle, and identified 31 genes more strongly expressed in parasitic stages than in preparasitic juveniles...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Naser Mohammadi, Rahim Mehrabi, Amir Mirzadi Gohari, Ebrahim Mohammadi Goltapeh, Naser Safaie, Gert H J Kema
The dimorphic fungal pathogen, Zymoseptoria tritici undergoes discrete developmental changes to complete its life cycle on wheat. Molecular mechanisms underlying morphogenesis during infection process of Z. tritici are poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the role of ZtVf1 gene encoding a transcription factor belonging to C2-H2 subfamily. In planta assays revealed that ZtVf1 is required for virulence. Reduced necrotic lesions and low pycnidia density within the lesions resulted in significantly reduced virulence of ZtVf1 mutants...
October 12, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Yu Li, Ke Wang, Qisen Lu, Juan Du, Zhenyue Wang, Desen Wang, Bingjian Sun, Honglian Li
Burrowing nematodes (Radopholus similis) cause severe harm in many agronomic and horticultural crops and are very difficult to manage. Cathepsin S is one of the most important cysteine proteinases and plays key roles in nematodes and many other parasites. To evaluate the effect of in planta RNAi on the control of this nematode, a specific fragment from the protease gene, cathepsin S (Rs-cps), was cloned into the binary vector pFGC5941 in the forward and reverse orientations to construct recombinant plant RNAi vectors...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Patricia Bernal, María A Llamas, Alain Filloux
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine used to inject effectors into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and is thus involved in both host manipulation and inter-bacterial competition. The T6SS is widespread among Gram-negative bacteria, mostly within the Proteobacterium Phylum. This secretion system is commonly found in commensal and pathogenic plant-associated bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of phytobacterial T6SS clusters shows that they are distributed in the five main clades previously described (group 1 to 5)...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Lorenzo Rossi, Weilan Zhang, Arthur Paul Schwab, Xingmao Ma
Agricultural soils are likely to be polluted by both conventional and emerging contaminants at the same time. Understanding the interactions of co-existing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and trace-elements (a common source of abiotic stress) is critical to gain insights into the accumulation of these two groups of chemicals by plants. The objectives of this study were to determine the uptake and accumulation of co-existing ENPs and trace-elements by soybeans and to gain insights into the physiological mechanisms resulting in different plant accumulation of these materials...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Masao Yamashita, Bart Fraaije
BACKGROUND: A new generation of more active succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) inhibitors (SDHIs) is currently widely used to control Septoria leaf blotch in NW-Europe. Detailed studies were conducted on Zymoseptoria tritici field isolates with reduced sensitivity to fluopyram and isofetamid; SDHIs which have only just or not been introduced for cereal disease control, respectively. RESULTS: Strong cross-resistance between fluopyram and isofetamid, but not with other SDHIs, was confirmed through sensitivity tests using laboratory mutants and field isolates with and without Sdh mutations...
October 10, 2017: Pest Management Science
Sang-Youl Park, Melissa A Scranton, Jason E Stajich, Ashley Yee, Linda L Walling
M18 aspartyl aminopeptidases (DAPs) are well characterized in microbes and animals with likely functions in peptide processing and vesicle trafficking. In contrast, there is a dearth of knowledge on plant aminopeptidases with a preference for proteins and peptides with N-terminal acidic residues. During evolution of the Plantae, there was an expansion and diversification of the M18 DAPs. After divergence of the ancestral green algae from red and glaucophyte algae, a duplication yielded the DAP1 and DAP2 lineages...
2017: PloS One
Akira Kawaguchi, Koji Inoue, Koji Tanina, Mizuho Nita
Crown gall of grapevine, which is caused by tumorigenic Rhizobium vitis, is the most important bacterial disease of grapevine throughout the world. Screening tests of biological control agents resulted in the discovery of a nonpathogenic R. vitis strain ARK-1. By soaking grapevine roots with a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 prior to planting in the field, ARK-1 treatment significantly reduced the number of plants with crown gall symptoms. Several field trials result indicated that ARK-1 was very useful in the field, not only for grapevine but also for various other plant species...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Theresa Lee, Dami Park, Kihyun Kim, Seong Mi Lim, Nan Hee Yu, Sosoo Kim, Hwang-Yong Kim, Kyu Seok Jung, Ja Yeong Jang, Jong-Chul Park, Hyeonheui Ham, Soohyung Lee, Sung Kee Hong, Jin-Cheol Kim
In an attempt to develop a biological control agent against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species, we isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain DA12 from soil and explored its antimicrobial activities. DA12 was active against the growth of mycotoxigenic F. asiaticum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides both in vitro and in planta (maize). Further screening using dual culture extended the activity range of strain DA12 against other fungal pathogens including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Endothia parasitica, Fusarium oxysporum, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Rhizoctonia solani...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
So Eui Lee, Ravi Gupta, Ramesha H Jayaramaiah, Seo Hyun Lee, Yiming Wang, Sang-Ryeol Park, Sun Tae Kim
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causative agent of bacterial blight, is a major threat to rice productivity. Here, we performed RNA-Seq based transcriptomic analysis of Xoo transcripts isolated under in planta growth (on both susceptible and resistant hosts) and in vitro culture conditions. Our in planta extraction method resulted in successful enrichment of Xoo cells and provided RNA samples of high quality. A total of 4,619 differentially expressed genes were identified between in planta and in vitro growth conditions...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Mohd Akmal, Mirza S Baig, Jawaid A Khan
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), a major factor resulting in the enormous yield losses in cotton crop, is caused by a distinct monopartite begomovirus in association with Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Micro(mi)RNAs are known to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes, including antiviral defense in plants. In a previous study, we had computationally identified a set of cotton miRNAs, which were shown to have potential targets in the genomes of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) and CLCuMB at multiple loci...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Milena Mitic, Daniel Berry, Emma Brasell, Kimberly Green, Carolyn A Young, Sanjay Saikia, Jasna Rakonjac, Barry Scott
Calcineurin is a conserved calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, consisting of a catalytic subunit A and a regulatory subunit B, which is involved in calcium-dependent signalling and regulation of various important cellular processes. In this study we functionally characterised the catalytic subunit A (CnaA) of the endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae that forms a symbiotic association with the grass host Lolium perenne. We deleted the CnaA-encoding gene cnaA in E. festucae and examined its role in hyphal growth, cell wall integrity and symbiosis...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
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