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Donna M Bond, Nick W Albert, Robyn H Lee, Gareth B Gillard, Chris M Brown, Roger P Hellens, Richard C Macknight
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors (TFs) coordinate precise gene expression patterns that give rise to distinct phenotypic outputs. The identification of genes and transcriptional networks regulated by a TF often requires stable transformation and expression changes in plant cells. However, the production of stable transformants can be slow and laborious with no guarantee of success. Furthermore, transgenic plants overexpressing a TF of interest can present pleiotropic phenotypes and/or result in a high number of indirect gene expression changes...
2016: Plant Methods
Sebastian T Soukup, Beate N Kohn, Erika Pfeiffer, Rolf Geisen, Manfred Metzler, Mirko Bunzel, Sabine E Kulling
The mycotoxins alternariol and alternariol-9-O-methyl ether have recently been reported to be extensively conjugated with glucose and malonyl glucose in tobacco suspension cells. However, only trace amounts of glucosylated conjugates were detected in tomatoes inoculated with Alternaria alternata in the present study. Instead, mostly sulfate conjugates were observed. In studies using cultures of A. alternata and incubations of alternariol and alternariol-9-O-methyl ether with tomato tissue in the absence of the fungus, it was clarified that sulfate conjugates were produced by the fungus, whereas tomato tissues converted alternariol and alternariol-9-O-methyl ether to glucosylated metabolites...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Marta Marchetti, Camille Clerissi, Yasmine Yousfi, Carine Gris, Olivier Bouchez, Eduardo Rocha, Stéphane Cruveiller, Alain Jauneau, Delphine Capela, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Experimental evolution is a powerful approach to study the process of adaptation to new environments, including the colonization of eukaryotic hosts. Facultative endosymbionts, including pathogens and mutualists, face changing and spatially structured environments during the symbiotic process, which impose diverse selection pressures. Here we provide evidence that different selection regimes, involving different times spent in the plant environment, can result in either intra- or extracellular symbiotic adaptations...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Yuying Sang, Yaru Wang, Hong Ni, Anne-Claire Cazalé, Yi-Min She, Nemo Peeters, Alberto P Macho
The subversion of plant cellular functions is essential for bacterial pathogens to proliferate in host plants and cause disease. Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins inside plant cells, where they contribute to the pathogen-induced alteration of plant physiology. In this work, we found that the Ralstonia solanacearum T3E RipAY suppresses plant immune responses triggered by bacterial elicitors and by the phytohormone salicylic acid. Further biochemical analysis indicated that RipAY associates in planta with thioredoxins from Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Tong Wei, Tsung-Chi Chen, Yuen Ting Ho, Pamela C Ronald
BACKGROUND: The rice receptor kinase XA21 confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae(Xoo). We previously reported that XA21 is cleaved in transgenic plants overexpressing XA21 with a GFP tag (Ubi-XA21-GFP) and that the released C-terminal domain is localized to the nucleus. XA21 carries a predicted nuclear localization sequence (NLS) that directs the C-terminal domain to the nucleus in transient assays, whereas alanine substitutions in the NLS disrupt the nuclear localization...
2016: PeerJ
Cameron S Gordon, Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, Eddy P Risseeuw, Marci Surpin, Fraser J Ball, Carla J Barber, Leann M Buhrow, Shawn M Clark, Jonathan E Page, Chris D Todd, Suzanne R Abrams, Michele C Loewen
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA's modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported...
2016: PloS One
Elisabeth Varga, Gerlinde Wiesenberger, Philipp Fruhmann, Alexandra Malachová, Thomas Svoboda, Marc Lemmens, Gerhard Adam, Franz Berthiller
Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium kyushuense using molecular tools. Production of PHS in vitro was also observed for several isolates of other Fusarium species producing nivalenol...
October 14, 2016: Toxins
Andrea Kunova, Cristina Pizzatti, Matteo Cerea, Andrea Gazzaniga, Paolo Cortesi
AIMS: This study aimed to develop a new formulation of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent mycelium suitable for inoculations of tall trees from the ground. C. parasitica hypovirulent strains are widely used for biological control of chestnut blight. However, it is often inconsistent and ineffective not only for biological reasons, but also because the current manual application of hypovirulent strains on adult plants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose an improved formulation and more effective mode of application of hypovirulent strains, which could boost chestnut blight biocontrol...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Maria Campos, C Batista, N R Jesus, C M Silva, T P Silva
Cardiovascular patients frequently use herbal medicinal products, in order to contribute to the improvement of their chronic condition without medical intervention. However, they are likely to suffer from adverse effects from natural products and herb-drug interactions. This work aimed to alert cardiovascular patients and healthcare providers of the potential of occurrence of herb-drug interactions with cardiovascular therapy. Information obtained from the campaign "Aprender Saúde Entre as Plantas e os Medicamentos", carried out by the Observatory of Herb-Drug Interactions (www...
October 7, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Lucia Rochi, María José Diéguez, Germán Burguener, Martín Alejandro Darino, María Fernanda Pergolesi, Lorena Romina Ingala, Alba Romina Cuyeu, Adrián Turjanski, Enrique Domingo Kreff, Francisco Sacco
Rust fungi are one of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. The biotrophic fungus Puccinia sorghi Schwein (Ps) is responsible for maize common rust, an endemic disease of maize (Zea mays L) in Argentina that causes significant yield losses in corn production. In spite of this, the Ps genomic sequence was not available. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly produce the 99.6 Mb draft genome sequence of Ps race RO10H11247, derived from a single-uredinial isolate from infected maize leaves collected in the Argentine Corn Belt Region during 2010...
October 13, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Yulin Cheng, Juanni Yao, Yanru Zhang, Shumin Li, Zhensheng Kang
Ran, an important family of small GTP-binding proteins, has been shown to regulate a variety of important cellular processes in many eukaryotes. However, little is known about Ran function in pathogenic fungi. In this study, we report the identification and functional analysis of a Ran gene (designated PsRan) from Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), an important fungal pathogen affecting wheat production worldwide. The PsRan protein contains all conserved domains of Ran GTPases and shares more than 70% identity with Ran proteins from other organisms, indicating that Ran proteins are conserved in different organisms...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rémi Peyraud, Ludovic Cottret, Lucas Marmiesse, Jérôme Gouzy, Stéphane Genin
Bacterial pathogenicity relies on a proficient metabolism and there is increasing evidence that metabolic adaptation to exploit host resources is a key property of infectious organisms. In many cases, colonization by the pathogen also implies an intensive multiplication and the necessity to produce a large array of virulence factors, which may represent a significant cost for the pathogen. We describe here the existence of a resource allocation trade-off mechanism in the plant pathogen R. solanacearum. We generated a genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network of R...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Marlene Reichel, Yalin Liao, Mandy Rettel, Chikako Ragan, Maurits Evers, Anne-Marie Alleaume, Rastislav Horos, Matthias W Hentze, Thomas Preiss, Anthony A Millar
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control the fate and expression of a transcriptome. Despite this fundamental importance, our understanding of plant RBPs is rudimentary, being mainly derived via bioinformatic extrapolation from other kingdoms. Here, we have adapted the mRNA-protein interactome capture method to investigate the RNA-binding proteome in planta. From Arabidopsis thaliana (At) etiolated seedlings, we captured more than 700 proteins, including 300 with high confidence that we have defined as the At-RBP set...
October 11, 2016: Plant Cell
Jeum Kyu Hong, Hyeon Ji Kim, Heesoo Jung, Hye Ji Yang, Do Hoon Kim, Chang Hyun Sung, Chang-Jin Park, Seog Won Chang
Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3)...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Atsuko Miyagi, Hirofumi Uchimiya, Maki Kawai-Yamada
Carbon dioxide (CO2), nutrient supply, and light quality are amongst the major controlling factors to improve the biomass production and nutritional outputs in plant factory. The present study employed CE-MS to investigate the effects of high CO2, nutrient formulation, and LED on the accumulation of primary metabolites in head lettuce. Results suggested that high CO2 (1000ppm) and nutrient supply enhanced both the biomass and some amino acids. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to evaluate effects of red LED in combination with high CO2 and Hoagland's formulation; distinctive cluster formation contained 14 amino acids (mostly branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, histidine and arginine)...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mengsheng Gao, Hanh T Nguyen, Isai Salas Gonzalez, Max Teplitski
The RNA-binding chaperone Hfq plays a critical role in the establishment and functionality of the symbiosis between Sinorhizobium meliloti and its legume hosts. A mutation in hfq reduces symbiotic efficiency resulting in a Fix- phenotype, characterized by the inability of the bacterium to fix nitrogen. At least in part, this is due to the ability of Hfq to regulate the fixLJ operon, which encodes a sensor kinase-response regulator pair that controls expression of the nitrogenase genes. The ability of Hfq to bind fixLJ in vitro and in planta was demonstrated with gel shift and co-immunoprecipitation experiments...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Siddhartha N Borah, Debahuti Goswami, Hridip K Sarma, Swaranjit S Cameotra, Suresh Deka
Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs) has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.). F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yi Dai, Zhongye Cao, Lihong Huang, Shixia Liu, Zhihui Shen, Yuyan Wang, Hui Wang, Huijuan Zhang, Dayong Li, Fengming Song
CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Helen Nicola Fones, Charlotte Mardon, Sarah Jane Gurr
The invasive pathogen, ash dieback fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, is spreading rapidly across Europe. It shows high levels of outcrossing and limited population structure, even at the epidemic front. The anamorphic (asexual) form produces prolific conidia, thought to function solely as spermatia (male gametes), facilitating gene flow between sympatric strains. Here, we show that conidia are capable of germination on ash leaves and in vitro, and can infect seedlings via leaves or soil. In leaves, germlings form structures resembling fruiting bodies...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas M Gooding, Mark A Feger, Joseph M Hart, Jay Hertel
CONTEXT:  The intrinsic foot muscles maintain the medial longitudinal arch and aid in force distribution and postural control during gait. Impaired intrinsic foot-muscle function has been linked to various foot conditions. Several rehabilitative exercises have been proposed to improve it; however, literature that identifies which individual muscles are activated during specific intrinsic foot-muscle exercises is lacking. OBJECTIVE:  To describe changes in activation of the intrinsic plantar foot muscles after 4 exercises as measured with T2 time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
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