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Mihwa Yi, Will Q Hendricks, Joshua Kaste, Nikki D Charlton, Padmaja Nagabhyru, Daniel G Panaccione, Carolyn A Young
Epichloë species (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) are endophytic symbionts of many cool-season grasses. Many interactions between Epichloë and their host grasses contribute to plant growth promotion, protection from many pathogens and insect pests, and tolerance to drought stress. Resistance to insect herbivores by endophytes associated with Hordeum species has been previously shown to vary depending on the endophyte-grass-insect combination. We explored the genetic and chemotypic diversity of endophytes present in wild Hordeum species...
April 18, 2018: Mycologia
Marie I Samanovic, Hao-Chi Hsu, Marcus B Jones, Victoria Jones, Michael R McNeil, Samuel H Becker, Ashley T Jordan, Miroslav Strnad, Changcheng Xu, Mary Jackson, Huilin Li, K Heran Darwin
It was recently reported that the human-exclusive pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretes cytokinins, which had only been known as plant hormones. While cytokinins are well-established, adenine-based signaling molecules in plants, they have never been shown to participate in signal transduction in other kingdoms of life. M. tuberculosis is not known to interact with plants. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cytokinins trigger transcriptional changes within this bacterial species. Here, we show cytokinins induced the strong expression of the M...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Bilal Ökmen, Bastian Kemmerich, Daniel Hilbig, Raphael Wemhöner, Jörn Aschenbroich, Andreas Perrar, Pitter F Huesgen, Kerstin Schipper, Gunther Doehlemann
Fungalysins from several phytopathogenic fungi have been shown to be involved in cleavage of plant chitinases. While fungal chitinases are responsible for cell wall remodeling during growth and morphogenesis, plant chitinases are important components of immunity. This study describes a dual function of the Ustilago maydis fungalysin UmFly1 in modulation of both plant and fungal chitinases. Genetic, biochemical and microscopic experiments were performed to elucidate the in vitro and in planta functions of U...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Siti Nur Ezzati Yazid, Hemashangari Thanggavelu, Norlia Mahror, Jinap Selamat, Nik Iskandar Putra Samsudin
In studying the ecophysiology of fungal phytopathogens, several stages are involved (in vitro, greenhouse, in planta). Most in vitro studies extensively utilise the general growth media such as Potato Dextrose Agar and Malt Extract Agar. Although the crop components in these media serve as excellent carbon sources and yield luxuriant growth, they are not naturally contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and thus might result in under- or overestimation of its actual toxigenic potentials. Empirical data on the formulation of semi-synthetic growth medium mimicking the natural crop commonly contaminated by A...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Madiha Khan, Ji-Young Youn, Anne-Claude Gingras, Rajagopal Subramaniam, Darrell Desveaux
Proximity dependent biotin identification (BioID) has emerged as a powerful tool for studies of proteome architecture, including insoluble or membrane-associated proteins. The technique has been well established in mammalian cells but has yet to be applied to whole plant systems. Here we demonstrate the application of BioID on leaf tissues of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, thereby expanding the versatility of this important technique and providing a powerful proteomics tool for plant biologists.
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter Abrahamian, Sujan Timilsina, Gerald V Minsavage, Sushmita Kc, Erica M Goss, Jeffrey B Jones, Gary E Vallad
Type III secretion system effectors contribute to pathogenicity through various mechanisms. Recent surveys showed an increasing prevalence of the type III secretion effector, avrBsT, among Xanthomonas perforans (Xp). We hypothesized that the acquisition of avrBsT has a fitness advantage for the pathogen. The contribution of avrBsT to fitness on tomato was evaluated based on disease severity, in planta growth, competition and recovery rates of wild-type (WT) and avrBsT mutant strains in greenhouse and field plants...
June 15, 2018: Phytopathology
Ana Verónica Scotta, Guillermina Azucena Bongiovanni, Elio Andrés Soria
Antecedentes: Clorpirifos es un pesticida altamente tóxico, que puede producir inmunotoxicidad con efectos deletéreos sobre la salud a nivel mundial. Por otro lado, las plantas americanas pueden tener derivados con actividad protectora e inmunoestimulante. Por lo tanto, debe evaluarse el potencial de estas plantas frente a clorpirifos. Objetivo: Identificar extractos acuosos bioactivos de Lantana grisebachii (LG), Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (AQ), Peumus boldus (PB), e Ilex paraguariensis (IP), contra la toxicidad de clorpirifos sobre esplenocitos de hembras Balb/c...
March 21, 2018: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
Lan Lin, Xudong Xu, Yayuan Zheng, Chenchen Zhang
The biosynthesis of phytotoxin thaxtoimn A (TXT) constitutes the major pathogenicity determinant in Streptomyces scabies, the most widely-studied phytopathogen causing scab disease in potato and other root crops. It is recognized that S. scabies regulates its pathogenicity via γ-butyrolactone (GBL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS) signaling. AttM, from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 strain, has recently been proposed to have GBL-assimilative capacity. Here, we presented the introduction of A. tumefaciens-derived attM gene into S...
June 13, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Rajendran Vijayabharathi, Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Arumugam Sathya, Vadlamudi Srinivas, Mamta Sharma
A total of 219 endophytic actinobacteria, isolated from roots, stems and leaves of chickpea, were characterized for antagonistic potential against Botrytis cinerea, causal organism of Botrytis grey mold (BGM) disease, in chickpea. Among them, three most potential endophytes, AUR2, AUR4 and ARR4 were further characterized for their plant growth-promoting (PGP) and nodulating potentials and host-plant resistance against B. cinerea, in chickpea. The sequences of 16 S rDNA gene of the three endophytes were matched with Streptomyces but different species...
June 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kristina Marton, Marko Flajšman, Sebastjan Radišek, Katarina Košmelj, Jernej Jakše, Branka Javornik, Sabina Berne
The vascular plant pathogen Verticillium nonalfalfae causes Verticillium wilt in several important crops. VnaSSP4.2 was recently discovered as a V. nonalfalfae virulence effector protein in the xylem sap of infected hop. Here, we expanded our search for candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs) in the V. nonalfalfae predicted secretome using a bioinformatic pipeline built on V. nonalfalfae genome data, RNA-Seq and proteomic studies of the interaction with hop. The secretome, rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, proteases, redox proteins and proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cellular processing and signaling, includes 263 CSEPs...
2018: PloS One
Shweta Singh, Nikhil Ram Kumar, R Maniraj, R Lakshmikanth, K Y S Rao, N Muralimohan, T Arulprakash, K Karthik, N B Shashibhushan, T Vinutha, Debasis Pattanayak, Prasanta K Dash, P Ananda Kumar, Rohini Sreevathsa
Pigeon pea is an important legume infested by a plethora of insect pests amongst which gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera is very prominent. Imparting resistance to this insect herbivore is of global importance in attaining food security. Expression of insecticidal crystal proteins (ICP) in diverse crops has led to increased resistance to several pests. We report in this paper, expression of Cry2Aa in transgenic pigeon pea and its effectiveness towards H. armigera by employing Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transformation approach...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emmanuel Margolin, Ros Chapman, Anna-Lise Williamson, Edward P Rybicki, Ann E Meyers
Plant molecular farming offers a cost effective and scalable approach to the expression of recombinant proteins which has been proposed as an alternative to conventional production platforms for developing countries. In recent years, numerous proofs-of-concept have established that plants can produce biologically active recombinant proteins and immunologically relevant vaccine antigens that are comparable to those made in conventional expression systems. Driving many of these advances is the remarkable plasticity of the plant proteome which enables extensive engineering of the host cell, as well as the development of improved expression vectors facilitating higher levels of protein production...
June 11, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Joyce Van Eck
Setaria viridis has many attributes, including small stature and simple growth requirements, that make it attractive as a model species for monocots. Genetic engineering (transformation) methodology is a key prerequisite for adoption of plant species as models. Various transformation approaches have been reported for S. viridis including tissue culture-based and in planta by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of floral organs referred to as the floral dip method. The tissue culture-based method utilizes A...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
John U Regus, Kenjiro W Quides, Matthew R O'Neill, Rina Suzuki, Elizabeth A Savory, Jeff H Chang, Joel L Sachs
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: To maximize benefits from symbiosis, legumes must limit physiological inputs into ineffective rhizobia that nodulate hosts without fixing nitrogen. The capacity of legumes to decrease the relative fitness of ineffective rhizobia-known as sanctions-has been demonstrated in several legume species, but its mechanisms remain unclear. Sanctions are predicted to work at the whole-nodule level. However, whole-nodule sanctions would make the host vulnerable to mixed-nodule infections, which have been demonstrated in the laboratory and observed in natural settings...
September 2017: American Journal of Botany
Clément Bouton, Robert C King, Hongxin Chen, Kasi Azhakanandam, Stéphane Bieri, Kim E Hammond-Kosack, Kostya Kanyuka
Rapid and cost-effective virus-derived transient expression systems for plants are invaluable in elucidating gene function and are particularly useful in plant species for which transformation-based methods are unavailable or are too time- and labor-demanding, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays). The virus-mediated overexpression (VOX) vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) previously described for these species are incapable of expressing free recombinant proteins of >150-250 amino acids (aa), are not suited for high-throughput screens, and have other limitations...
June 7, 2018: Plant Physiology
Tami Coursey, Milica Milutinovic, Elizabeth Regedanz, Jelena Brkljacic, David M Bisaro
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) impart information that regulates chromatin structure and activity. Their effects are mediated by histone reader proteins that bind specific PTMs to modify chromatin and/or recruit appropriate effectors to alter the chromatin landscape. Despite their crucial juxtaposition between information and functional outcome, relatively few plant histone readers have been identified, and nothing is known about their impact on viral chromatin and pathogenesis. We used the geminivirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) as a model to functionally characterize two recently identified reader proteins, EMSY-LIKE 1 and 3 (EML1 and EML3), which contain Tudor-like Agenet domains predictive of histone PTM binding function...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Camila Rodrigues de Carvalho, Alice Ferreira-D'Silva, David E Wedge, Charles L Cantrell, Luiz H Rosa
In the present study, we evaluated the antifungal potential of cytochalasins produced by Diaporthe taxa against phytopathogenic fungi. Using molecular methods, seven endophytic fungal strains from the medicinal plants Copaifera pubiflora and Melocactus ernestii were identified as D. miriciae, while two isolates were identified to the genus level (Diaporthe sp.). All crude extracts of Diaporthe species produced via solid-state fermentation were evaluated by 1H NMR analyses. Crude extracts of the isolates D. miriciae UFMGCB 6350, 7719, 7646, 7653, 7701, 7772, and 7770 and Diaporthe sp...
June 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Flora Sánchez, Fernando Ponz
Potyviruses are plant viruses with elongated, flexuous virions amenable to modifications in the only viral structural protein, the coat protein (CP). Out of the several theoretically possible modifications to the CP, the one most exploited for peptide presentation is the genetic fusion of the peptide-to-be-expressed, to the CP N-terminus. Successful high-level expression of the modified CP has been achieved this way. The purified recombinant viral particles incorporate most, if not all, the properties of the expressed peptides...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eva C Thuenemann, George P Lomonossoff
This chapter provides a practical guide to the in planta transient production of bluetongue virus-like particles containing a fluorescent cargo protein. Bluetongue virus (BTV) particles are icosahedral, multishelled entities of a relatively large size. Heterologous expression of the four main structural proteins of BTV results in the assembly of empty virus-like particles which resemble the native virus externally, but are devoid of nucleic acid. The space within the particles is sufficient to allow incorporation of relatively large cargo proteins, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), by genetic fusion to the structural protein VP3...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sourabh Shukla, Christina Dickmeis, Rainer Fischer, Ulrich Commandeur, Nicole F Steinmetz
Viral nanoparticles are attractive platforms for biomedical applications and are frequently employed for optical imaging in tissue culture and preclinical animal models as fluorescent probes. Chemical modification with organic dyes remains the most common strategy to develop such fluorescent probes. Here we report a genetic engineering approach to incorporate fluorescent proteins in viral nanoparticles, which can be propagated in their plant host. The fluorescent viral nanoparticles so obtained obviate post-harvest modifications and thereby maximize yields...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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