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synthetic cathinone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656349/the-designer-drug-3-fluoromethcathinone-induces-oxidative-stress-and-activates-autophagy-in-ht22-neuronal-cells
#1
Kamila Siedlecka-Kroplewska, Agata Wrońska, Grzegorz Stasiłojć, Zbigniew Kmieć
Synthetic cathinones are psychoactive substances, derivatives of a natural psychostimulant cathinone. Although many synthetic cathinones have lost their legal status in many countries, their abuse still continues worldwide. Recently, they have been reported to exert neurotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of their action have not been fully elucidated. Recently, they have been linked to the induction of oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), a synthetic cathinone, is able to induce oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in HT22 immortalized mouse hippocampal cells...
April 14, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627557/investigating-in-sewer-transformation-products-formed-from-synthetic-cathinones-and-phenethylamines-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#2
Juliet Kinyua, Noelia Negreira, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Tim Boogaerts, Christoph Ort, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Recent studies have demonstrated the role of biofilms on the stability of drug residues in wastewater. These factors are pertinent in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) when estimating community-level drug use. However, there is scarce information on the biotransformation of drug residues in the presence of biofilms and the potential use of transformation products (TPs) as biomarkers in WBE. The purpose of this work was to investigate the formation of TPs in sewage reactors in the presence of biofilm mimicking conditions during in-sewer transport...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597343/dopamine-d1-like-receptor-agonist-and-d2-like-receptor-antagonist-stepholidine-reduces-reinstatement-of-drug-seeking-behavior-for-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-rats
#3
Callum Hicks, Peng Huang, Linnet Ramos, Sunil U Nayak, Yohanka Caro, Allen B Reitz, Garry R Smith, David Y-W Lee, Scott M Rawls, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen
Psychostimulant reinforcement is mediated by stimulation of both dopamine (DA) D1-like and D2-like receptors, suggesting that pharmacotherapy agents with a dual DA receptor mechanism may be useful for managing psychostimulant abuse. (-)-Stepholidine (L-SPD) is a Chinese herbal extract that functions as a D1-like receptor agonist and D2-like receptor antagonist. L-SPD has been shown to attenuate the reinforcing effects of heroin; however, its effects on the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) have not been examined...
April 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558687/cathinone-stability-in-authentic-urine-specimens
#4
Lindsay Glicksberg, Sumandeep Rana, Sarah Kerrigan
PURPOSE: Synthetic cathinones are encountered in a variety of antemortem and postmortem forensic toxicology investigations. Earlier experimental studies using fortified urine have evaluated analyte, temperature and pH-dependent variables associated with their stability. The purpose of this study was to compare experimental findings with those obtained using authentic urine from cathinone users. METHODS: In this report we compare cathinone concentrations in 180 authentic unpreserved urine specimens, following known periods of refrigerated storage...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550625/chemokines-and-bath-salts-cxcr4-receptor-antagonist-reduces-rewarding-and-locomotor-stimulant-effects-of-the-designer-cathinone-mdpv-in-rats
#5
Chicora F Oliver, Steven J Simmons, Sunil U Nayak, Garry R Smith, Allen B Reitz, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about how chemokine systems influence the behavioral effects of designer cathinones and psychostimulants. The chemokine CXCL12 and its principal receptor target, CXCR4, are of particular interest because CXCR4 activation enhances mesolimbic dopamine output that facilitates psychostimulant reward, reinforcement, and locomotor activation. Repeated cocaine enhances CXCL12 gene expression in the midbrain and produces conditioned place preference (CPP) that is inhibited by a CXCR4 antagonist...
March 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540067/the-synthetic-cathinone-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinovalerophenone-%C3%AE-pvp-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-clinical-and-forensic-aspects
#6
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533309/%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-flakka-catalyzing-catatonia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Elon Richman, Nathan J Skoller, Bernice Fokum, Brandi A Burke, Chelsea A Hickerson, Robert O Cotes
: Synthetic cathinones are a class of novel psychoactive substances. α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), or "Flakka", is one of these substances. Users often present acutely psychotic or agitated. We present the case of a 20-year-old male without prior psychiatric history who was brought to the hospital by his family because of increasingly bizarre and erratic behavior after reported ingestion of Flakka. What ensued was a prolonged course of psychosis and severe catatonia. Synthetic cathinones are thought to cause catatonia in approximately 1% of cases...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501570/exposure-to-mephedrone-during-gestation-increases-the-risk-of-stillbirth-and-induces-hippocampal-neurotoxicity-in-mice-offspring
#8
Gholamreza Naseri, Alireza Fazel, Mohammad Jafar Golalipour, Hossein Haghir, Hamid Sadeghian, Majid Mojarrad, Mahmoud Hosseini, Shokouh Shahrokhi Sabzevar, Farimah Beheshti, Ahmad Ghorbani
In recent years, abuse of synthetic cathinones, in particular, mephedrone, has increased among young adults worldwide. The study aim is to investigate the effects of mephedrone exposure during the gestational period on mice offspring outcomes, focusing on hippocampal neurotoxicity. The pregnant mice received mephedrone (50 mg/kg, sc) on a regular schedule (once daily on all days, from day 5 to 18 of gestation) or repeated schedule (thrice daily on day 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, and 18 of gestation) to simulate regular or recreational use of mephedrone, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459818/gestational-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cathinone-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-results-in-reduced-maternal-care-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mouse-pups
#9
László I Gerecsei, András Csillag, Gergely Zachar, Lőrinc Gévai, László Simon, Árpád Dobolyi, Ágota Ádám
The member of synthetic cathinone family, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), is a frequently used psychoactive drug of abuse. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of MDPV (administered from the 8th to the 14th day of gestation) on the behavior of neonatal and adolescent mice, as well as its effect on maternal care. We measured maternal care (pup retrieval test, nest building), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (grip strength test) of dams, whereas on pups we examined locomotor activity at postnatal day 7 and day 21 (open field test) and motor coordination on day 21 (grip strength test)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443096/color-spot-test-as-a-presumptive-tool-for-the-rapid-detection-of-synthetic-cathinones
#10
Morgan Philp, Ronald Shimmon, Mark Tahtouh, Shanlin Fu
Synthetic cathinones are a large class of new psychoactive substances (NPS) that are increasingly prevalent in drug seizures made by law enforcement and other border protection agencies globally. Color testing is a presumptive identification technique indicating the presence or absence of a particular drug class using rapid and uncomplicated chemical methods. Owing to their relatively recent emergence, a color test for the specific identification of synthetic cathinones is not currently available. In this study, we introduce a protocol for the presumptive identification of synthetic cathinones, employing three aqueous reagent solutions: copper(II) nitrate, 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine) and sodium acetate...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426062/prediction-of-designer-drugs-synthesis-and-spectroscopic-analysis-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogues-that-may-appear-on-the-swedish-drug-market
#11
Andreas Carlsson, Veronica Sandgren, Stefan Svensson, Peter Konradsson, Simon Dunne, Martin Josefsson, Johan Dahlén
The use of hyphenated analytical techniques in forensic drug screening enables simultaneous identification of a wide range of different compounds. However, the appearance of drug seizures containing new substances, mainly new psychoactive substances (NPS), is steadily increasing. These new and other already known substances often possess structural similarities and consequently they exhibit spectral data with small differences. This situation has made the criteria that ensure indubitable identification of compounds increasingly important...
February 9, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404633/-bonzai-lead-and-bath-salt-poisoning-with-new-and-old-drugs-synthetic-amphetamines-cathinones-cannabinoids-and-opioids-an-overview
#12
REVIEW
J Strube, A Schaper
BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the number of serious poisonings and deaths after the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). These are usually bought online: sometimes legally, often illegally or "in the grey area". OBJECTIVES: Characteristics of different NPS. Legal status concerning the New Psychoactive Substances Act (NpSG). Risk assessment of several substance groups, possible complications of acute poisonings, therapeutic recommendations...
February 5, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385414/newly-emerging-drugs-of-abuse-and-their-detection-methods-an-aclps-critical-review
#13
Li Liu, Sarah E Wheeler, Raman Venkataramanan, Jacqueline A Rymer, Anthony F Pizon, Michael J Lynch, Kenichi Tamama
Objectives: Illicit drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. Drug overdose has become the leading cause of injury-related deaths since 2008 due to the recent surge of opioid overdose by heroin, controlled prescription drugs, and nonmethadone synthetic opioids. Synthetic designer drugs such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids ("Spice" and "K2") continue to emerge and attract recreational users. Methods: The emergence of new drugs of abuse poses a steep challenge for clinical toxicology laboratories...
January 29, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378213/-ecstasy-to-addiction-mechanisms-and-reinforcing-effects-of-three-synthetic-cathinone-analogs-of-mdma
#14
Sean B Dolan, Zhenglan Chen, Renqi Huang, Michael B Gatch
This study aimed to address the mechanisms and reinforcing effects of three synthetic cathinone analogs of MDMA commonly reported in "Ecstasy" formulations: methylone, butylone, and pentylone. Whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to assess the mechanism of each compound at the dopamine and serotonin transporters. Separate groups of rats were trained to discriminate methamphetamine, DOM, or MDMA from vehicle. Substitution studies were performed in each group and antagonism studies with SCH23390 were performed against each compound that produced substitution...
January 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367861/the-newest-cathinone-derivatives-as-designer-drugs-an-analytical-and-toxicological-review
#15
REVIEW
Milena Majchrzak, Rafał Celiński, Piotr Kuś, Teresa Kowalska, Mieczysław Sajewicz
Purpose: Currently, among new psychoactive substances, cathinone derivatives constitute the biggest group, which are mainly classified into N-alkylated, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-alkylated, N-pyrrolidinyl, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-pyrrolidinyl derivatives. These derivatives are actively being subjected to minor modifications at the alkyl chains or the aromatic ring to create new synthetic cathinones with the goal of circumventing laws. In this review, the new synthetic cathinones that have appeared on the illegal drug market during the period 2014-2017 are highlighted, and their characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is presented...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364498/synthetic-cathinones-related-fatalities-an-update
#16
S Zaami, R Giorgetti, S Pichini, F Pantano, E Marinelli, F P Busardò
OBJECTIVE: Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as "bath salts", are synthetic drugs chemically related to cathinone, a psychostimulant found in the khat plant. They are the first most consumed products among new psychoactive substances, which cause psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects determining a number of fatalities worldwide.  In this paper, we have systematically reviewed cases of synthetic cathinones-related fatalities analytically confirmed, which have occurred in the last few years...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361056/in-vitro-isolation-of-small-molecule-binding-aptamers-with-intrinsic-dye-displacement-functionality
#17
Haixiang Yu, Weijuan Yang, Obtin Alkhamis, Juan Canoura, Kyung-Ae Yang, Yi Xiao
Aptamer-based sensors offer a powerful tool for molecular detection, but the practical implementation of these biosensors is hindered by costly and laborious sequence engineering and chemical modification procedures. We report a simple strategy for directly isolating signal-reporting aptamers in vitro through systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) that transduce binding events into a detectable change of absorbance via target-induced displacement of a small-molecule dye. We first demonstrate that diethylthiatricarbocyanine (Cy7) can stack into DNA three-way junctions (TWJs) in a sequence-independent fashion, greatly altering the dye's absorbance spectrum...
January 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333902/patterns-of-nps-use-and-risk-reduction-in-slovenia
#18
Matej Sande, Mina Paš, Klara Nahtigal, Simona Šabić
BACKGROUND: The following study presents factors influencing the decision to use/not to use new psychoactive substances (NPS), various patterns of NPS use, the problems experienced by users, and the methods for reducing the risks associated with NPS use. OBJECTIVES: The study seeks to provide an in-depth look into the characteristics of NPS use and support the planning of targeted interventions in the field of NPS. METHODS: The study involved 19 in-depth interviews carried out with 25 individuals divided into three subsamples in order to gain insight into the various experiences of NPS users...
January 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310273/identification-and-classification-of-cathinone-unknowns-by-statistical-analysis-processing-of-direct-analysis-in-real-time-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-derived-neutral-loss-spectra
#19
Kristen L Fowble, Jason R E Shepard, Rabi A Musah
An approach to the rapid determination of the structures of novel synthetic cathinone designer drugs, also known as bath salts, is reported. While cathinones fragment so extensively by electron impact mass spectrometry that their mass spectra often cannot be used to identify the structure, collision-induced dissociation (CID) direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) experiments furnished spectra that provided diagnostic fragmentation patterns for the analyzed cathinones. From this data, neutral loss spectra, which reflect the presence of specific chemical moieties, could be acquired...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275216/mdpv-in-forensic-routine-cases-psychotic-and-aggressive-behavior-in-relation-to-plasma-concentrations
#20
Marco Diestelmann, Anna Zangl, Inge Herrle, Eva Koch, Matthias Graw, Liane D Paul
The new psychoactive substance 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) belongs to the group of synthetic cathinones and is purchased mainly as "research chemical" or "bath salt" on the illegal drug market, also in South Bavaria. MDPV was detected in blood and urine samples from 2010 on in 50 authentic routine cases in a forensic setting. Plasma concentrations in 46 cases with available blood specimens ranged from approximately 1.0 to 301μg/L (median 23.7; mean 47.9μg/L), detected by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method...
February 2018: Forensic Science International
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