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synthetic cathinone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925866/there-s-something-about-molly-the-under-researched-yet-popular-powder-form-of-ecstasy-in-the-united-states
#1
Joseph J Palamar
Molly has been the street name for powder or crystalline ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA[) in the United States since at least 2008; however, few studies have examined Molly use or included Molly in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Prevalence of self-reported ecstasy use is being underreported on surveys due to the lack of inclusion of "Molly", although Molly is often so adulterated with novel psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") that the name "Molly" may no longer adequately represent ecstasy/MDMA...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921290/-bath-salts-the-new-york-city-medical-examiner-experience-a-3-year-retrospective-review
#2
Stephen J deRoux, William A Dunn
"Bath salts" are synthetic derivatives of cathinones, compounds found in the leaves of Catha edulis, which possesses amphetamine-like properties. At the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner, we conducted a 3-year retrospective analysis of deaths in which cathinones were detected. Two categories emerged; those in which cathinones were a contributory cause of death (15 cases) and those in which they were an incidental finding (15 cases). Of the former group, 13 were associated with additional intoxicants; two deaths were attributed solely to cathinone intoxication, both survived 10 h: a man whose postmortem blood methylone concentration was 0...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916403/stability-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-oral-fluid-samples
#3
Briana Miller, Jiyoung Kim, Marta Concheiro
Synthetic cathinones are new stimulant drugs derived from cathinone that have been sold as "legal highs" worldwide. These compounds can elicit powerful effects such as delusions, hallucinations as well as other potentially dangerous behavior. New analogs with varying effects and potencies are constantly introduced in the market to evade legislation, and they are not detected by routine screening and confirmation methods. Oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in forensic toxicology. Its collection is non-invasive and easily supervised, and positive drug findings typically reflect recent drug exposure...
December 1, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914279/identification-and-quantification-of-4-methylethcathinone-4-mec-and-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-hair-by-lc-ms-ms-after-chronic-administration
#4
Jean Claude Alvarez, Isabelle Etting, Emuri Abe, Antoine Villa, Nicolas Fabresse
4-Methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) are synthetic cathinones. The objective of this study was to develop a method in order to measure these compounds in hair of a patient. After decontamination, 20mg of hair were grinded and incubated in phosphate buffer pH 5.0 in presence of 100ng of MDMA-d5 used as internal standard. Double basic liquid-liquid extraction was performed. Samples were separated on a 1.9μm Hypersil GOLD PFP column (100×2.1mm) using gradient elution. Compounds were detected by a LCQ TSQ Vantage XP triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer...
November 24, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912966/structure-related-related-new-approach-in-the-gc-ms-analysis-of-cathinone-type-synthetic-drugs
#5
Borbála Molnár, Blanka Fodor, Antal Csámpai, Előd Hidvégi, Ibolya Molnár-Perl
A novel, structure-related derivatization principle has been developed in order to quantify cathinone-type synthetic drugs (CTSDs), focusing on the most common pentedrone (PENT), including also 4-fluoromethcathinone (4-FMC), methcathinone (MCTN), 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), and 4-ethylmethcathinone (4-EMC). Firstly, oximated and, secondly, trimethylsilylated CTSD derivatives were characterized by mass fragmentation patterns using GC/MS that led to the development of a harmonized, quantitative, two-steps derivatization methodology...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#6
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908258/neurotoxicity-induced-by-mephedrone-an-up-to-date-review
#7
Flaminia Pantano, Roberta Tittarelli, Giulio Mannocchi, Roberta Pacifici, Alessandro di Luca, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Enrico Marinelli
Mephedrone is a β-ketoamphetamine belonging to the family of synthetic cathinones, an emerging class of designer drugs known for their hallucinogenic and psychostimulant properties as well as for their abuse potential. The aim of this review was to examine the emerging scientific literature on the possible mephedrone-induced neurotoxicity, yet not well defined due to the limited number of experimental studies, mainly carried on animal models. Relevant scientific articles were identified from international literature databases (Medline, Scopus, etc...
November 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896377/self-administration-and-behavioral-economics-of-second-generation-synthetic-cathinones-in-male-rats
#8
S L Huskinson, J E Naylor, E A Townsend, J K Rowlett, B E Blough, K B Freeman
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones have become increasingly available as drugs of abuse. Distribution of these drugs is made possible by altering the chemical structures of prohibited cathinones and marketing them under misleading labels. Very little is known about the relative reinforcing effectiveness of new synthetic cathinones relative to known drugs of abuse. OBJECTIVE: We examined self-administration of three second-generation synthetic cathinones: alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP), 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC), and 4-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP) relative to methamphetamine...
November 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863142/identification-and-analytical-characterization-of-nine-synthetic-cathinone-derivatives-n-ethylhexedrone-4-cl-pentedrone-4-cl-%C3%AE-eapp-propylone-n-ethylnorpentylone-6-meo-bk-mdma-%C3%AE-pihp-4-cl-%C3%AE-php-and-4-f-%C3%AE-php
#9
Cuimei Liu, Wei Jia, Tao Li, Zhendong Hua, Zhenhua Qian
Clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories are continuously confronted by analytical challenges when dealing with the new psychoactive substances phenomenon. In this study, the analytical characterization of nine synthetic cathinones is described: 2-(ethylamino)-1-phenylhexan-1-one (N-ethylhexedrone 1), 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)pentan-1-one (4-Cl-pentedrone 2), 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(ethylamino)pentan-1-one (4-Cl-α-EAPP 3), 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-propylaminopropan-1-one (propylone 4), 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-ethylaminopentan-1-one (N-ethylnorpentylone 5), 1-(6-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-methylaminopropan-1-one (6-MeO-bk-MDMA 6), 4-methyl-1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (α-PiHP 7), 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)hexan-1-one (4-Cl-α-PHP 8), and 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)hexan-1-one (4-F-α-PHP 9)...
November 9, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851549/1914-synthetic-cathinone-inhalation-resulting-in-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage
#10
Masakazu Nitta, Natsuo Kamimura, Hiroshi Endoh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834146/recent-trends-in-analytical-methods-to-determine-new-psychoactive-substances-in-hair
#11
Chrystalla Kyriakou, Manuela Pellegrini, Oscar García-Algar, Enrico Marinelli, Simona Zaami
New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) belong to several chemical classes, including phenethylamines, piperazines, synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids. Development and validation of analytical methods for the determination of NPS both in traditional and alternative matrices is of crucial importance to study drug metabolism and to associate consumption to clinical outcomes and eventual intoxication symptoms. Among different biological matrices, hair is the one with the widest time window to investigate drug-related history and demonstrate past intake...
November 11, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830576/structure-activity-relationships-of-synthetic-cathinones
#12
Richard A Glennon, Małgorzata Dukat
Until recently, there was rather little interest in the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of cathinone analogs because so few agents were available and because they represented a relatively minor drug abuse problem. Most of the early SAR was formulated on the basis of behavioral (e.g., locomotor and drug discrimination) studies using rodents. With the emergence on the clandestine market in the last few years of a large number of new cathinone analogs, termed "synthetic cathinones", and the realization that they likely act at dopamine, norepinephrine, and/or serotonin transporters as releasing agents (i...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814952/liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-synthetic-cathinones-and-phenethylamines-in-influent-wastewater-of-eight-european-cities
#13
Richard Bade, Lubertus Bijlsma, Juan V Sancho, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Erika Castrignanò, Ana Causanilles, Emma Gracia-Lor, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Félix Hernández
The popularity of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has grown in recent years, with certain NPS commonly and preferentially consumed even following the introduction of preventative legislation. With the objective to improve the knowledge on the use of NPS, a rapid and very sensitive method was developed for the determination of ten priority NPS (N-ethylcathinone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, butylone, methedrone, mephedrone, naphyrone, 25-C-NBOMe, 25-I-NBOMe and 25-B-NBOMe) in influent wastewater...
November 1, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808572/poisoning-to-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinovalerophenone-%C3%AE-pvp-a-synthetic-cathinone
#14
Neel Patel, Loretta Ford, Rachel Jones, Sally M Bradberry, J Allister Vale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799294/structure-activity-relationships-of-substituted-cathinones-with-transporter-binding-uptake-and-release
#15
Amy J Eshleman, Katherine M Wolfrum, John F Reed, Sunyoung O Kim, Tracy Swanson, Robert A Johnson, Aaron Janowsky
Synthetic cathinones are components of "bath salts" and have physical and psychologic side effects, including hypertension, paranoia, and hallucinations. Here, we report interactions of 20 "bath salt" components with human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters [human dopamine transporter (hDAT), human serotonin transporter (hSERT), and human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), respectively] heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Transporter inhibitors had nanomolar to micromolar affinities (Ki values) at radioligand binding sites, with relative affinities of hDAT>hNET>hSERT for α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone, 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-heptanone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, 4-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, 4-methoxy-α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (alpha-PVT), and α-methylaminovalerophenone, and hDAT>hSERT>hNET for methylenedioxypentedrone...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798075/gc-ms-quantification-method-for-mephedrone-in-plasma-and-urine-application-to-human-pharmacokinetics
#16
Eulàlia Olesti, Mitona Pujadas, Esther Papaseit, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Óscar J Pozo, Magí Farré, Rafael de la Torre
Increasing consumption has been observed among young people of new psychoactive substances, including synthetic cathinone derivatives. The most well known of these is mephedrone whose use has been related to acute intoxication and fatality. Several methods able to detect mephedrone have been reported, although to date, none have been applied to human pharmacokinetic studies in a controlled setting. We developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique for mephedrone quantification in human plasma and urine...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790823/the-new-designer-drug-buphedrone-produces-rewarding-properties-via-dopamine-d1-receptor-activation
#17
Ji-Hwan Oh, Ji-Young Hwang, Sa-Ik Hong, Shi-Xun Ma, Jee-Yeon Seo, Seok-Yong Lee, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Choon-Gon Jang
Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of the active components of natural products and are widely abused worldwide. However, the rewarding properties of these agents have not yet been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the abuse potential of buphedrone [2-(methylamino)-1-phenylbutan-1-one, α-methylamino-butyrophenone] and its effects on the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in mice using conditioned place preference (CPP) analysis, a self-administration test, a locomotor activity test, a behavioral sensitization test and Western blot analysis...
October 27, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784226/evidence-of-2-populations-of-mephedrone-abusers-by-hair-testing-application-to-4-forensic-expertises
#18
Pascal Kintz
New psychoactive substances are conquering the drug scene. Among these substances, cathinone derivatives have been observed since late in the year 2000. At that time, an increasing use of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) started to be observed, particularly among night clubbers. Although these new psychoactive drugs showed an appearance of safety, a growing amount of experiences on their secondary effects has been reported. Mephedrone for example is known to induce psychosis. Given the potential negative effects of mephedrone, the laboratory was asked to test for the drug in hair, a cumulative matrix that can document single, occasional or repetitive abuse of xenobiotics...
October 26, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773724/cooling-down-the-bath-salts-carvedilol-attenuation-of-methylone-and-mephedrone-mediated-hyperthermia
#19
Luke C Zona, Gregory G Grecco, Jon E Sprague
The use of the synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"), methylone and mephedrone, has been associated with the development of life-threatening hyperthermia. To date, no direct pharmacological intervention to mitigate the hyperthermia induced by synthetic cathinones has been identified. Here, we investigated the effects of the non-selective α1 and β adrenergic receptor antagonist carvedilol (5mg/kg ip) on established hyperthermia mediated by methylone and mephedrone (30mg/kg sc) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methylone and mephedrone induced a hyperthermic response that peaked 60min post treatment...
October 20, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753008/neurotoxicology-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs
#20
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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