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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815279/evaluation-of-training-dose-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-4-methylmethcathinone
#1
Michael D Berquist, Nathyn A Thompson, Lisa E Baker
RATIONALE: Although the synthetic cathinone 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) has been a subject of intensive research investigation, the pharmacological mechanisms involved in its interoceptive stimulus effects have yet to be fully characterized. OBJECTIVE: The present study employed drug discrimination methods in rats to compare the interoceptive stimulus properties of two different training doses of 4-MMC to other substances with similar pharmacological actions...
August 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813207/examination-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-and-cathinone-use-among-a-drug-using-offender-sample-2013-2015
#2
Kirsten Elin Smith, Amanda M Bunting, Michele Staton, Robert Walker, Sara Shalash, Erin Winston, Kevin Pangburn
Use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., "Spice," "Serenity") and cathinones (e.g., "bath salts") has proliferated in recent years; however, there is a gap in research examining prevalence among offender samples. This study examined demographics, drug use, mental health characteristics, and criminal histories of NPS users compared to non-NPS users within an offender sample entering drug treatment. Using logistic regression analysis, combined 2013-2015 assessment data were examined (N = 8,791)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811192/relative-reinforcing-effects-of-second-generation-synthetic-cathinones-acquisition-of-self-administration-and-fixed-ratio-dose-response-curves-in-rats
#3
REVIEW
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Melson P Mesmin, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
"Bath salts" preparations contain synthetic cathinones which interact with monoamine transporters and function as either monoamine uptake inhibitors or releasers. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), and 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) were three of the most common cathinones (i.e., "first-generation" cathinones); however, after the US Drug Enforcement Administration placed them under Schedule I regulations, they were replaced with structurally related cathinones that were not subject to regulations (i...
August 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811141/the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-a-pregnancy-model
#4
Lauren G Strange, Kerri Kochelek, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones or 'bath salts' has become a major public health concern. Although these compounds were initially sold legally and labeled "not for human consumption", the 'bath salts' are psychostimulants, with similar structures and pharmacologic mechanisms to cocaine, the amphetamines, and 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly, or Ecstasy). The reported use of these substances by women of child-bearing age highlights the necessity of studies seeking to delineate risks of prenatal exposure...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810159/hair-testing-to-assess-both-known-and-unknown-use-of-drugs-amongst-ecstasy-users-in-the-electronic-dance-music-scene
#5
Joseph J Palamar, Alberto Salomone, Enrico Gerace, Daniele Di Corcia, Marco Vincenti, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Data on both known and unknown drug use in the electronic dance music (EDM) scene is important to inform prevention and harm reduction. While surveys are the most common method of querying drug use, additional biological data can help validate use and detect unknown/unintentional use of drugs such as new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to determine the extent of both known and unknown use of various substances in this high-risk scene. METHODS: We hair-tested 90 self-reported past-year ecstasy/MDMA/Molly users attending EDM parties in New York City during the summer of 2016 using UHPLC-MS/MS...
August 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777732/body-image-and-eating-disorders-are-common-among-professional-and-amateur-athletes-using-performance-and-image-enhancing-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Daria Piacentino, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Livia Longo, Antonio Pavan, Luciano Stivali, Guido Stivali, Stefano Ferracuti, Roberto Brugnoli, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi, Paolo Girardi, Gabriele Sani
The use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is not uncommon in athletes and appears to be associated with several psychopathological disorders of unclear prevalence. In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of body image disorders (BIDs) and eating disorders (EDs) in PIED-using athletes vs. PIED nonusers. We enrolled 84 consecutive professional and amateur athletes training in sport centers in Italy, who underwent semi-structured interviews (SCID-I, SCID-II) and completed the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) and the Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food Eating Disorder Screening Test (SCOFF)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777688/attitudes-and-beliefs-about-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees
#7
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Attitudes and beliefs about drug use have been shown to be robust correlates of use of drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; however, little is known regarding attitudes or beliefs about new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to examine attitudes and beliefs about NPS and how they relate to self-reported use in a high-risk population-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. METHOD: 1,048 individuals (age 18-40) were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City in 2016...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764574/designer-drugs-review-and-implications-for-emergency-management
#8
A Pourmand, M Mazer-Amirshahi, S Chistov, A Li, M Park
In the past 10 years, "designer drugs" such as synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones have emerged and come into widespread use, resulting in more overdose cases involving these new drugs in the United States. Emergency departments regularly treat a diverse array of drug intoxications, and providers must be cognizant of novel drugs of abuse and the associated clinical presentations in order to provide the most appropriate care. This review aims to describe the epidemiology, mechanism of action, clinical presentation, and treatment of intoxication for both the common and newest drugs of abuse...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755886/pharmacological-profile-of-mephedrone-analogs-and-related-new-psychoactive-substances
#9
REVIEW
Dino Luethi, Karolina E Kolaczynska, Luca Docci, Stephan Krähenbühl, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: Mephedrone is a synthetic cathinone and one of the most popular recreationally used new psychoactive substances. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of novel analogs of mephedrone and related newly emerged designer stimulants. METHODS: We determined norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin transporter inhibition potencies and monoamine release in transporter-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also assessed monoamine receptor and transporter binding affinities...
July 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753045/an-internet-based-survey-of-96-german-speaking-users-of-bath-salts-frequent-complications-risky-sexual-behavior-violence-and-delinquency
#10
Sabrina Schmoll, Katrin Romanek, Raphael Stich, Elias Bekka, Jochen Stenzel, Stefanie Geith, Florian Eyer, Christian Rabe
OBJECTIVE: To define the demographics of German-speaking "bath salt" users. DESIGN: Prospective web-based survey of volunteer users of "bath salts". Subject recruitment/exclusion: Participation was solicited by posts in web forums frequented by users of synthetic cathinones. An invitation to participate was also disseminated via regional drug information centers. Responses were discarded if participants refused data analysis, provided incomplete surveys, were under 18 years of age (five cases), and in case of clearly improbable answers (i...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738608/a-fast-bioanalytical-method-based-on-microextraction-by-packed-sorbent-and-uplc-ms-ms-for-determining-new-psychoactive-substances-in-oral-fluid
#11
A M Ares, P Fernández, M Regenjo, A M Fernández, A M Carro, R A Lorenzo
The emergence in recent years of potentially dangerous new psychoactive substances (NPS) that are not under international control has led to the development of multi-analyte procedures for their unequivocal quantification. A fast ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-MS/MS), in combination with a sample pretreatment based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), was for the first time used in this work for the simultaneous determination of NPS in oral fluid. This matrix is an effective alternative to typical biological samples for drug control in substitution therapy programs, and also for the prevention and reduction of traffic accidents...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719082/determination-of-seven-drugs-of-abuse-and-their-metabolites-in-surface-and-waste-water-using-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-to-liquid-chromatography-with-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#12
Helena Prosen, Núria Fontanals, Francesc Borrull, Rosa Maria Marcé
A method based on liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (Exactive Orbitrap) combined with solid-phase extraction using a strong cationic exchange mixed-mode sorbent has been developed for the determination of seven drugs of abuse, including two synthetic cathinones, as well as some of their metabolites in environmental water samples. The method provides low detection limits and a high confirmation power thanks to the diagnostic and two fragment ions monitored for each compound in high-resolution mass spectrometry, providing six identification points for each analyte...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#13
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704276/effects-of-d1-and-d2-receptor-antagonists-on-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-methylendioxypyrovalerone-and-mephedrone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-d-amphetamine
#14
Eric L Harvey, Rachel L Burroughs, Lisa E Baker
Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684237/monoaminergic-toxicity-induced-by-cathinone-phthalimide-an-in-vitro-study
#15
Susan M Lantz, Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Bonnie Robinson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi, Syed Z Imam, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali
Bath salts, or synthetic cathinones, have cocaine-like or amphetamine-like properties and induce psychoactive effects via their capacity to modulate serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Structurally distinct synthetic cathinones are continuously being generated to skirt existing drug laws. One example of these modified compounds is cathinone phthalimide (CP), which has already appeared on the global market. The lack of toxicological studies on the effects of CP on monoaminergic systems led to the development of the present study in order to generate an acute toxicity profile for CP, and to clarify whether it primarily affects both dopamine and serotonin, like the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and methylone, or primarily affects dopamine, like 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683184/comparison-of-ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-gas-chromatography-for-the-separation-of-synthetic-cathinones
#16
Stephanie Carnes, Stacey O'Brien, Angelica Szewczak, Lauriane Tremeau-Cayel, Walter F Rowe, Bruce McCord, Ira S Lurie
A comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones has been conducted. Nine different mixtures of bath salts were analyzed in this study. The three different chromatographic techniques were examined using a general set of controlled synthetic cathinones as well as a variety of other synthetic cathinones that exist as positional isomers. Overall 35 different synthetic cathinones were analyzed...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677665/reinforcing-effects-of-binary-mixtures-of-common-bath-salt-constituents-studies-with-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-3-4-methylenedioxymethcathinone-methylone-and-caffeine-in-rats
#17
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Melson P Mesmin, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
'Bath salts' use is associated with high rates of abuse, toxicity, and death. bath salt preparations often contain mixtures of drugs including multiple synthetic cathinones (eg, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) or 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone)) or synthetic cathinones and caffeine; however, little is known about whether interactions among bath salt constituents contribute to the abuse-related effects of bath salts preparations. This study used male Sprague-Dawley rats responding under a progressive ratio schedule to quantify the reinforcing effectiveness of MDPV, methylone, and caffeine, administered alone and as binary mixtures (n=12 per mixture)...
July 5, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677506/mephedrone-concentrations-in-cases-of-clinical-intoxication
#18
Esther Papaseit, Eulàlia Olesti, Rafael de la Torre, Marta Torrens, Magí Farré
Background Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a ring-substituted synthetic cathinone derivative has become established as a permanent illicit drug in the dynamic new psychoactive substances (NPS) scene. Objective This review summarizes current knowledge on mephedrone concentrations in biological samples from cases of acute intoxications (fatal and non-fatal), pharmacokinetics studies, wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis in order to provide an overview of the reliable scientific knowledge on toxicokinetics of mephedrone in humans...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677501/prevalence-and-surveillance-of-synthetic-cathinones-use-by-hair-analysis-an-update-review
#19
J C Alvarez, N Fabresse, I A Larabi
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have emerged in a threatening way in the last decades. They are sold via the internet or head shops with several names (bath salts, Research chemical, RCs, Legal Highs) and forms (pills, tablets, powder...etc.), and are labelled ambiguously to escape governmental legislation. Designer drugs belong to different chemical classes, but cathinones derivatives presented the most prevalent group. In 2013, this group accounted for 30% of NPS seizures in Europe with more than 450 different compounds, including 101 new molecules reported for the first time in 2014...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672699/qualitative-screening-for-new-psychoactive-substances-in-wastewater-collected-during-a-city-festival-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#20
Ana Causanilles, Juliet Kinyua, Christoph Ruttkies, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Erik Emke, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt
The inclusion of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the wastewater-based epidemiology approach presents challenges, such as the reduced number of users that translates into low concentrations of residues and the limited pharmacokinetics information available, which renders the choice of target biomarker difficult. The sampling during special social settings, the analysis with improved analytical techniques, and data processing with specific workflow to narrow the search, are required approaches for a successful monitoring...
October 2017: Chemosphere
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