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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430935/sensation-seeking-and-adolescent-alcohol-use-exploring-the-mediating-role-of-unstructured-socializing-with-peers
#1
Sharon Sznitman, Batya Engel-Yeger
Background: Researchers have theorized that adolescents high in sensation seeking are particularly sensitive to positive reinforcement and the rewarding outcomes of alcohol use, and thus that the personality vulnerability is a direct causal risk factor for alcohol use. In contrast, the routine activity perspective theorizes that part of the effect of sensation seeking on alcohol use goes through the propensity that sensation seekers have towards unstructured socializing with peers. The study tests a model with indirect and direct paths from sensation seeking and participation in unstructured peer socialization to adolescent alcohol use...
May 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418404/a-pathway-linking-reward-circuitry-impulsive-sensation-seeking-and-risky-decision-making-in-young-adults-identifying-neural-markers-for-new-interventions
#2
H W Chase, J C Fournier, M A Bertocci, T Greenberg, H Aslam, R Stiffler, J Lockovich, S Graur, G Bebko, E E Forbes, M L Phillips
High trait impulsive sensation seeking (ISS) is common in 18-25-year olds, and is associated with risky decision-making and deleterious outcomes. We examined relationships among: activity in reward regions previously associated with ISS during an ISS-relevant context, uncertain reward expectancy (RE), using fMRI; ISS impulsivity and sensation-seeking subcomponents; and risky decision-making in 100, transdiagnostically recruited 18-25-year olds. ISS, anhedonia, anxiety, depression and mania were measured using self-report scales; clinician-administered scales also assessed the latter four...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410131/substance-use-disorder-a-bio-directional-subset-of-reward-deficiency-syndrome
#3
Kenneth Blum, Mark Gold, Zsolt Demetrovics, Trevor Archer, Panayotis K Thanos, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This commentary is to inform clinicians challenged with an increase in people seeking treatment for Substance Use Disorder (SUD), that the ninety percent revolving door, is, in part, due to post-withdrawal, untreated neurotoxicity. This impairment attenuates neurotransmitter signaling and compromises resting state functional connectivity, leading to unwanted sequelae including depression, sleep disturbances, sensation seeking, lack of satisfaction and impulsivity. Neuroimaging studies indicate that neurobiological recovery can take years...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406351/substance-use-in-undergraduate-students-with-histories-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-the-role-of-impulsivity
#4
Theresa E Egan, Anne E Dawson, Brian T Wymbs
BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood (18-25 years old) is regarded as a time of identity exploration that includes a peak in risky behaviors, such as substance use and misuse. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is also associated with greater levels of risky behaviors, including substance use and misuse; however, there is a lack of research on substance use by emerging adults with ADHD, in particular the potential mechanisms that may facilitate this risk. OBJECTIVES: The present study builds on the existing research regarding the association between ADHD and substance use by examining roles of multiple facets of impulsivity in facilitating this association during emerging adulthood...
April 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398233/therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-ghrelin-pathway
#5
REVIEW
Gustav Colldén, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller
Ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as the endogenous ligand of the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). Since then, ghrelin has been found to exert a plethora of physiological effects that go far beyond its initial characterization as a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue. Among the numerous well-established effects of ghrelin are the stimulation of appetite and lipid accumulation, the modulation of immunity and inflammation, the stimulation of gastric motility, the improvement of cardiac performance, the modulation of stress, anxiety, taste sensation and reward-seeking behavior, as well as the regulation of glucose metabolism and thermogenesis...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398126/a-multifactorial-and-integrative-approach-to-impulsivity-in-neuropsychology-insights-from-the-upps-model-of-impulsivity
#6
Lucien Rochat, Joël Billieux, Jean Gagnon, Martial Van der Linden
Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397836/efhd2-swiprosin-1-is-a-common-genetic-determinator-for-sensation-seeking-low-anxiety-and-alcohol-addiction
#7
D Mielenz, M Reichel, T Jia, E B Quinlan, T Stöckl, M Mettang, D Zilske, E Kirmizi-Alsan, P Schönberger, M Praetner, S E Huber, D Amato, M Schwarz, P Purohit, S Brachs, J Spranger, A Hess, C Büttner, A B Ekici, F Perez-Branguli, B Winner, V Rauschenberger, T Banaschewski, A L W Bokde, C Büchel, P J Conrod, S Desrivières, H Flor, V Frouin, J Gallinat, H Garavan, P Gowland, A Heinz, J-L Martinot, H Lemaitre, F Nees, T Paus, M N Smolka, A Schambony, T Bäuerle, V Eulenburg, C Alzheimer, A Lourdusamy, G Schumann, C P Müller
In many societies, the majority of adults regularly consume alcohol. However, only a small proportion develops alcohol addiction. Individuals at risk often show a high sensation-seeking/low-anxiety behavioural phenotype. Here we asked which role EF hand domain containing 2 (EFhd2; Swiprosin-1) plays in the control of alcohol addiction-associated behaviours. EFhd2 knockout (KO) mice drink more alcohol than controls and spontaneously escalate their consumption. This coincided with a sensation-seeking and low-anxiety phenotype...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397324/determinants-of-substance-use-amongst-brazilians-residing-in-the-uk-the-role-of-acculturation
#8
Martha Canfield, Marcia Worrell, Catherine Gilvarry
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Evidence suggests that patterns of substance use are changing amongst some members of migrant groups in the UK. This study explored the extent to which residing in the UK has an impact on substance use behaviours amongst Brazilian migrants. DESIGN AND METHODS: A mixed methods approach was adopted comparing Brazilians residing in the UK (n = 164) and Brazilians residing in Brazil (n = 161), age 27.82 (SD = 5.65) average. Participants' socio-demographic characteristics, resilience, personality traits, drinking motives, psychological distress, frequency of alcohol intake, smoking and other drugs used (Brazil and UK), acculturation outcomes and length of residence (UK) were explored...
April 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392628/perceptual-and-affective-responses-to-sampled-capsaicin-differ-by-reported-intake
#9
Alissa A Nolden, John E Hayes
The present study was conducted to a) generate suprathresold dose-response functions for multiple qualities evoked by capsaicin across a wide range of concentrations, and b) revisit how intensity ratings and liking may differ as a function of self reported intake. Individuals rated eight samples of capsaicin for perceived burn and bitterness, as well as disliking/liking. Measures of reported preference for chili peppers, chili intake frequency, prior experience and personality measures were also assessed. Here, we confirm prior findings showing that burn in the laboratory differs with reported chili intake, with infrequent consumers reporting more burn...
January 2017: Food Quality and Preference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391507/interaction-of-chronic-food-restriction-and-methylphenidate-in-sensation-seeking-of-rats
#10
Aleksandr D Talishinsky, Celine Nicolas, Satoshi Ikemoto
RATIONALE: It is necessary to understand better how chronic food restriction (CFR) and psychostimulant drugs interact in motivated behavior unrelated to food or energy homeostasis. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether CFR augments methylphenidate (MPH)-potentiated responding reinforced by visual sensation (VS) and whether repeated MPH injections or prolonged CFR further augments such responses. METHODS: Before starting the following experiments, rats on a CFR diet received a limited daily ration in such a way that their body weights decreased to 85-90% of their original weights over 2 weeks...
April 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387426/facets-of-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Jason M Lavender, Erica L Goodman, Kristen M Culbert, Stephen A Wonderlich, Ross D Crosby, Scott G Engel, James E Mitchell, Daniel Le Grange, Scott J Crow, Carol B Peterson
This study sought to investigate independent associations of impulsivity and compulsivity with eating disorder (ED) symptoms. Women (N = 81) with full or subthreshold Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV anorexia nervosa (AN) completed a semi-structured interview and self-report questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses were conducted using ED symptoms as dependent variables and facets of impulsivity and compulsivity as predictor variables (controlling for body mass index and AN diagnostic subtype)...
April 7, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379109/substance-use-in-young-swiss-men-the-interplay-of-perceived-social-support-and-dispositional-characteristics
#12
Joseph Studer, Stéphanie Baggio, Marc Dupuis, Meichun Mohler-Kuo, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Gerhard Gmel
BACKGROUND: Social environment plays a central role in substance use behaviors. However, it is not clear whether its role varies as a function of individual dispositional characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interaction between dispositional characteristics (i.e. sensation seeking, anxiety/neuroticism) and social environment (i.e. perceived social support [PSS]) in association with substance use. METHODS: A representative sample of 5,377 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing substance use, sensation seeking, anxiety/neuroticism, and PSS from friends and from a significant other...
May 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368772/the-role-of-impulsivity-dimensions-in-the-relation-between-probable-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-aggressive-behavior-among-substance-users
#13
Nicole H Weiss, Kevin M Connolly, Kim L Gratz, Matthew T Tull
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder report heightened levels of numerous risky and health-compromising behaviors, including aggressive behaviors. Given evidence that aggressive behavior is associated with negative substance use disorder treatment outcomes, research is needed to identify the factors that may account for the association between PTSD and aggressive behavior among patients with substance use disorder. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity dimensions (i...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364687/comorbidity-family-history-and-personality-traits-in-pathological-gamblers-compared-with-healthy-controls
#14
K Mann, T Lemenager, E Zois, S Hoffmann, H Nakovics, M Beutel, M Vogelgesang, K Wölfling, F Kiefer, M Fauth-Bühler
BACKGROUND: While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. METHODS: In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls...
December 23, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364447/association-between-short-sleep-duration-and-risk-behavior-factors-in-middle-school-students
#15
Judith Owens, Guanghai Wang, Daniel Lewin, Elizabeth Skora, Allison Baylor
Study Objectives: To examine the association between self-reported sleep duration (SD) and peer/individual factors predictive of risky behaviors (risk behavior factors) in a large socioeconomically diverse school-based sample of early adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: Survey data collected from 10718 and 11240 eighth-grade students in 2010 and 2012, respectively, were analyzed. Intervention: N/A. Measurements and Results: Self-reported school night SD was grouped as ≤4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, and ≥10 hours...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359682/anticipatory-representations-of-reward-and-threat-in-perceptual-areas-from-preadolescence-to-late-adolescence
#16
Philippa Howsley, Liat Levita
This study examined whether changes in perceptual processes can partially account for the increase in reward-orientated behaviour during adolescence. This was investigated by examining reinforcement-dependent potentiation to discriminative stimuli (S(D)) that predicted rewarding or threatening outcomes. To that end, perceptual event-related potentials that are modulated by motivationally salient stimuli, the N170 and Late Positive Potential (LPP), were recorded from 30 preadolescents (9-12 years), 30 adolescents (13-17 years), and 34 late adolescents (18-23 years) while they completed an instrumental task in which they emitted or omitted a motor response to obtain rewards and avoid losses...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340147/evoked-pressure-pain-sensitivity-is-associated-with-differential-analgesic-response-to-verum-and-sham-acupuncture-in-fibromyalgia
#17
Noah A Zucker, Alex Tsodikov, Scott D Mist, Stephen Cina, Vitaly Napadow, Richard E Harris
Objective.:  Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition with few effective treatments. Many fibromyalgia patients seek acupuncture for analgesia; however, its efficacy is limited and not fully understood. This may be due to heterogeneous pathologies among participants in acupuncture clinical trials. We hypothesized that pressure pain tenderness would differentially classify treatment response to verum and sham acupuncture in fibromyalgia patients. Design.:  Baseline pressure pain sensitivity at the thumbnail at baseline was used in linear mixed models as a modifier of differential treatment response to sham versus verum acupuncture...
March 15, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323526/addiction-to-snake-venom
#18
Saibal Das, Preeti Barnwal, Tanay Maiti, Anand Ramasamy, Somnath Mondal, Dinesh Babu
The nature of addiction depends on various factors. The tendency to have already used several addictive substances and to seek high sensation experiences as a result of specific personality traits may lead to extreme and peculiar forms of addictions. Even belonging to specific social and cultural background may lead to such forms of addiction such as intentional snake bite and willful envenomation. In this article, we have discussed the peculiarities and practical insight of such addiction to snake venom. The possible molecular mechanism behind such venom-mediated reinforcement has also been highlighted...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323494/associations-between-thematic-content-and-industry-self-regulation-code-violations-in-beer-advertising-broadcast-during-the-u-s-ncaa-basketball-tournament
#19
Jonathan K Noel, Ziming Xuan, Thomas F Babor
BACKGROUND: Beer marketing in the United States is controlled through self-regulation, whereby the beer industry has created a marketing code and enforces its use. We performed a thematic content analysis on beer ads broadcast during a U.S. college athletic event and determined which themes are associated with violations of a self-regulated alcohol marketing code. METHODS: 289 beer ads broadcast during the U.S. NCAA Men's and Women's 1999-2008 basketball tournaments were assessed for the presence of 23 thematic content areas...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318348/impulsivity-and-problem-drinking-in-college-examining-the-mediating-role-of-sex-related-alcohol-expectancies-and-alcohol-use-at-sex
#20
Devin E Banks, Tamika C B Zapolski
BACKGROUND: Dispositional impulsivity has been consistently implicated as a risk factor for problem drinking among college students and research suggests that this relationship may be explained in part by alcohol expectancies. A subset of alcohol expectancies, sex-related alcohol expectancies, is particularly linked to problem drinking among college students. The acquired preparedness model of risk postulates that people with dispositional impulsivity develop stronger sex-related alcohol expectancies, are subsequently more likely to drink at problematic levels in sexual situations, and thus, engage in more problem drinking...
March 20, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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