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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910258/the-role-of-individual-and-personality-factors-in-controlling-risky-behaviours-related-to-aids-proposing-a-causal-model
#1
Mansour Rezaei, Ali Zakiei, Soheyla Reshadat, Seyed Ramin Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Investigating previous studies show that personality traits have an important role in controlling risky behaviours related to AIDS; therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between AIDS health literacy, personality traits and mental health and controlling risky behaviours related to AIDS through self-efficacy. METHODS: The statistical population includes all the young people in western provinces of Iran, 2015. Data analysis was carried out for a sample of 756 participants (59% female)...
December 2, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896939/a-multimodal-study-of-impulsivity-and-body-weight-integrating-behavioral-cognitive-and-neuroimaging-approaches
#2
Francesca M Filbey, Uma S Yezhuvath
OBJECTIVE: Dimensions of impulsivity are related to obesity. Accordingly, characterization of impulsivity in individuals with overweight and obesity holds promise for more targeted and effective intervention. METHODS: Forty-five individuals (13 males, mean age = 32.6, mean body mass index [BMI] = 30.7) were recruited to determine the role of impulsivity in elevated body weight by evaluating: (1) trait impulsivity via impulsive sensation-seeking scale (ImpSS), (2) state impulsivity via continuous performance test, and (3) activation and integration of brain cognitive control regions via functional magnetic resonance imaging during a response inhibition task (i...
November 29, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893246/the-unique-roles-of-intrapersonal-and-social-factors-in-adolescent-smoking-development
#3
Ivy N Defoe, Judith Semon Dubas, Leah H Somerville, Peter Lugtig, Marcel A G van Aken
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the initiation and peak of many harmful risk-taking behaviors such as smoking, which is among the most addictive and deadliest behaviors. Generic metatheories like the theory of triadic influence (TTI) suggest that interrelated risk factors across multiple domains (i.e., intrapersonal and social/environmental) jointly contribute to adolescent smoking behavior. Yet, studies are lacking that investigate risk factors across different domains in the same study, which obscures whether each makes a unique contribution to the increase in smoking throughout adolescence or whether there is overlap across the domains...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892820/addressing-adolescents-risk-and-protective-factors-related-to-risky-behaviours-findings-from-a-school-based-peer-education-evaluation-in-the-western-cape
#4
Furzana Timol, Mohammed Yacoob Vawda, Arvin Bhana, Benita Moolman, Mokhantso Makoae, Sharlene Swartz
BACKGROUND: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886566/disentangling-development-of-sensation-seeking-risky-peer-affiliation-and-binge-drinking-in-adolescent-sport
#5
Catherine Frances Drane, Kathryn L Modecki, Bonnie L Barber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877117/general-habit-propensity-relates-to-the-sensation-seeking-subdomain-of-impulsivity-but-not-obesity
#6
Anja Dietrich, Sanne de Wit, Annette Horstmann
According to dual-system theory, instrumental learning and performance depend on the balance between goal-directed and habitual action control. Overreliance on habits has been argued to characterize clinical conditions such as drug addiction or obsessive-compulsive disorder as well as obesity and excessive impulsivity. A tendency toward habitual action control in obesity has already been indicated in the food domain. However, impairments might not be restricted to eating behavior. This has been suggested by domain-general obesity-associated disturbances in executive function as well as alterations in corticostriatal circuits underlying the goal-directed and habitual systems...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855334/early-risk-and-protective-factors-for-problem-gambling-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#7
REVIEW
N A Dowling, S S Merkouris, C J Greenwood, E Oldenhof, J W Toumbourou, G J Youssef
This systematic review aimed to identify early risk and protective factors (in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood) longitudinally associated with the subsequent development of gambling problems. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1990 to 2015 identified 15 studies published in 23 articles. Meta-analyses quantified the effect size of 13 individual risk factors (alcohol use frequency, antisocial behaviours, depression, male gender, cannabis use, illicit drug use, impulsivity, number of gambling activities, problem gambling severity, sensation seeking, tobacco use, violence, undercontrolled temperament), one relationship risk factor (peer antisocial behaviours), one community risk factor (poor academic performance), one individual protective factor (socio-economic status) and two relationship protective factors (parent supervision, social problems)...
November 3, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831734/relations-between-traumatic-stress-dimensions-of-impulsivity-and-reactive-and-appetitive-aggression-in-individuals-with-refugee-status
#8
Mareike Augsburger, Katalin Dohrmann, Maggie Schauer, Thomas Elbert
Objective: Traumatic stressors and other forms of adversities, especially when experienced during childhood, shape aggressive behavior. Effects of differential dimensions of impulsivity on the relationship between psychological trauma, reactive aggression (defensive survival response to threat), and appetitive aggression (the pleasure of attacking and fighting) have not yet been assessed. Method: Using structural equation modeling, we sought to uncover precursors of reactive and appetitive aggression investigating a sample of 94 adult individuals with refugee status...
November 10, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821949/evaluation-of-sensory-processing-abilities-following-stroke-using-the-adolescent-adult-sensory-profile-implications-for-individualized-intervention
#9
Sang Mi Chung, Bo Kyoung Song
[Purpose] The present study aimed to understand characteristics of sensory processing in patients who have experienced a stroke using the previously established, self-diagnostic Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). [Subjects and Methods] Data from 180 total Korean patients who had been diagnosed as having experienced a stroke were collected and analyzed between May and August of 2015. [Results] Average scores for each sensory processing domain were as follows: low registration (32.1), sensation seeking (34...
October 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819466/the-structure-of-psychopathology-in-adolescence-and-its-common-personality-and-cognitive-correlates
#10
Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Frederic N Brière, Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Juergen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Jean-Luc Martinot, Frauke Nees, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Marcella Rietschel, Michael N Smolka, Trevor W Robbins, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Patricia Conrod
The traditional view that mental disorders are distinct, categorical disorders has been challenged by evidence that disorders are highly comorbid and exist on a continuum (e.g., Caspi et al., 2014; Tackett et al., 2013). The first objective of this study was to use structural equation modeling to model the structure of psychopathology in an adolescent community-based sample (N = 2,144) including conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, substance use, anxiety, depression, phobias, and other emotional symptoms, assessed at 16 years...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816780/adolescent-neural-response-to-reward-is-related-to-participant-sex-and-task-motivation
#11
Gabriela Alarcón, Anita Cservenka, Bonnie J Nagel
Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814639/dopamine-homeostasis-brain-functional-connectivity-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome
#12
Marcelo Febo, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, David Baron, Panayotis K Thanos, Luis M Colon-Perez, Zsolt Demortrovics, Mark S Gold
Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) was first proposed by Kenneth Blum in 1995 to provide a clinically relevant and predictive term for conditions involving deficits in mesocorticolimbic dopamine function. Genetic, molecular, and neuronal alterations in key components of this circuitry contribute to a reward deficit state that can drive drug-seeking, consumption, and relapse. Among the dysfunctions observed in RDS are dysregulated resting state networks, which recently have been assessed in detail in chronic drug users by, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and functional connectivity analysis...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814496/characteristics-associated-with-risk-taking-behaviours-predict-young-people-s-participation-in-organised-activities
#13
Britt E Hallingberg, Stephanie H M Van Goozen, Simon C Moore
Participation in organised activities (OAs) such as sports and special groups can shape adolescent risk taking behaviours. Sensation seeking and inhibitory control play an important role in the emergence of adolescent risk taking behaviours and may explain variations in OA participation as well as inform the development of more effective interventions that use OAs. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (England) were analysed using logistic regression to test whether inhibitory control and sensation seeking predicted participation in OAs at a mean age of 11...
December 2016: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810546/is-gambling-disorder-associated-with-impulsivity-traits-measured-by-the-upps-p-and-is-this-association-moderated-by-sex-and-age
#14
Lamprini G Savvidou, Ana B Fagundo, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Roser Granero, Laurence Claes, Núria Mallorquí-Baqué, Antonio Verdejo-García, Howard Steiger, Mimi Israel, Laura Moragas, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Zaida Agüera, Iris Tolosa-Sola, Melania La Verde, Eugenio Aguglia, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity is a construct that is strongly associated with Gambling Disorder (GD). The main objectives in the present study are: 1) to explore the role of sex and age on impulsivity levels in GD patients; 2) to identify the relationship of the different impulsivity facets with comorbid psychopathology and other personality traits in GD patients; and (3) to assess whether impulsivity is a predictor for the severity of GD. METHOD: The final sample consisted of 406 consecutive participants...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797690/anxiety-sensitivity-and-distress-intolerance-as-predictors-of-cannabis-dependence-symptoms-problems-and-craving-the-mediating-role-of-coping-motives
#15
Samantha G Farris, Jane Metrik, Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Christopher W Kahler, Michael J Zvolensky
OBJECTIVE: The tendency to react with fear to anxiety-related sensations (anxiety sensitivity) and the inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states (distress intolerance) are implicated in the comorbidity between affective psychopathology and cannabis use disorders. Emotionally vulnerable cannabis users may be particularly apt to use cannabis to cope with distress, which may both lead to and maintain its problematic use (e.g., dependence, craving). The current study tested a comprehensive model of anxiety sensitivity and distress intolerance as predictors of the number of cannabis dependence symptoms and problems, and severity of cannabis craving following deprivation from cannabis, and the mediating role of cannabis coping motives...
November 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766650/neural-correlates-of-proactive-and-reactive-aggression-in-adolescent-twins
#16
Yaling Yang, Shantanu H Joshi, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Laura A Baker
Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i...
October 21, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765413/personality-dimensions-and-substance-use-in-individuals-with-mild-to-borderline-intellectual-disabilities
#17
Evelien A P Poelen, Esmée P Schijven, Roy Otten, Robert Didden
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the role of the personality dimensions anxiety sensitivity, negative thinking, impulsivity and sensation seeking (as assessed by the revised version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale; SURPS) in substance use in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). METHOD: We tested the relationship between level of ID and SURPS personality dimensions and the relationship between SURPS personality dimensions and severity of alcohol and drug use...
October 17, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759213/early-report-on-brain-arousal-regulation-in-manic-vs-depressive-episodes-in-bipolar-disorder
#18
Dirk Alexander Wittekind, Janek Spada, Alexander Gross, Tilman Hensch, Philippe Jawinski, Christine Ulke, Christian Sander, Ulrich Hegerl
OBJECTIVES: The arousal regulation model of affective disorders attributes an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders to dysregulation of brain arousal regulation. According to this model, sensation avoidance and withdrawal in depression and sensation seeking and hyperactivity in mania can be explained as auto-regulatory attempts to counteract a tonically high (depression) or unstable (mania) arousal. The aim of this study was to compare brain arousal regulation between manic and depressive bipolar patients and healthy controls...
September 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749975/profiles-of-drug-addicts-in-relation-to-personality-variables-and-disorders
#19
María Carou, Estrella Romero, Mª Ángeles Luengo
In recent decades, research has identified a set of impulsive/disinhibited personality variables closely associated with drug addiction. As well as this, disorders linked with these variables, such as ADHD and personality disorders, are being closely studied in the field of drug addiction. Although much knowledge has been accumulated about the relation of these variables and disorders taken separately, less is known about how these constructs allow identify-specific profiles within the drug dependent population to be identified...
October 7, 2016: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749964/internalizing-and-externalizing-personality-and-subjective-effects-in-a-sample-of-adolescent-cannabis-users
#20
Sara García-Sánchez, Josep Lluís Matalí, María Martín-Fernández, Marta Pardo, Maria Lleras, Carmina Castellano-Tejedor, Josep Maria Haro
Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced...
October 6, 2016: Adicciones
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