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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754407/punishment-of-alcohol-reinforced-responding-in-alcohol-preferring-p-rats-reveals-a-bimodal-population-implications-for-models-of-compulsive-drug-seeking
#1
Nathan J Marchant, Erin J Campbell, Konstantin Kaganovsky
Individual variations in animal behaviour can be used to describe relationships between different constructs, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms responsible for such variation. In humans, variation in the expression of certain traits contributes to the onset of psychopathologies, such as drug addiction. Addiction is characterised by persistent drug use despite negative consequences, but it occurs in only a sub-population of drug users. Compulsive drug use is modelled in laboratory animals by punishing a drug-reinforced operant response...
July 25, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741627/chronic-exposure-to-methamphetamine-disrupts-reinforcement-based-decision-making-in-rats
#2
Stephanie M Groman, Katherine M Rich, Nathaniel J Smith, Daeyeol Lee, Jane R Taylor
The persistent use of psychostimulant drugs, despite the detrimental outcomes associated with continued drug use, may be due to disruptions in reinforcement-learning processes that enable behavior to remain flexible and goal-directed in dynamic environments. To identify the reinforcement-learning processes that are affected by chronic exposure to the psychostimulant methamphetamine (MA), the current study sought to use computational and biochemical analyses to characterize decision-making processes, assessed by probabilistic reversal learning, in rats before and after they were exposed to an escalating dose regimen of MA (or saline control)...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714720/the-behavioral-effects-of-chronic-sugar-and-or-caffeine-consumption-in-adult-and-adolescent-rats
#3
Jane L Franklin, Travis A Wearne, Judi Homewood, Jennifer L Cornish
Caffeine is a psychostimulant frequently consumed by adults and children, often in combination with high levels of sugar. Chronic pretreatment with either substance can amplify both amphetamine and cocaine-induced hyperactivity in rodents. The present study sought to elucidate whether age at the time of exposure to sugar and/or caffeine alters sensitivity to an acute illicit psychostimulant (methamphetamine, [METH]) challenge in adulthood. Adult and adolescent (Postnatal Day 35 on first day of treatment) male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 26 days with water, caffeine (0...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712749/nicotine-and-cocaine-triggered-methamphetamine-reinstatement-in-female-and-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Steven T Pittenger, Shinnyi Chou, Scott T Barrett, Isabella Catalano, Maxwell Lydiatt, Rick A Bevins
Preclinical studies have demonstrated a return to methamphetamine (meth)-seeking behavior (reinstatement) induced by injections of meth administered by the experimenter (drug-prime). Notably, females tend to be more sensitive to drug-prime; often displaying more reinstatement behavior when compared to males. While meth-primed reinstatement of meth-seeking behavior has been established, little is known about the ability of other drugs of abuse to substitute for meth during drug-primed reinstatement; nicotine and cocaine were the focus of the present work...
August 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698151/the-effects-of-methamphetamine-and-buprenorphine-and-their-interaction-on-anxiety-like-behavior-and-locomotion-in-male-rats
#5
Farshid Etaee, Masoumeh Asadbegi, Zahra Taslimi, Siamak Shahidi, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Sara Soleimani Asl, Alireza Komaki
Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse and dependence are major global problems. Most of previous studies showed that Meth is anxiogenic. While buprenorphine (Bup) is used to treat anxiety-related behaviors, the effects of Meth in combination with Bup on anxiety-like behavior are unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of these drugs on anxiety-like behavior with the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests, which are widely used to assess anxiety-like behavior in small rodents. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham, Meth, Bup, and Bup+Meth...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694771/nupr1-modulates-methamphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-neuronal-apoptosis-and-autophagy-through-chop-trib3-mediated-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-signaling-pathway
#6
Xiang Xu, Enping Huang, Yunchun Tai, Xu Zhao, Xuebing Chen, Chuanxiang Chen, Rui Chen, Chao Liu, Zhoumeng Lin, Huijun Wang, Wei-Bing Xie
Methamphetamine (METH) is an illegal and widely abused psychoactive stimulant. METH exposure causes detrimental effects on multiple organ systems, primarily the nervous system, especially dopaminergic pathways, in both laboratory animals and humans. In this study, we hypothesized that Nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1/com1/p8) is involved in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis and autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, we measured the expression levels of Nupr1, ER stress protein markers CHOP and Trib3, apoptosis-related protein markers cleaved-caspase3 and PARP, as well as autophagy-related protein markers LC3 and Beclin-1 in brain tissues of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, rat primary cultured neurons and the rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) after METH exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694157/how-methamphetamine-exposure-during-different-neurodevelopmental-stages-affects-social-behavior-of-adult-rats
#7
Ivana Hrebíčková, Mária Ševčíková, Eva Macúchová, Romana Šlamberová
Social behavior involves complex of different forms of interactions between individuals that is essential for healthy mental and physical development throughout lifespan. Psychostimulants, including methamphetamine (MA), have neurotoxic effect, especially, if they are targeting CNS during its critical periods of development. The present study was aimed on evaluation of changes in social interactions (SI) following scheduled prenatal/neonatal MA treatment in combination with acute application in adulthood. Eight groups of male and eight groups of female rats were tested in adulthood: rats, whose mothers were exposed to MA (5mg/ml/kg) or saline (SA, 1ml/kg) during the first half of gestation (ED 1-11), the second half of gestation (ED 12-22) and neonatal period (PD 1-11)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686793/learning-and-memory-effects-of-neonatal-methamphetamine-exposure-in-rats-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-age-at-assessment
#8
Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
In utero methamphetamine (MA) exposure leads to a range of adverse effects, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments in exposed children. In the current experiment, preweaning Sprague-Dawley rats, as a model of third trimester human exposure, were administered the spin trapping agent, N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN), daily prior to MA. Rats were given 0 (SAL) or 40 mg/kg PBN prior to each MA dose (10 mg/kg, 4x per day) from postnatal day (P) 6-15...
July 7, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686721/systemic-pd149163-a-neurotensin-receptor-1-agonist-decreases-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-dba-2j-mice-without-causing-excessive-sedation
#9
Amanda L Sharpe, Erika Varela, Michael J Beckstead
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant that exhibits significant abuse potential. Although METH addiction is a major health and societal concern, no drug is currently approved for its therapeutic management. METH activates the central dopaminergic "reward" circuitry, and with repeated use increases levels of the neuromodulatory peptide neurotensin in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Previous studies in rats suggest that neurotensin agonism decreases METH self-administration, but these studies did not examine the effect of neurotensin agonism on the pattern of self-administration or open field locomotion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681200/microrna-expression-signature-of-methamphetamine-use-and-addiction-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#10
Maw Shin Sim, Tomoko Soga, Vijayapandi Pandy, Yuan Seng Wu, Ishwar S Parhar, Zahurin Mohamed
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psycho-stimulant that induces behavioral changes due to high level of METH-induced dopamine in the brain. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in these changes, especially in drug addiction. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of METH-induced addiction. The objective of this study was to establish a behavioral model of METH use and addiction using escalating doses of METH over 15 days and to determine the global miRNA expression profiling in NAc of METH-addicted rats...
July 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668504/mirtazapine-attenuates-the-expression-of-nicotine-induced-locomotor-sensitization-in-rats
#11
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Noé Jurado, Maura Matus-Ortega, Silvia Martiñón-Gutiérrez, Gerardo Heinze, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
Nicotine is the primary psychoactive component of tobacco. Many addictive nicotinic actions are mediated by an increase in the activity of the serotonin (5-HT) system. Some studies show that the 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT3 receptors have a central role in the induction and expression of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization. Mirtazapine, an antagonist of the α2-adrenergic receptors, the 5-HT2A/C, and the 5-HT3 receptors, has proven effective in reducing behavioral effects induced by drugs like cocaine and methamphetamines in human and animal...
June 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661099/self-administration-of-methamphetamine-alters-gut-biomarkers-of-toxicity
#12
Amanda Flack, Amanda L Persons, Sharanya M Kousik, T Celeste Napier, Anna Moszczynska
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly abused psychostimulant that is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). This enhanced vulnerability likely relates to the toxic effects of METH that overlap with PD pathology, for example, aberrant functioning of α-synuclein and parkin. In PD, peripheral factors are thought to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) degeneration. For example, α-synuclein levels in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are elevated, and this precedes the onset of motor symptoms...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645061/the-neurochemical-consequences-of-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats
#13
Andrew Johansen, Lisa M McFadden
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive substance that is used in both males and females. Few preclinical studies have focused on understanding sex-differences in the neurochemical consequences of contingent METH. The purpose of the current study was to investigate potential sex-differences in the neurochemical consequences of METH self-administration. METHODS: Male and female adult rats were given extended access to METH or saline self-administration for 7d...
June 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612507/hiv-and-drug-abuse-mediate-astrocyte-senescence-in-a-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-manner-leading-to-neuronal-toxicity
#14
Chunjiang Yu, Srinivas D Narasipura, Maureen H Richards, Xiu-Ti Hu, Bryan Yamamoto, Lena Al-Harthi
Emerging evidence suggests that cell senescence plays an important role in aging-associated diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. HIV leads to a spectrum of neurologic diseases collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse, particularly methamphetamine (meth), is a frequently abused psychostimulant among HIV+ individuals and its abuse exacerbates HAND. The mechanism by which HIV and meth lead to brain cell dysregulation is not entirely clear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of HIV and meth on astrocyte senescence using in vitro and several animal models...
June 13, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600929/detrimental-effects-of-self-administered-methamphetamine-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-development-in-the-rat
#15
Daniela Rüedi-Bettschen, Donna M Platt
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) abuse by pregnant women is a commonly observed phenomenon. While the harmful effects of METH are well described for adults, there is only limited knowledge of the effects of METH use during pregnancy on the developing child. In the present study, we investigated how intraveneous (iv) METH self-administration throughout pregnancy affected rat dams and their offspring through weaning, compared to controls. METHODS: Female rats (n=16) were trained to self-administer METH iv; every drug infusion by a dam also resulted in a saline injection to a yoked control (n=16)...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598863/characterization-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#16
Michael D Berquist, Lisa E Baker
Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in the early 2000s prompted numerous scientific investigations of its behavioral and neurochemical effects. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the interoceptive stimulus effects of MDPV using a validated in-vivo drug-detection assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg MDPV from saline under a fixed ratio 20 (FR 20) schedule of food reinforcement. After stimulus control was established with MDPV (∼35 training sessions), substitution tests were commenced with drugs from several chemical classes, including drugs with predominantly dopaminergic actions [MDPV, D-amphetamine, (+)-methamphetamine, (-)-cocaine], drugs with predominantly serotonergic actions [(+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, (+)-fenfluramine], and drugs with both serotonergic and dopaminergic actions (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone)...
August 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586110/molecular-containers-bind-drugs-of-abuse-in-vitro-and-reverse-the-hyperlocomotive-effect-of-methamphetamine-in-rats
#17
Shweta Ganapati, Stephanie D Grabitz, Steven Murkli, Flora Scheffenbichler, Maíra I Rudolph, Peter Y Zavalij, Matthias Eikermann, Lyle Isaacs
We measured the affinity of five molecular container compounds (calabadions 1 and 2, CB[7], sulfocalix[4]arene, and HP-β-CD) toward seven drugs of abuse in homogenous aqueous solution at physiological pH by various methods ((1) H NMR, UV/Vis, isothermal titration calorimetry [ITC]) and found binding constants (Ka values) spanning from <10(2) to >10(8)  m(-1) . We also report X-ray crystal structures of CB[7]⋅methamphetamine and 1⋅methamphetamine. We found that 2, but not CB[7], was able to ameliorate the hyperlocomotive activity of rats treated with methamphetamine...
June 6, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584929/steep-effort-discounting-of-a-preferred-reward-over-a-freely-available-option-in-prolonged-methamphetamine-withdrawal-in-male-rats
#18
Andrew B Thompson, Julian Gerson, Alexandra Stolyarova, Amador Bugarin, Evan E Hart, J David Jentsch, Alicia Izquierdo
RATIONALE: Drug addiction can be described as aberrant allocation of effort toward acquiring drug, despite associated costs. It is unclear if this behavioral pattern results from an overvaluation of reward or to an altered sensitivity to costs. OBJECTIVE: Present experiments assessed reward sensitivity and effortful choice in rats following 1 week of withdrawal from methamphetamine (mAMPH). METHODS: Rats were treated with either saline or an escalating dose mAMPH regimen, then tested after a week without the drug...
June 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575091/repeated-exposure-to-methamphetamine-induces-sex-dependent-hypersensitivity-to-ischemic-injury-in-the-adult-rat-heart
#19
Boyd R Rorabaugh, Sarah L Seeley, Thorne S Stoops, Manoranjan S D'Souza
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that adult female, but not male rats that were prenatally exposed to methamphetamine exhibit myocardial hypersensitivity to ischemic injury. However, it is unknown whether hypersensitivity to ischemic injury develops when rats are exposed to methamphetamine during adulthood. The goal of this study was to determine whether methamphetamine exposure during adulthood sensitizes the heart to ischemic injury. METHODS: Adult male and female rats received daily injections of methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline for 10 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570298/the-effect-of-litter-separation-on-methamphetamine-conditioned-place-preference-in-post-partum-dams
#20
Candace R Lewis, Allison N Baker, Paulette Fennig, Phoebe Conrad, Lyndsay Hess, Ryan M Bastle, M Foster Olive
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse among women has recently increased to levels comparable to those observed in men. Although studies using animal models of addiction have begun to include more female subjects, examination of the effects of drugs of abuse on post-partum females is currently lacking. This is especially important in light of the significant hormonal and neurobiological changes that accompany pregnancy and rearing experiences. Furthermore, stress in a known factor in addiction vulnerability and the post-partum experience in the clinical population can be highly stressful...
September 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
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