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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896377/self-administration-and-behavioral-economics-of-second-generation-synthetic-cathinones-in-male-rats
#1
S L Huskinson, J E Naylor, E A Townsend, J K Rowlett, B E Blough, K B Freeman
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones have become increasingly available as drugs of abuse. Distribution of these drugs is made possible by altering the chemical structures of prohibited cathinones and marketing them under misleading labels. Very little is known about the relative reinforcing effectiveness of new synthetic cathinones relative to known drugs of abuse. OBJECTIVE: We examined self-administration of three second-generation synthetic cathinones: alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP), 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC), and 4-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP) relative to methamphetamine...
November 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888396/effects-of-administered-ethanol-and-methamphetamine-on-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-rat-striatum-and-hippocampus
#2
Fahad S Alshehri, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) or methamphetamine (MA) can lead to increase in extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Although studies from ours showed the effects of EtOH exposure on key glial glutamate transporters, little is known about the effects of sequential exposure to EtOH and MA or MA alone on certain glial glutamate transporters. In this study, we investigated the effects of sequential exposure to EtOH and MA on the expression of the major glutamate transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), as well as cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in striatum and hippocampus...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865801/long-term-cognitive-emotional-and-neurogenic-alterations-induced-by-alcohol-and-methamphetamine-exposure-in-adolescent-rats
#3
David Loxton, Juan J Canales
A high proportion of young methamphetamine (MA) users simultaneously consume alcohol. However, the potential neurological and behavioural alterations induced by such a drug combination have not been systematically examined. We studied in adolescent rats the long-term effects of alcohol, MA, and alcohol and MA combined on anxiety-like behaviour, memory, and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Rats received saline, ethanol (ETOH, 1.5g/kg), MA (MA, 2mg/kg), or ethanol and MA combined (ETHOH-MA, 1.5g/kg ethanol plus 2mg/kg MA) via oral gavage, once daily for 5 consecutive days...
November 16, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862224/escalating-methamphetamine-regimen-induces-compensatory-mechanisms-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-gdnf-expression-in-substantia-nigra
#4
Neda Valian, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Leila Dargahi
Methamphetamine (MA) produces long-lasting deficits in dopaminergic neurons in the long-term use via several neurotoxic mechanisms. The effects of MA on mitochondrial biogenesis is less studied currently. So, we evaluated the effects of repeated escalating MA regimen on transcriptional factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum of rat. In male wistar rats, increasing doses of MA (1-14 mg/kg) were administrated twice a day for 14 days...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860181/methamphetamine-self-administration-reduces-alcohol-consumption-and-preference-in-alcohol-preferring-p-rats
#5
Madeline C Winkler, Emilee M Greager, Jacob Stafford, Ryan K Bachtell
Subclinical levels of polysubstance use are a prevalent and understudied phenomenon. Alcohol is a substance commonly co-used with other substances of other drug classes. These studies sought to determine the consumption effects of combining alcohol drinking and methamphetamine (MA) self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring P rats had continuous access to a two-bottle alcohol drinking procedure in the home cage. Control rats remained alcohol naïve. Rats were also surgically implanted with intra-jugular catheters and trained to self-administer saline (control) or MA in daily 2-hour sessions...
November 16, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851908/n-phenylpropyl-n-substituted-piperazines-occupy-sigma-receptors-and-alter-methamphetamine-induced-hyperactivity-in-mice
#6
Dennis K Miller, Eric S Park, Susan Z Lever, John R Lever
This study examined the effect of the N-phenylpropyl-N'-substituted piperazine ligands SA4503 (3.4-dimethoxyphenethyl), YZ-067 (4-methoxyphenethyl), YZ-185 (3-methoxyphenethyl) and Nahas-3h (4-methoxybenzyl) on methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice. In a previous study in rats, SA4503 increased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity at a lower ligand dose and enhanced it at a higher dose. The other ligands have not been investigated in this assay. Presently, mice were administered sigma ligands, and specific [(125)I]E-IA-DM-PE-PIPZE and [(125)I]RTI-121 binding was measured to determine σ1 sigma receptor and dopamine transporter occupancy, respectively...
November 13, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826121/differential-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-methamphetamine-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-and-scopolamine-on-behavioral-repetition-versus-variation-in-rats
#7
Rebecca A Olsen, Anne C Macaskill, David N Harper
Acute administration of drugs of abuse, such as MDMA and methamphetamine, disrupts performance on many operant tasks, for example, those used to study memory. This might occur in part because drugs make behavior, in general, more repetitive or more variable, or because they produce a more global disruption to performance. The current study explored this across two experiments by employing Neuringer's 'reinforced variability' procedure. Varied behavior was reinforced at some times during the session and repetitive behavior at other times; lights signalled the behavior required...
November 5, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817108/effects-of-neonatal-methamphetamine-and-stress-on-brain-monoamines-and-corticosterone-in-preweanling-rats
#8
Sarah A Jablonski, Devon L Graham, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Neonatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) and developmental chronic stress significantly alter neurodevelopmental profiles that show a variety of long-term physiological and behavioral effects. In the current experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of two housing conditions along with MA. Rats were given 0 (saline), 5, or 7.5 mg/kg MA, four times per day from postnatal day (P)11 to 15 or P11 to 20. Half of the litters were reared in cages with standard bedding and half with no bedding. Separate litters were assessed at P15 or P20 for organ weights (adrenals, spleen, thymus); corticosterone; and monoamine assessments (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) and their metabolites within the neostriatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex...
November 5, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773601/mdma-decreases-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-gad-67-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-hippocampus-and-increases-seizure-susceptibility-role-for-glutamate
#9
Courtney L Huff, Rachel L Morano, James P Herman, Bryan K Yamamoto, Gary A Gudelsky
3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation...
December 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747877/behavioral-pharmacology-of-the-odor-span-task-effects-of-flunitrazepam-ketamine-methamphetamine-and-methylphenidate
#10
Mark Galizio, Brooke April, Melissa Deal, Andrew Hawkey, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Katherine Bruce
The Odor Span Task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure that permits the study of behavior under the control of multiple stimuli. Rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli and selection of new stimuli is reinforced. Successful performance thus requires remembering which stimuli have previously been presented during a given session. This procedure has been frequently used in neurobiological studies as a rodent model of working memory; however, only a few studies have examined the effects of drugs on performance in this task...
November 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713684/effects-of-ceftriaxone-on-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-wistar-rats-administered-sequential-ethanol-and-methamphetamine
#11
Yusuf S Althobaiti, Fahad S Alshehri, Atiah H Almalki, Youssef Sari
Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the psychostimulants that is co-abused with ethanol. Repeated exposure to high dose of METH has been shown to cause increases in extracellular glutamate concentration. We have recently reported that ethanol exposure can also increase the extracellular glutamate concentration and downregulate the expression of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). GLT-1 is a glial transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate. A Wistar rat model of METH and ethanol co-abuse was used to examine the expression of GLT-1 as well as other glutamate transporters such as cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702628/effects-of-repeated-high-dose-methamphetamine-and-ceftriaxone-post-treatments-on-tissue-content-of-dopamine-and-serotonin-as-well-as-glutamate-and-glutamine
#12
Yusuf S Althobaiti, Atiah H Almalki, Sujan C Das, Fahad S Alshehri, Youssef Sari
Repeated exposure to high doses of methamphetamine (METH) is known to alter several neurotransmitters in certain brain regions. Little is known about the effects of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, known to upregulate glutamate transporter subtype 1, post-treatment on METH-induced depletion of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) tissue content in brain reward regions. Moreover, the effects of METH and CEF post-treatment on glutamate and glutamine tissue content are not well understood. In this study, Wistar rats were used to investigate the effects of METH and CEF post-treatment on tissue content of dopamine/5-HT and glutamate/glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658516/breakdown-of-blood-brain-and-blood-spinal-cord-barriers-during-acute-methamphetamine-intoxication-role-of-brain-temperature
#13
Eugene A Kiyatkin, Hari Sharma
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally believed that structural brain damage induced by METH results from oxidative stress, in this work we present data suggesting robust disruption of blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB and BSCB) during acute METH intoxication in rats. We demonstrate the relationships between METH-induced brain hyperthermia and widespread but structure-specific barrier leakage, acute glial activation, changes in brain water and ionic homeostasis, and structural damage of different types of cells in the brain and spinal cord...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620175/pegylation-of-a-high-affinity-anti-methamphetamine-single-chain-antibody-fragment-extends-functional-half-life-by-reducing-clearance
#14
Emily E Reichard, Nisha Nanaware-Kharade, Guillermo A Gonzalez, Shraddha Thakkar, S Michael Owens, Eric C Peterson
PURPOSE: Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a worldwide drug problem, yet no FDA-approved pharmacological treatments are available for METH abuse. Therefore, we produced an anti-METH single chain antibody fragment (scFv7F9Cys) as a pharmacological treatment for METH abuse. ScFv's have a short half-life due to their small size, limiting their clinical use. Thus, we examined the pharmacokinetic effects of conjugating poly(ethylene) glycol (-PEG) to scFv7F9Cys to extend its functional half-life...
December 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590720/inhibitory-effect-of-melatonin-on-cerebral-endothelial-cells-dysfunction-induced-by-methamphetamine-via-nadph-oxidase-2
#15
Pichaya Jumnongprakhon, Piyarat Govitrapong, Chainarong Tocharus, Jiraporn Tocharus
Melatonin is a hormone that mostly produced from the pineal gland, and it performs as a strong neuroprotectant to both neuron and glial cells against methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity. Recently, it has been found that METH also damages the blood brain barrier (BBB) structure and function. However, the protective mechanism of melatonin on the BBB impairment caused by METH has not been investigated. In this study, the primary rat brain microvascular endothelium cells (BMVECs) isolated from neonatal rats was used to investigate the protective effect of melatonin on METH-induced BBB impairment and the underlying mechanism...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580848/gabaergic-mrna-expression-is-differentially-expressed-across-the-prelimbic-and-orbitofrontal-cortices-of-rats-sensitized-to-methamphetamine-relevance-to-psychosis
#16
Travis A Wearne, Lindsay M Parker, Jane L Franklin, Ann K Goodchild, Jennifer L Cornish
Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, are characterized by prevalent and persistent executive deficits that are believed to be the result of dysfunctional inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) processing of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Methamphetamine (METH) is a commonly used psychostimulant that can induce psychotic and cognitive symptoms that are indistinguishable to schizophrenia, suggesting that METH-induced psychosis may have a similar GABAergic profile of the PFC. As the PFC consists of multiple subregions, the aim of the current study was to investigate changes to GABAergic mRNA expression in the prelimbic (PRL) and orbitofrontal (OFC) cortices of the PFC in rats sensitized to repeated METH administration...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497295/erratum-to-melatonin-improves-methamphetamine-induced-blood-brain-barrier-impairment-through-nadph-oxidase-2-in-primary-rat-brain-microvascular-endothelium-cells-br-ecol-soc-1646-2016-393-401
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485488/the-differential-effects-of-alprazolam-and-oxazepam-on-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-rats
#18
Allyson L Spence, Glenn F Guerin, Nicholas E Goeders
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine is the second most commonly used illicit drug in the world, and despite recent attempts by the Drug Enforcement Administration to combat this epidemic, methamphetamine use is still on the rise. As methamphetamine use increases so does polydrug use, particularly that involving methamphetamine and benzodiazepines. The present study was designed to examine the effects of two benzodiazepines on methamphetamine self-administration. METHODS: Five doses of methamphetamine (0...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482346/protective-effect-of-pentoxifylline-on-male-wistar-rat-testicular-germ-cell-apoptosis-induced-by-3-4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine
#19
Mahnaz Nouri, Shabnam Movassaghi, Alireza Foroumadi, Mansooreh Soleimani, Zahra Nadia Sharifi
OBJECTIVES: 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) one of the methamphetamine derivatives that affect the reproductive system, has not been well understood. Many young people are consumers of drugs such as MDMA that can affect their reproductive capability. Apoptosis is the main mechanism for male infertility. Pentoxifylline (PTX) increases cAMP intracellularly and reduces tumor necrosis factor-α. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of PTX administration in MDMA-induced apoptosis in testes of male Wistar rats...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482339/swimming-exercise-attenuates-psychological-dependence-and-voluntary-methamphetamine-consumption-in-methamphetamine-withdrawn-rats
#20
Fatemeh Damghani, Imanollah Bigdeli, Hossein Miladi-Gorji, Atefeh Fadaei
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of swimming exercise during spontaneous methamphetamine (METH) withdrawal on the anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and voluntary METH consumption in METH-dependent rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were repeatedly administered with bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous) over a period of 14 days. Exercised rats were submitted to swimming sessions (45 min/day, five days per week, for 14 days) during spontaneous METH-withdrawal...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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