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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830098/enhancing-genetic-gain-in-the-era-of-molecular-breeding
#1
Yunbi Xu, Ping Li, Cheng Zou, Yanli Lu, Chuanxiao Xie, Xuecai Zhang, Boddupalli M Prasanna, Michael S Olsen
As one of the important concepts in conventional quantitative genetics and breeding, genetic gain can be defined as the amount of increase in performance that is achieved annually through artificial selection. To develop pro ducts that meet the increasing demand of mankind, especially for food and feed, in addition to various industrial uses, breeders are challenged to enhance the potential of genetic gain continuously, at ever higher rates, while they close the gaps that remain between the yield potential in breeders' demonstration trials and the actual yield in farmers' fields...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830024/cognitive-remediation-training-improves-performance-in-patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#2
Richard L McBride, Sarah Horsfield, Carolina X Sandler, Joanne Cassar, Sally Casson, Erin Cvejic, Uté Vollmer-Conna, Andrew R Lloyd
Neurocognitive disturbance with subjectively-impaired concentration and memory is a common, disabling symptom reported by patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We recently reported preliminary evidence for benefits of cognitive remediation as part of an integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)/ graded exercise therapy (GET) program. Here, we describe a contemporaneous, case-control trial evaluating the effectiveness of an online cognitive remediation training program (cognitive exercise therapy; CET) in addition to CBT/GET (n=36), compared to CBT/GET alone (n=36)...
August 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829992/health-related-quality-of-life-results-from-the-prodige-5-accord-17-randomised-trial-of-folfox-versus-fluorouracil-cisplatin-regimen-in-oesophageal-cancer
#3
C Bascoul-Mollevi, S Gourgou, M-P Galais, J-L Raoul, O Bouché, J-Y Douillard, A Adenis, P-L Etienne, B Juzyna, L Bedenne, T Conroy
BACKGROUND: A recent prospective randomised trial did not reveal significant differences in median progression-free survival between two chemoradiotherapy (CRT) regimens for inoperable non-metastatic oesophageal cancer patients. This secondary analysis aimed to describe the impact of CRT on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical functioning, dysphagia, fatigue and pain and to evaluate whether baseline HRQOL domains can predict overall survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 267 patients were randomly assigned to receive with 50 Gy of radiotherapy in 25 fractions six cycles of FOLFOX or four cycles of fluorouracil and cisplatin on day 1...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829911/chemoradiotherapy-versus-chemoradiotherapy-plus-surgery-for-esophageal-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Balamurugan A Vellayappan, Yu Yang Soon, Geoffrey Y Ku, Cheng Nang Leong, Jiade J Lu, Jeremy Cs Tey
BACKGROUND: Please see Appendix 4 for a glossary of terms.The outcome of patients with esophageal cancer is generally poor. Although multimodal therapy is standard, there is conflicting evidence regarding the addition of esophagectomy to chemoradiotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of chemoradiotherapy plus surgery with that of chemoradiotherapy alone in people with nonmetastatic esophageal carcinoma. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a computerized search for relevant studies, up to Feburary 2017, on the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase databases using MeSH headings and keywords...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829876/effect-of-natriuretic-peptide-guided-therapy-on-hospitalization-or-cardiovascular-mortality-in-high-risk-patients-with-heart-failure-and-reduced-ejection-fraction-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
G Michael Felker, Kevin J Anstrom, Kirkwood F Adams, Justin A Ezekowitz, Mona Fiuzat, Nancy Houston-Miller, James L Januzzi, Daniel B Mark, Ileana L Piña, Gayle Passmore, David J Whellan, Hongqiu Yang, Lawton S Cooper, Eric S Leifer, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Christopher M O'Connor
Importance: The natriuretic peptides are biochemical markers of heart failure (HF) severity and predictors of adverse outcomes. Smaller studies have evaluated adjusting HF therapy based on natriuretic peptide levels ("guided therapy") with inconsistent results. Objective: To determine whether an amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)-guided treatment strategy improves clinical outcomes vs usual care in high-risk patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
August 22, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829849/predictors-of-sensitivity-to-perceptual-learning-in-children-with-infantile-nystagmus
#6
Bianca Huurneman, F Nienke Boonstra, Jeroen Goossens
Purpose: To identify predictors of sensitivity to perceptual learning on a computerized, near-threshold letter discrimination task in children with infantile nystagmus (idiopathic IN: n = 18; oculocutaneous albinism accompanied by IN: n = 18). Methods: Children were divided into two age-, acuity-, and diagnosis-matched training groups: a crowded (n = 18) and an uncrowded training group (n = 18). Training consisted of 10 sessions spread out over 5 weeks (grand total of 3500 trials)...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829798/dexmedetomidine-as-a-neuraxial-adjuvant-for-prevention-of-perioperative-shivering-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
Jian Zhang, Xuena Zhang, Hui Wang, Haibin Zhou, Tian Tian, Anshi Wu
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has been investigated for anti-shivering effects in some trials. This current meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine as a neuraxial adjuvant in preventing perioperative shivering. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO [www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO] with the unique identification number CRD42017055991. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched to select high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the anti-shivering efficacy for neuraxial application dexmedetomidine as local anesthetic adjuvant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829792/effect-of-endurance-exercise-on-micrornas-in-myositis-skeletal-muscle-a-randomized-controlled-study
#8
Jessica F Boehler, Marshall W Hogarth, Matthew D Barberio, James S Novak, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Kristy J Brown, Li Alemo Munters, Ingela Loell, Yi-Wen Chen, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Helene Alexanderson, Ingrid E Lundberg, Kanneboyina Nagaraju
OBJECTIVE: To identify changes in skeletal muscle microRNA expression after endurance exercise and associate the identified microRNAs with mRNA and protein expression to disease-specific pathways in polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) patients. METHODS: Following a parallel clinical trial design, patients with probable PM or DM, exercising less than once a week, and on stable medication for at least one month were randomized into two groups at Karolinska University Hospital: a 12-week endurance exercise group (n = 12) or a non-exercised control group (n = 11)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829766/a-cluster-randomised-feasibility-study-of-an-adolescent-incentive-intervention-to-increase-uptake-of-hpv-vaccination
#9
Alice S Forster, Victoria Cornelius, Lauren Rockliffe, Laura Av Marlow, Helen Bedford, Jo Waller
BACKGROUND: Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is suboptimal among some groups. We aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of incentives to improve HPV vaccination uptake by increasing consent form return. METHODS: An equal-allocation, two-arm cluster RCT design was used. We invited 60 London schools to participate. Those agreeing were randomised to either a standard invitation or incentive intervention arm, in which Year 8 girls had the chance to win a £50 shopping voucher if they returned a vaccination consent form, regardless of whether consent was provided...
August 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829763/did-the-addition-of-concurrent-chemotherapy-to-conventional-radiotherapy-improve-survival-for-patients-with-hpv-ve-and-hpv-ve-oropharynx-cancer-a-population-based-study
#10
Stephen F Hall, Fei-Fei Liu, Brian O'Sullivan, Willa Shi, Susan Rohland, Rebecca Griffiths, Patti Groome
BACKGROUND: In the absence of clear evidence on the efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) over conventional radiotherapy (RT) for HPV+ve and for HPV-ve oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), this study compares the treatments and outcomes from pre-CRT years to post-CRT years. METHODS: A population-based retrospective treatment-effectiveness study based on all patients with OPC treated in Ontario Canada in 1998, 1999, 2003 and 2004. Charts were reviewed, tissue samples were requested and tissue was tested for p16 or in situ hybridisation...
August 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829759/gene-therapy-for-inherited-retinal-degenerations-initial-successes-and-future-challenges
#11
Priya R Gupta, Rachel M Huckfeldt
Inherited retinal degenerations are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions that have historically shared an untreatable course. In recent years, however, a wide range of therapeutic strategies have demonstrated efficacy in preclinical studies and entered clinical trials with a common goal of improving visual function for patients affected with these conditions. Gene therapy offers a particularly elegant and precise opportunity to target the causative genetic mutations underlying these monogenic diseases...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829719/cost-effectiveness-of-a-practice-based-intervention-to-improve-vaccination-rates-in-adults-less-than-65-years-old
#12
Kenneth J Smith, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Chyongchiou J Lin, Richard K Zimmerman
The cost-effectiveness of the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program to improve vaccination rates in adults <65-years-old is unknown. Two vaccines, influenza and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis), were targeted for this age group. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared to control, with a primary outcome of cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained, was estimated from societal and third party payer perspectives over a 10-year time horizon using a decision analysis model...
August 22, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829518/cost-of-opioid-treated-chronic-low-back-pain-findings-from-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-mindfulness-meditation-based-intervention
#13
Aleksandra E Zgierska, James Ircink, Cindy A Burzinski, Marlon P Mundt
OBJECTIVE: Opioid-treated chronic low back pain (CLBP) is debilitating, costly, and often refractory to existing treatments. This secondary analysis aims to pilot-test the hypothesis that mindfulness meditation (MM) can reduce economic burden related to opioid-treated CLBP. DESIGN: Twenty-six-week unblinded pilot randomized controlled trial, comparing MM, adjunctive to usual-care, to usual care alone. SETTING: Outpatient. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five adults with opioid-treated CLBP (≥30 morphine-equivalent mg/day) for 3 + months enrolled; none withdrew...
May 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829490/effect-of-alk-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
G Li, W-R Dai, F-C Shao
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Over 80% of all lung cancer cases are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and approximately 5% of NSCLC patients are positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement or fusion with echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4). NSCLC patients with positive ALK-EML4 gene fusion are highly sensitive to ALK-inhibitors. While the efficacy of the ALK-inhibitors in the treatment of NSCLC has been consistently reported, a limited number of randomized, large-scale clinical trials have been reported...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829398/prevention-and-therapy-of-type-2-diabetes-what-is-the-potential-of-daily-water-intake-and-its-mineral-nutrients
#15
REVIEW
Johannes Naumann, Diana Biehler, Tania Lüty, Catharina Sadaghiani
We aim to present an overview of the possible influence of drinking water in general and mineral water in particular in improving glycemic parameters in persons with or without type 2 diabetes. We performed a literature search that produced 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic with mainly small sample sizes. We also discuss relevant observational and animal studies as well as the effects of important supplements in mineral water such as hydrogencarbonate and magnesium. There is low evidence for the positive effects of water or mineral water in improving glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons, and the results are heterogenous, making it difficult to reach an unequivocal conclusion...
August 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829392/surface-sampling-collection-and-culture-methods-for-escherichia-coli-in-household-environments-with-high-fecal-contamination
#16
Natalie G Exum, Margaret N Kosek, Meghan F Davis, Kellogg J Schwab
Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829213/safety-evaluation-of-trelagliptin-in-the-treatment-of-japanese-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#17
Kohei Kaku
Trelagliptin is a novel, long-acting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. The safety and efficacy of trelagliptin has been evaluated in three published clinical trials to date: one phase 2 and two phase 3 studies. As trelagliptin only requires dosing once per week, this new agent has the potential to improve compliance and subsequently, glycaemic control, in patients with T2DM. Areas covered: This article reviews the available safety data for trelagliptin from published clinical trials, and evaluates the published safety profile relative to competitor once-daily and once-weekly DPP-4 inhibitors...
August 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829195/how-and-when-adjuvant-treatment-should-be-intensified-in-stage-iii-colorectal-cancers
#18
Khalil Saleh, Nadine Khalife-Saleh, Hampig Raphael Kourie, Georges Chahine
The adjuvant chemotherapy (FOLFOX) represents the standard of care in stage III colon cancer with some exceptions in old patients. Adjuvant treatment must also be discussed in high-risk stage II colon cancer. However, 40-50% of patients develop disease recurrence after curative R0 surgical resection. The liver was the most common site of recurrence followed by peritoneum. Although adjuvant chemotherapy improved disease-free survival and overall survival, 5-year overall survival remains less than 55% in stage III colon cancer...
August 22, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829163/effect-of-dapagliflozin-on-glycemic-control-weight-and-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-attending-a-specialist-endocrinology-practice-in-canada-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#19
Ruth E Brown, Nikhil Gupta, Ronnie Aronson
BACKGROUND: In randomized clinical trials, dapagliflozin has been shown to improve glycemic control, weight, and blood pressure. However, there is little real-world evidence of the effectiveness of dapagliflozin. The objective of this study is to investigate the real-world treatment outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who initiated dapagliflozin in a referral-based endocrinology practice. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with T2D who initiated dapagliflozin in 2015, using data from a large, specialist diabetes registry in Canada...
August 22, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829155/efficacy-and-safety-of-ashwagandha-root-extract-in-subclinical-hypothyroid-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Ashok Kumar Sharma, Indraneel Basu, Siddarth Singh
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism, a thyroid disorder without obvious symptoms of thyroid deficiency, occurs in 3%-8% of the global population. Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal], a traditional medicine in Ayurveda, is often prescribed for thyroid dysfunctions. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ashwagandha root extract in subclinical hypothyroid patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, single-center placebo-controlled study was performed at Sudbhawana Hospital, Varanasi, India between May 2016 and September 2016...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
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