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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815279/evaluation-of-training-dose-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-4-methylmethcathinone
#1
Michael D Berquist, Nathyn A Thompson, Lisa E Baker
RATIONALE: Although the synthetic cathinone 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) has been a subject of intensive research investigation, the pharmacological mechanisms involved in its interoceptive stimulus effects have yet to be fully characterized. OBJECTIVE: The present study employed drug discrimination methods in rats to compare the interoceptive stimulus properties of two different training doses of 4-MMC to other substances with similar pharmacological actions...
August 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811192/relative-reinforcing-effects-of-second-generation-synthetic-cathinones-acquisition-of-self-administration-and-fixed-ratio-dose-response-curves-in-rats
#2
REVIEW
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Melson P Mesmin, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
"Bath salts" preparations contain synthetic cathinones which interact with monoamine transporters and function as either monoamine uptake inhibitors or releasers. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), and 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) were three of the most common cathinones (i.e., "first-generation" cathinones); however, after the US Drug Enforcement Administration placed them under Schedule I regulations, they were replaced with structurally related cathinones that were not subject to regulations (i...
August 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811141/the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-a-pregnancy-model
#3
Lauren G Strange, Kerri Kochelek, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones or 'bath salts' has become a major public health concern. Although these compounds were initially sold legally and labeled "not for human consumption", the 'bath salts' are psychostimulants, with similar structures and pharmacologic mechanisms to cocaine, the amphetamines, and 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly, or Ecstasy). The reported use of these substances by women of child-bearing age highlights the necessity of studies seeking to delineate risks of prenatal exposure...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755886/pharmacological-profile-of-mephedrone-analogs-and-related-new-psychoactive-substances
#4
REVIEW
Dino Luethi, Karolina E Kolaczynska, Luca Docci, Stephan Krähenbühl, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: Mephedrone is a synthetic cathinone and one of the most popular recreationally used new psychoactive substances. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of novel analogs of mephedrone and related newly emerged designer stimulants. METHODS: We determined norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin transporter inhibition potencies and monoamine release in transporter-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also assessed monoamine receptor and transporter binding affinities...
July 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704276/effects-of-d1-and-d2-receptor-antagonists-on-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-methylendioxypyrovalerone-and-mephedrone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-d-amphetamine
#5
Eric L Harvey, Rachel L Burroughs, Lisa E Baker
Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691863/how-can-those-engaging-in-chemsex-best-be-supported-an-online-survey-to-gain-intelligence-in-greater-manchester
#6
Andrew Tomkins, Roberto Vivancos, Chris Ward, Merav Kliner
Reports of sexualised drug taking (chemsex) have increased significantly in recent years. There is currently limited intelligence on chemsex outside of London. An anonymous survey was promoted via several sources including voluntary services and a sexual health clinic in order to establish the risks associated with chemsex, and how support services can best be tailored to meet the needs of those in Greater Manchester, UK. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on demographics, drug use, sexual practices and barriers and facilitators to accessing support...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686986/illicit-drug-consumption-in-school-populations-measured-by-wastewater-analysis
#7
Ettore Zuccato, Emma Gracia-Lor, Nikolaos I Rousis, Alberto Parabiaghi, Ivan Senta, Francesco Riva, Sara Castiglioni
BACKGROUND: Analysis of student consumption of illicit drugs (ID) by school population surveys (SPS) provides information useful for prevention, but the results may be influenced by subjective factors. We explored wastewater (WW) analysis to improve the information. METHODS: We used WW analysis to measure ID consumption in eight secondary schools in Italy in 2010-13 (students aged 15-19). Samples were collected from the sewage pipes of the schools during lessons for one week each year...
June 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684237/monoaminergic-toxicity-induced-by-cathinone-phthalimide-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Susan M Lantz, Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Bonnie Robinson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi, Syed Z Imam, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali
Bath salts, or synthetic cathinones, have cocaine-like or amphetamine-like properties and induce psychoactive effects via their capacity to modulate serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Structurally distinct synthetic cathinones are continuously being generated to skirt existing drug laws. One example of these modified compounds is cathinone phthalimide (CP), which has already appeared on the global market. The lack of toxicological studies on the effects of CP on monoaminergic systems led to the development of the present study in order to generate an acute toxicity profile for CP, and to clarify whether it primarily affects both dopamine and serotonin, like the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and methylone, or primarily affects dopamine, like 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677506/mephedrone-concentrations-in-cases-of-clinical-intoxication
#9
Esther Papaseit, Eulàlia Olesti, Rafael de la Torre, Marta Torrens, Magí Farré
Background Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a ring-substituted synthetic cathinone derivative has become established as a permanent illicit drug in the dynamic new psychoactive substances (NPS) scene. Objective This review summarizes current knowledge on mephedrone concentrations in biological samples from cases of acute intoxications (fatal and non-fatal), pharmacokinetics studies, wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis in order to provide an overview of the reliable scientific knowledge on toxicokinetics of mephedrone in humans...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673083/transformation-and-sorption-of-illicit-drug-biomarkers-in-sewer-biofilms
#10
Pedram Ramin, Andreas Libonati Brock, Ana Causanilles, Borja Valverde Pérez, Erik Emke, Pim de Voogt, Fabio Polesel, Benedek Gy Plosz
In-sewer transformation of drug biomarkers (excreted parent drugs and metabolites) can be influenced by the presence of biomass in suspended form as well as attached to sewer walls (biofilms). Biofilms are likely the most abundant and biologically active biomass fraction in sewers. In this study, 16 drug biomarkers were selected, including the major human metabolites of mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, heroin, codeine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Transformation and sorption of these substances were assessed in targeted batch experiments using laboratory-scale biofilm reactors operated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
July 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657189/utility-of-web-search-query-data-in-testing-theoretical-assumptions-about-mephedrone
#11
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: With growing access to the Internet, people who use drugs and traffickers started to obtain information about novel psychoactive substances (NPS) via online platforms. This paper aims to analyze whether a decreasing Web interest in formerly banned substances-cocaine, heroin, and MDMA-and the legislative status of mephedrone predict Web interest about this NPS. METHODS: Google Trends was used to measure changes of Web interest on cocaine, heroin, MDMA, and mephedrone...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646714/synthetic-cathinones-and-stereochemistry-s-enantiomer-of-mephedrone-reduces-anxiety-and-depressant-like-effects-in-cocaine-or-mdpv-abstinent-rats
#12
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Callum Hicks, Allen B Reitz, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neuropharmacological profile of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (MEPH) is influenced by stereochemistry. Both MEPH enantiomers are monoamine transporter substrates, but R-MEPH is primarily responsible for rewarding effects of MEPH as it produces greater locomotor activation and intracranial self-stimulation than S-MEPH. S-MEPH is a 50-fold more potent 5-HT releaser than R-MEPH and does not place preference in rats. MEPH is also structurally similar to the cathinone derivative bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, suggesting MEPH has therapeutic and addictive properties...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645576/mechanisms-of-hepatocellular-toxicity-associated-with-new-psychoactive-synthetic-cathinones
#13
Dino Luethi, Matthias E Liechti, Stephan Krähenbühl
Synthetic cathinones are a new class of psychostimulant substances. Rarely, they can cause liver injury but associated mechanisms are not completely elucidated. In order to increase our knowledge about mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, we investigated the effect of five frequently used cathinones on two human cell lines. Bupropion was included as structurally related drug used therapeutically. In HepG2 cells, bupropion, MDPV, mephedrone and naphyrone depleted the cellular ATP content at lower concentrations (0...
July 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640970/prevalence-of-new-psychoactive-substances-and-prescription-drugs-in-the-belgian-driving-under-the-influence-of-drugs-population
#14
S M R Wille, C Richeval, M Nachon-Phanithavong, J M Gaulier, V Di Fazio, L Humbert, N Samyn, D Allorge
Driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is a worldwide problem. Several countries have adopted DUID legislations which prove their deterrent effect and impact on road safety. However, the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and prescription drugs is not known, as the applied roadside screening tests have not yet been adapted for these compounds. In this study, 558 blood samples obtained during roadside controls in Belgium (January to August 2015) after a positive Drugwipe 5S® test and 199 oral fluid (OF) samples obtained from negatively screened test pads were analyzed...
June 22, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631397/the-effects-and-toxicity-of-cathinones-from-the-users-perspectives-a-qualitative-study
#15
Sulaf Assi, Nargilya Gulyamova, Paul Kneller, David Osselton
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the users' perspectives regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones. METHODS: A systematic search of Internet discussion forums yielded 303 threads relevant to the research objectives. The threads were analysed by conventional content analysis where concepts were developed from codes and themes. RESULTS: The study identified 3 main themes in relation to cathinone use, effects, and toxicity...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628897/diverted-medications-and-new-psychoactive-substances-a-chemical-network-analysis-of-discarded-injecting-paraphernalia-in-hungary
#16
Valéria Anna Gyarmathy, Anna Péterfi, Tamás Figeczki, József Kiss, Katalin Medgyesi-Frank, János Posta, József Csorba
BACKGROUND: Until about 2010, people who inject drugs (PWIDs) injected almost exclusively heroin and amphetamines in Hungary. After 2010, self-reported studies have indicated a dominance of new psychoactive substances on the drug market for injectable drugs. METHODS: Between March 2015 and February 2016, we collected used and discarded injecting paraphernalia. We utilized chemical analysis to assess and UCINet to visualize the connections between the most prevalent main substances and their respective co-occurring additional components at 7 locations in Hungary...
June 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603042/mephedrone-exposure-in-adolescent-rats-alters-the-rewarding-effect-of-morphine-in-adults
#17
Listos Joanna, Talarek Sylwia, Gryzinska Magdalena, Listos Piotr, Kedzierska Ewa, Orzelska-Gorka Jolanta, Dylewska Malgorzata, Lupina Malgorzata, Jolanta H Kotlinska
An increasing number of data show that exposure to mephedrone in adolescence can have long-lasting implication on brain activity and on peripheral organs/tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescent exposure to mephedrone (10mg/kg, i.p.) has influence upon the rewarding effect of morphine (5mg/kg, i.p.) in adult rats. Thus, the adolescent rats (on the 30th PND) were treated with mephedrone for 7 consecutive days. When the animals were adult (on the 60th PND) the morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) test was performed...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557129/recreational-stimulants-herbal-and-spice-cannabis-the-core-psychobiological-processes-that-underlie-their-damaging-effects
#18
Andrew C Parrott, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey
AIMS: Recreational drugs are taken for their positive mood effects, yet their regular usage damages well-being. The psychobiological mechanisms underlying these damaging effects will be debated. METHODS: The empirical literature on recreational cannabinoids and stimulant drugs is reviewed. A theoretical explanation for how they cause similar types of damage is outlined. RESULTS: All psychoactive drugs cause moods and psychological states to fluctuate...
May 30, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520922/gc-ms-method-for-quantification-of-mephedrone-in-human-blood-sample
#19
Khaled M Mohamed
Abuse of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) has emerged among the last few years. Intoxication and fatality associated with mephedrone have been reported in the literature. The present work describes a simple and rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for detection and quantification of mephedrone in human blood samples using GC-MS. Blood was deproteinated with acetonitrile and the supernatant was derivatized and extracted in a single step with ethyl chloroformate and ethyl acetate. Methamphetamine-d5 was used as an internal standard (IS)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485987/assessing-self-reported-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances-the-impact-of-gate-questions
#20
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Fermín Fernández Calderón, Scott Sherman, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge; however, few surveys of substance use ask about NPS use. Research is needed to determine how to most effectively query use of NPS and other uncommon drugs. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prevalence of self-reported lifetime and past-year use differs depending on whether or not queries about NPS use are preceded by "gate questions." Gate questions utilize skip-logic, such that only a "yes" response to the use of specific drug class is followed by more extensive queries of drug use in that drug class...
September 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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