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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627557/investigating-in-sewer-transformation-products-formed-from-synthetic-cathinones-and-phenethylamines-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#1
Juliet Kinyua, Noelia Negreira, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Tim Boogaerts, Christoph Ort, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Recent studies have demonstrated the role of biofilms on the stability of drug residues in wastewater. These factors are pertinent in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) when estimating community-level drug use. However, there is scarce information on the biotransformation of drug residues in the presence of biofilms and the potential use of transformation products (TPs) as biomarkers in WBE. The purpose of this work was to investigate the formation of TPs in sewage reactors in the presence of biofilm mimicking conditions during in-sewer transport...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625796/sexualised-drug-use-in-the-united-kingdom-uk-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
Claire Edmundson, Ellen Heinsbroek, Rachel Glass, Vivian Hope, Hamish Mohammed, Martin White, Monica Desai
BACKGROUND: Sexualised drug use (SDU) refers to the use of drugs in a sexual context. This includes 'Chemsex'- the use of drugs (specifically crystal methamphetamine, GHB/GBL and mephedrone) before or during planned sexual activity to sustain, enhance, disinhibit or facilitate the experience. Here we aimed to synthesise available UK prevalence data for Chemsex, SDU and the use of Chemsex drugs in an undefined context (CDU) in men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Papers published between January 2007 and August 2017 reporting Chemsex, SDU and/or Chemsex drug use (CDU) prevalence in MSM were identified through PubMed...
April 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535222/shigellosis-outbreak-among-msm-living-with-hiv-a-case-control-study-in-taiwan-2015-2016
#3
Hao-Hsin Wu, Yi-Ting Shen, Chien-Shun Chiou, Chi-Tai Fang, Yi-Chun Lo
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of shigellosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported since the late 1990s. HIV infection is an important risk factor. Since 2014, the global shigellosis epidemic has intensified. Whether chemsex (the use of crystal methamphetamine, γ-hydroxybutyrate or mephedrone to enhance sex) is a new risk factor has not been previously examined. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study in Taiwan. Acute shigellosis cases diagnosed during the 2015 outbreak among MSM living with HIV were compared with those without shigellosis...
March 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533974/mood-fluctuation-and-psychobiological-instability-the-same-core-functions-are-disrupted-by-novel-psychoactive-substances-and-established-recreational-drugs
#4
REVIEW
Andrew C Parrott
Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential...
March 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523484/patterns-of-injecting-and-non-injecting-drug-use-by-sexual-behaviour-in-people-who-inject-drugs-attending-services-in-england-wales-and-northern-ireland-2013-2016
#5
Ellen Heinsbroek, Rachel Glass, Claire Edmundson, Vivian Hope, Monica Desai
BACKGROUND: Higher levels of drug use have been reported in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities, some of which can be explained by sexualised drug use, including 'chemsex'; the use of drugs before or during planned sexual activity to sustain, enhance, disinhibit or facilitate sex. We explored injecting and non-injecting drug use by sexual behaviour among people who inject drugs (PWID) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. METHODS: Data were used from an unlinked-anonymous survey of PWID (2013-2016), where participants recruited through services self-completed a questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511295/publisher-correction-a-new-approach-towards-biomarker-selection-in-estimation-of-human-exposure-to-chiral-chemicals-a-case-study-of-mephedrone
#6
Erika Castrignanò, Marie Mardal, Axel Rydevik, Bram Miserez, John Ramsey, Trevor Shine, G Dan Pantoș, Markus R Meyer, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501570/exposure-to-mephedrone-during-gestation-increases-the-risk-of-stillbirth-and-induces-hippocampal-neurotoxicity-in-mice-offspring
#7
Gholamreza Naseri, Alireza Fazel, Mohammad Jafar Golalipour, Hossein Haghir, Hamid Sadeghian, Majid Mojarrad, Mahmoud Hosseini, Shokouh Shahrokhi Sabzevar, Farimah Beheshti, Ahmad Ghorbani
In recent years, abuse of synthetic cathinones, in particular, mephedrone, has increased among young adults worldwide. The study aim is to investigate the effects of mephedrone exposure during the gestational period on mice offspring outcomes, focusing on hippocampal neurotoxicity. The pregnant mice received mephedrone (50 mg/kg, sc) on a regular schedule (once daily on all days, from day 5 to 18 of gestation) or repeated schedule (thrice daily on day 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, and 18 of gestation) to simulate regular or recreational use of mephedrone, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465683/chemsex-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-sexualized-drug-use-survey-among-clients-of-the-sexually-transmitted-infection-outpatient-clinic-and-users-of-a-gay-dating-app-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands
#8
Susanne Drückler, Martijn S van Rooijen, Henry J C de Vries
OBJECTIVES: Chemsex (i.e., drug use during sex) is practiced by some men who have sex with men (MSM) and is associated with high-risk behavior. In a cross-sectional study at the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic of Amsterdam, we explored chemsex practices, risk behavior, and STI prevalence. METHOD: A survey on chemsex (γ-hydroxybutyrate, crystal methamphetamine, and/or mephedrone) was offered to clinic clients during routine STI screening and to Amsterdam users of a gay online dating app...
November 15, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364498/synthetic-cathinones-related-fatalities-an-update
#9
S Zaami, R Giorgetti, S Pichini, F Pantano, E Marinelli, F P Busardò
OBJECTIVE: Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as "bath salts", are synthetic drugs chemically related to cathinone, a psychostimulant found in the khat plant. They are the first most consumed products among new psychoactive substances, which cause psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects determining a number of fatalities worldwide.  In this paper, we have systematically reviewed cases of synthetic cathinones-related fatalities analytically confirmed, which have occurred in the last few years...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349706/effect-of-the-combination-of-mephedrone-plus-ethanol-on-serotonin-and-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-awake-rats
#10
Raúl López-Arnau, Mario Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Jorge Camarasa, David Pubill, Elena Escubedo
Cathinones, such as mephedrone (Meph), are often co-abused with alcoholic drinks. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of Meph plus ethanol (EtOH) on neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A guide canula was stereotaxically implanted into either the NAc or the mPFC of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven days after surgery, a microdialysis probe was inserted and rats were administered saline, EtOH (1 g/kg, i.p.), Meph (25 mg/kg, s...
March 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306167/wastewater-based-epidemiology-and-enantiomeric-profiling-for-drugs-of-abuse-in-south-african-wastewaters
#11
E Archer, E Castrignanò, B Kasprzyk-Hordern, G M Wolfaardt
The current study is aimed to introduce a wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach for the first time on the African continent where substance abuse data is limited. The study included the quantification of several drugs of abuse (DOA) in raw wastewater samples. Quantification of urinary metabolites as drug target residues (DTR), as well as enantiomeric profiling of chiral DOA was performed to distinguish between consumption and direct disposal into sewage. Monitoring campaigns were undertaken at two South African wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) located within two provinces of the country...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273776/publisher-correction-a-new-approach-towards-biomarker-selection-in-estimation-of-human-exposure-to-chiral-chemicals-a-case-study-of-mephedrone
#12
Erika Castrignanò, Marie Mardal, Axel Rydevik, Bram Miserez, John Ramsey, Trevor Shine, G Dan Pantoș, Markus R Meyer, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216482/enantiomeric-profiling-of-chiral-illicit-drugs-in-a-pan-european-study
#13
Erika Castrignanò, Zhugen Yang, Richard Bade, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Ana Causanilles, Adrian Covaci, Emma Gracia-Lor, Felix Hernandez, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse...
March 1, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204127/synthetic-aminoindanes-a-summary-of-existing-knowledge
#14
REVIEW
Nikola Pinterova, Rachel R Horsley, Tomas Palenicek
Objectives: Aminoindanes ("bath salts," a class of novel psychoactive substances, NPSs) increased rapidly in popularity on the recreational drug market, particularly after mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones were banned in the UK in 2010. Novel aminoindanes continue to emerge, but relatively little is known about their effects and risks. Their history, chemistry, pharmacology, behavioral effects, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity are reviewed in this paper. Methods: Scientific literature was searched on ISI Web of Knowledge: Web of Science (WoS) during June and July 2017, using English language terms: aminoindanes such as 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI), 5-iodo-2-aminoindane (5-IAI), 2-aminoindane (2-AI), 5,6-methylenedioxy- N -methyl-2-aminoindane (MDMAI), and 5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-aminoindane (MMAI)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149685/simultaneous-drug-identification-in-urine-of-sexual-assault-victims-by-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Hei Hwa Lee, Suen Chi Chen, Jong Feng Lee, Hsin Yu Lin, Bai Hsiun Chen
According to domestic and international epidemiological investigation, the proportion of substance involved sexual assault has the trend of ascent. In the past, laboratory methods that investigated urine sample of the sexual assault victims was to screen with enzyme immunoassay and then confirmed with mass spectrometry. The objective of the study is to simultaneously identify abused drugs in 126 decoded urine samples of sexual assault victims by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring with an electro-spray positive ionization mode...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119924/deaths-in-the-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-united-kingdom-communities-associated-with-ghb-and-precursors
#16
John M Corkery, Barbara Loi, Hugh Claridge, Christine Goodair, Fabrizio Schifano
Background Misuse of gammahydroxybutrate (GHB) and its prodrugs gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (1,4-BD) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, particularly amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals in recreational and sexual settings, e.g. 'chemsex'. Objective and method This paper presents an overview of GHB pharmacotoxicology and provides analyses of cases in the LGBT population associated with use of these substances extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database, to which notification is voluntary...
November 8, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105555/toxicity-of-new-synthetic-amphetamine-drug-mephedrone-on-rat-heart-mitochondria-a-warning-for-its-abuse
#17
Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Farzaneh Jokar, Farzaneh Vafaei, Enayatollah Seydi, Jalal Pourahmad
1. Mephedrone, a new and popular amphetamine drug, is widely abused and is still legal in some parts around the world. Little data on mechanisms involved in mephedrone induced cardiotoxicity are available. 2. Therefore, we decided to explain the mechanisms of mephedrone cardiotoxicity by using mitochondria isolated from rat heart. The isolated heart mitochondria were incubated with different concentrations of mephedrone (5, 10 and 20 µM). 3. Results showed that mephedrone induced mitochondrial dysfunction via an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, mitochondrial swelling and damage in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) which is associated with the cytochrome c release...
November 28, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097766/a-new-approach-towards-biomarker-selection-in-estimation-of-human-exposure-to-chiral-chemicals-a-case-study-of-mephedrone
#18
Erika Castrignanò, Marie Mardal, Axel Rydevik, Bram Miserez, John Ramsey, Trevor Shine, G Dan Pantoș, Markus R Meyer, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
Wastewater-based epidemiology is an innovative approach to estimate public health status using biomarker analysis in wastewater. A new compound detected in wastewater can be a potential biomarker of an emerging trend in public health. However, it is currently difficult to select new biomarkers mainly due to limited human metabolism data. This manuscript presents a new framework, which enables the identification and selection of new biomarkers of human exposure to drugs with scarce or unknown human metabolism data...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097307/effect-fingerprinting-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-what-can-we-learn-from-in-vitro-data
#19
REVIEW
Laura Hondebrink, Anne Zwartsen, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently >600 NPS have been reported. However, limited information on neuropharmacological and toxicological effects of NPS is available, hampering risk characterization. We reviewed the literature on the in vitro neuronal modes of action to obtain effect fingerprints of different classes of illicit drugs and NPS. The most frequently reported NPS were selected for review: cathinones (MDPV, α-PVP, mephedrone, 4-MEC, pentedrone, methylone), cannabinoids (JWH-018), (hallucinogenic) phenethylamines (4-fluoroamphetamine, benzofurans (5-APB, 6-APB), 2C-B, NBOMes (25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe)), arylcyclohexylamines (methoxetamine) and piperazine derivatives (mCPP, TFMPP, BZP)...
February 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042260/pldt-planarian-light-dark-test-an-invertebrate-assay-to-quantify-defensive-responding-and-study-anxiety-like-effects
#20
Ashenafi Mebratu Zewde, Frances Yu, Sunil Nayak, Christopher Tallarida, Allen B Reitz, Lynn G Kirby, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND: Planarians, like rodents, instinctively spend more time in dark versus light environments when given a choice. This behavioral phenomenon is called negative phototaxis, which may reflect defensive responding related to an anxiety-like phenotype. NEW METHOD: We propose a planarian light/dark test, designated PLDT, to predict anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects. Experimentally, we placed a planarian at the midline of a Petri dish, containing test compound or water, that was split evenly into light and dark compartments and determined time spent in the light over 10min...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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