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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031971/solid-phase-extraction-followed-by-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-to-determine-synthetic-cathinones-in-different-types-of-environmental-water-samples
#1
N Fontanals, R M Marcé, F Borrull
Synthetic cathinones have become popular in recent years, which would explain why their determination in influent sewage samples has already been documented. In the present study a method based on solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry is developed, validated and applied to determine twelve cathinones and one of their metabolites in different environmental samples including influent and effluent sewage and river water. Two cation-exchange sorbents (Oasis MCX and Oasis WCX) were compared, with better results achieved with Oasis WCX in terms of apparent recoveries (70-100%) and matrix effects (lower than -34%)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985394/a-validated-method-for-the-detection-of-32-bath-salts-in-oral-fluid
#2
Michelle Williams, Jennifer Martin, Peter Galettis
Workplace drug testing in Australia is usually adherent to one of two standards, AS/NZS 4308:2008 for urine or AS 4760:2006 for oral fluid. These standards prescribe the drugs tested, devices used and testing methodology followed by the testing agency. However, they are not comprehensive and for many years workers have been able to consume novel psychoactive substances to avoid detection and without consequences. Here, we present a validated method for the detection of 32 Synthetic Stimulant and Hallucogenic drugs, commonly sold as bath salts, in oral fluid...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890655/comparison-of-3-derivatization-methods-for-the-analysis-of-amphetamine-related-drugs-in-oral-fluid-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#3
Khaled M Mohamed, Abdulsallam Bakdash
The heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA), and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) are compared as derivatizing reagents to use as the optimal method for the analysis of 10 amphetamines and cathinones in oral fluid. The target compounds were amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MA), 4-methylamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), cathinone (CAT), methcathinone, mephedrone, and ephedrine...
2017: Analytical Chemistry Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885007/stereoselective-differences-between-the-reinforcing-and-motivational-effects-of-cathinone-derived-4-methylmethcathinone-mephedrone-in-self-administering-rats
#4
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Steven J Simmons, Sunil Nayak, Rose M Martorana, Shu H Su, Yohanka Caro, Brona Ranieri, Kathryn DiFurio, Lili Mo, Taylor A Gentile, Ali Murad, Allen B Reitz, John W Muschamp, Scott M Rawls
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC)) (MEPH) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) of the synthetic cathinone class. MEPH has a chiral center and exists as two enantiomers (R-,S-MEPH), yet stereospecific effects of MEPH have not been extensively investigated in preclinical assays. Because significant behavioral and neurochemical differences can exist between enantiomers, probing effects of stereochemistry on biological activity enables separation of adverse and therapeutic effects. Our prior work showed that R-MEPH, relative to S-MEPH, produced greater locomotor activation, place preference, and facilitation of brain reward thresholds in rodents...
September 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882561/locomotor-and-reinforcing-effects-of-pentedrone-pentylone-and-methylone-in-rats
#5
Mehrak Javadi-Paydar, Jacques D Nguyen, Sophia A Vandewater, Tobin J Dickerson, Michael A Taffe
The broad diversity of synthetic cathinone psychostimulant drugs that are available to users complicates research efforts to provide understanding of health risks. Second generation cathinones pentedrone and pentylone are distinguished from each other by the 3,4-methylenedioxy structural motif (which distinguishes methamphetamine from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and each incorporates the α-alkyl chain motif contained in the transporter-inhibitor cathinones (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP)) but not in the monoamine releasers (mephedrone, methylone)...
September 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873977/one-step-derivatization-extraction-method-for-rapid-analysis-of-eleven-amphetamines-and-cathinones-in-oral-fluid-by-gc-ms
#6
Khaled Mohamed
A simple analytical method was developed for in-matrix derivatization of 11 amphetamine-like molecules. Ethyl chloroformate as the derivatization reagent and ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent were added directly to oral fluid samples at alkaline pH. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ions monitored for quantification were m/z 44, 91 and 116 for amphetamine (AMP); m/z 58, 91 and 130 for methamphetamine (MA); m/z 44, 105 and 116 for 4-methylamphetamine; m/z 44, 116 and 251 for 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; m/z 58, 130 and 265 for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); m/z 72, 116 and 144 for 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine; m/z 44, 105 and 116 for cathinone; m/z 58, 105 and 130 for methcathinone; m/z 58, 119 and 130 for mephedrone; m/z 58, 107 and 130 for ephedrine (EPH); m/z 207, 250 and 322 for fenethylline; m/z 48, 92 and 120 for AMP-D5; m/z 62, 92 and 134 for MA-D5; m/z 48, 120 and 256 for MDA-D5; and m/z 62, 134 and 270 for MDMA-D5...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868040/novel-psychoactive-substances-recent-progress-on-neuropharmacological-mechanisms-of-action-for-selected-drugs
#7
REVIEW
Zurina Hassan, Oliver G Bosch, Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, B Vicknasingam Kasinather, Erich Seifritz, Johannes Kornhuber, Boris B Quednow, Christian P Müller
A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851615/assessing-the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-differential-neurotoxicity-patterns-of-methamphetamine-mephedrone-methcathinone-and-4-methylmethamphetamine
#8
REVIEW
John H Anneken, Mariana Angoa-Perez, Girish C Sati, David Crich, Donald M Kuhn
Methamphetamine and mephedrone are designer drugs with high abuse liability and they share extensive similarities in their chemical structures and neuropharmacological effects. However, these drugs differ in one significant regard: methamphetamine elicits dopamine neurotoxicity and mephedrone does not. From a structural perspective, mephedrone has a β-keto group and a 4-methyl ring addition, both of which are lacking in methamphetamine. Our previous studies found that methcathinone, which contains only the β-keto substituent, is neurotoxic, while 4-methylmethamphetamine, which contains only the 4-methyl ring substituent, elicits minimal neurotoxicity...
August 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835196/prevalence-of-recreational-drug-use-reported-by-men-who-have-sex-with-men-attending-sexual-health-clinics-in-manchester-uk
#9
A Tomkins, S Ahmad, L Cannon, S P Higgins, M Kliner, A Kolyva, C Ward, R Vivancos
Recreational drug use (RDU) has been reported to be disproportionately higher in men who have sex with men (MSM) when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. To identify RDU, links to risky sexual practices and infections for MSM attending three sexual health clinics across Manchester, United Kingdom, a retrospective case note review was conducted using a random powered sample of service users attending three sites during 2014. Three hundred and fifty-seven case notes were reviewed across three sites. Eighteen per cent of service users reported any type of RDU...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828691/pharmacokinetics-of-mephedrone-and-its-metabolites-in-human-by-lc-ms-ms
#10
Eulàlia Olesti, Magí Farré, Esther Papaseit, Aristotelis Krotonoulas, Mitona Pujadas, Rafael de la Torre, Óscar J Pozo
Mephedrone is a synthetic cathinone consumed as a recreational drug. Recently, it was identified several of its metabolites in vivo in humans but there is little information about its pharmacokinetics in plasma and urine. Although several analytical methods have been proposed for mephedrone quantification in different matrices, none are available for its metabolites. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop and validate an analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of mephedrone, nor-mephedrone, N-succinyl-nor-mephedrone, 1'-dihydro-mephedrone, and 4'-carboxy-mephedrone...
August 21, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815279/evaluation-of-training-dose-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-4-methylmethcathinone
#11
Michael D Berquist, Nathyn A Thompson, Lisa E Baker
RATIONALE: Although the synthetic cathinone 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) has been a subject of intensive research investigation, the pharmacological mechanisms involved in its interoceptive stimulus effects have yet to be fully characterized. OBJECTIVE: The present study employed drug discrimination methods in rats to compare the interoceptive stimulus properties of two different training doses of 4-MMC to other substances with similar pharmacological actions...
August 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811192/relative-reinforcing-effects-of-second-generation-synthetic-cathinones-acquisition-of-self-administration-and-fixed-ratio-dose-response-curves-in-rats
#12
REVIEW
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Melson P Mesmin, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
"Bath salts" preparations contain synthetic cathinones which interact with monoamine transporters and function as either monoamine uptake inhibitors or releasers. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), and 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) were three of the most common cathinones (i.e., "first-generation" cathinones); however, after the US Drug Enforcement Administration placed them under Schedule I regulations, they were replaced with structurally related cathinones that were not subject to regulations (i...
August 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811141/the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-a-pregnancy-model
#13
Lauren G Strange, Kerri Kochelek, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones or 'bath salts' has become a major public health concern. Although these compounds were initially sold legally and labeled "not for human consumption", the 'bath salts' are psychostimulants, with similar structures and pharmacologic mechanisms to cocaine, the amphetamines, and 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly, or Ecstasy). The reported use of these substances by women of child-bearing age highlights the necessity of studies seeking to delineate risks of prenatal exposure...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755886/pharmacological-profile-of-mephedrone-analogs-and-related-new-psychoactive-substances
#14
REVIEW
Dino Luethi, Karolina E Kolaczynska, Luca Docci, Stephan Krähenbühl, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: Mephedrone is a synthetic cathinone and one of the most popular recreationally used new psychoactive substances. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of novel analogs of mephedrone and related newly emerged designer stimulants. METHODS: We determined norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin transporter inhibition potencies and monoamine release in transporter-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also assessed monoamine receptor and transporter binding affinities...
July 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704276/effects-of-d1-and-d2-receptor-antagonists-on-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-methylendioxypyrovalerone-and-mephedrone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-d-amphetamine
#15
Eric L Harvey, Rachel L Burroughs, Lisa E Baker
Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine...
October 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691863/how-can-those-engaging-in-chemsex-best-be-supported-an-online-survey-to-gain-intelligence-in-greater-manchester
#16
Andrew Tomkins, Roberto Vivancos, Chris Ward, Merav Kliner
Reports of sexualised drug taking (chemsex) have increased significantly in recent years. There is currently limited intelligence on chemsex outside of London. An anonymous survey was promoted via several sources including voluntary services and a sexual health clinic in order to establish the risks associated with chemsex, and how support services can best be tailored to meet the needs of those in Greater Manchester, UK. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on demographics, drug use, sexual practices and barriers and facilitators to accessing support...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686986/illicit-drug-consumption-in-school-populations-measured-by-wastewater-analysis
#17
Ettore Zuccato, Emma Gracia-Lor, Nikolaos I Rousis, Alberto Parabiaghi, Ivan Senta, Francesco Riva, Sara Castiglioni
BACKGROUND: Analysis of student consumption of illicit drugs (ID) by school population surveys (SPS) provides information useful for prevention, but the results may be influenced by subjective factors. We explored wastewater (WW) analysis to improve the information. METHODS: We used WW analysis to measure ID consumption in eight secondary schools in Italy in 2010-13 (students aged 15-19). Samples were collected from the sewage pipes of the schools during lessons for one week each year...
June 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684237/monoaminergic-toxicity-induced-by-cathinone-phthalimide-an-in-vitro-study
#18
Susan M Lantz, Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Bonnie Robinson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi, Syed Z Imam, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali
Bath salts, or synthetic cathinones, have cocaine-like or amphetamine-like properties and induce psychoactive effects via their capacity to modulate serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Structurally distinct synthetic cathinones are continuously being generated to skirt existing drug laws. One example of these modified compounds is cathinone phthalimide (CP), which has already appeared on the global market. The lack of toxicological studies on the effects of CP on monoaminergic systems led to the development of the present study in order to generate an acute toxicity profile for CP, and to clarify whether it primarily affects both dopamine and serotonin, like the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and methylone, or primarily affects dopamine, like 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677506/mephedrone-concentrations-in-cases-of-clinical-intoxication
#19
Esther Papaseit, Eulàlia Olesti, Rafael de la Torre, Marta Torrens, Magí Farré
Background Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a ring-substituted synthetic cathinone derivative has become established as a permanent illicit drug in the dynamic new psychoactive substances (NPS) scene. Objective This review summarizes current knowledge on mephedrone concentrations in biological samples from cases of acute intoxications (fatal and non-fatal), pharmacokinetics studies, wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis in order to provide an overview of the reliable scientific knowledge on toxicokinetics of mephedrone in humans...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673083/transformation-and-sorption-of-illicit-drug-biomarkers-in-sewer-biofilms
#20
Pedram Ramin, Andreas Libonati Brock, Ana Causanilles, Borja Valverde-Pérez, Erik Emke, Pim de Voogt, Fabio Polesel, Benedek Gy Plósz
In-sewer transformation of drug biomarkers (excreted parent drugs and metabolites) can be influenced by the presence of biomass in suspended form as well as attached to sewer walls (biofilms). Biofilms are likely the most abundant and biologically active biomass fraction in sewers. In this study, 16 drug biomarkers were selected, including the parent forms and the major human metabolites of mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, heroin, codeine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Transformation and sorption of these substances were assessed in targeted batch experiments using laboratory-scale biofilm reactors operated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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