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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920814/esterase-activity-and-conformational-changes-of-bovine-serum-albumin-toward-interaction-with-mephedrone-spectroscopic-and-computational-studies
#1
Rajan Patel, Neha Maurya, Mehraj Ud Din Parray, Nida Farooq, Abrar Siddique, Kanak Lata Verma, Neeraj Dohare
The present work is a brief overview of the effect of psychostimulant drug mephedrone hydrochloride (4MMC) on a transport protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The binding effect of 4MMC on BSA has been investigated by using UV-visible, steady-state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, Fourier transform infrared, circular dichroism, and molecular docking method. 4-Methylmephedrone quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA by static quenching mechanism, which was further confirmed by time-resolved fluorescence...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903791/multilevel-population-based-cross-sectional-study-examining-school-substance-misuse-policy-and-the-use-of-cannabis-mephedrone-and-novel-psychoactive-substances-among-students-aged-11-16-years-in-schools-in-wales
#2
Luke S Midgley, Simon Murphy, Graham Moore, Gillian Hewitt, James White
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether young peoples' risk of cannabis, mephedrone and novel psychoactive substances (NPS) use is associated with school substance-misuse policy. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of secondary school students combined with a School Environment Questionnaire and independently coded school substance-misuse policies (2015/6). SETTING: 66 secondary schools in Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Students aged 11-16 years (n=18 939)...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781560/conditioned-reward-of-opioids-but-not-psychostimulants-is-impaired-in-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-subunit-knockout-mice
#3
Milo S Siivonen, Elena de Miguel, Juho Aaltio, Aino K Manner, Mikko Vahermo, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Anni-Maija Linden, Teemu Aitta-Aho, Esa R Korpi
Extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) are emerging as targets for a number of neuropsychopharmacological drugs, including the direct GABA-site agonist gaboxadol and neuroactive steroids. Among other regions, these δ-GABAA Rs are functionally expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the cell body region of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system important for motivated behaviors, and in the target region, the nucleus accumbens. Gaboxadol and neurosteroids induce VTA DA neuron plasticity ex vivo, by inhibiting the VTA GABA neurons, and aversive place conditioning, which are absent in the δ-GABAA R knockout mice (δ-KO)...
May 21, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745328/non-fatal-overdose-with-u-47700-identification-in-biological-matrices
#4
Susanna Vogliardi, Giulia Stocchero, Sergio Maietti, Marianna Tucci, Alessandro Nalesso, Rossella Snenghi, Donata Favretto
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We report on a case of severe intoxication after insufflation of U- 47700, a synthetic opioid that acts as a selective agonist of the μ-opioid receptor, and is several times more potent than morphine. A man in his 30s was found irresponsive in his apartment and was brought to the emergency department of a local hospital. A comatose state and severe respiratory depression were present. Hetero anamnesis revealed that the patient could have taken the substance named “U- 47700”, bought on the Internet...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714473/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-cathinone-derived-psychostimulants
#5
Steven J Simmons, Jonna M Leyrer-Jackson, Chicora F Oliver, Callum Hicks, John W Muschamp, Scott M Rawls, M Foster Olive
Cathinone is a plant alkaloid found in khat leaves of perennial shrubs grown in East Africa. Similar to cocaine, cathinone elicits psychostimulant effects which are in part attributed to its amphetamine-like structure. Around 2010, home laboratories began altering the parent structure of cathinone to synthesize derivatives with mechanisms of action, potencies, and pharmacokinetics permitting high abuse potential and toxicity. These "synthetic cathinones" include 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and the empathogenic agent 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) which collectively gained international popularity following aggressive online marketing as well as availability in various retail outlets...
May 11, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713996/the-effects-of-exposure-to-mephedrone-during-adolescence-on-brain-neurotransmission-and-neurotoxicity-in-adult-rats
#6
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Anna Górska, Joanna Rzemieniec, Agnieszka Wnuk, Adam Wojtas, Grzegorz Kreiner, Małgorzata Kajta, Krystyna Gołembiowska
According to the European Drug Report (2016), the use of synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone, among young people has rapidly increased in the last years. Studies in humans indicate that psychostimulant drug use in adolescence increases risk of drug abuse in adulthood. Mephedrone by its interaction with transporters for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) stimulates their release to the synaptic cleft. In animal studies, high repeated doses of mephedrone given to adolescent but not adult mice or rats induced toxic changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702337/correlates-and-subgroups-of-injecting-drug-use-in-uk-gay-and-bisexual-men-findings-from-the-2014-gay-men-s-sex-survey
#7
G J Melendez-Torres, Adam Bourne, Ford Hickson, David Reid, Peter Weatherburn
BACKGROUND: Evidence to understand which gay and bisexual men (GBM) inject drugs remains scant, especially in the UK. We describe correlates of last-year injecting in UK GBM, and characterise subgroups of GBM who inject drugs by types of drugs used. METHODS: Using data from the 2014 Gay Men's Sex Survey, an opportunistic internet-based survey conducted of GBM living in the UK, we examined via logistic regression correlates with any injecting of six drugs (amphetamine/speed, crystal methamphetamine, heroin, mephedrone, GHB/GBL, and ketamine) in the last year...
June 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700052/changes-in-recreational-drug-use-drug-use-associated-with-chemsex-and-hiv-related-behaviours-among-hiv-negative-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-london-and-brighton-2013-2016
#8
Janey Sewell, Valentina Cambiano, Ada Miltz, Andrew Speakman, Fiona C Lampe, Andrew Phillips, David Stuart, Richard Gilson, David Asboe, Nneka Nwokolo, Amanda Clarke, Graham Hart, Alison Rodger
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of polydrug use, use of drugs associated with chemsex, specific drug use, and HIV-related behaviours, between two time periods , using two groups of HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) attending the same sexual health clinics in London and Brighton, in two consecutive periods of time from 2013 to 2016. METHODS: Data from MSM in the cross-sectional Attitudes to and Understanding Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) study (June 2013 to September 2014) were compared with baseline data from different MSM in the prospective cohort study Attitudes to and Understanding Risk of Acquisition of HIV over Time (AURAH2) (November 2014 to April 2016)...
April 26, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627557/investigating-in-sewer-transformation-products-formed-from-synthetic-cathinones-and-phenethylamines-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#9
Juliet Kinyua, Noelia Negreira, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Tim Boogaerts, Christoph Ort, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Recent studies have demonstrated the role of biofilms on the stability of drug residues in wastewater. These factors are pertinent in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) when estimating community-level drug use. However, there is scarce information on the biotransformation of drug residues in the presence of biofilms and the potential use of transformation products (TPs) as biomarkers in WBE. The purpose of this work was to investigate the formation of TPs in sewage reactors in the presence of biofilm mimicking conditions during in-sewer transport...
September 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625796/sexualised-drug-use-in-the-united-kingdom-uk-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
Claire Edmundson, Ellen Heinsbroek, Rachel Glass, Vivian Hope, Hamish Mohammed, Martin White, Monica Desai
BACKGROUND: Sexualised drug use (SDU) refers to the use of drugs in a sexual context. This includes 'Chemsex'- the use of drugs (specifically crystal methamphetamine, GHB/GBL and mephedrone) before or during planned sexual activity to sustain, enhance, disinhibit or facilitate the experience. Here we aimed to synthesise available UK prevalence data for Chemsex, SDU and the use of Chemsex drugs in an undefined context (CDU) in men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Papers published between January 2007 and August 2017 reporting Chemsex, SDU and/or Chemsex drug use (CDU) prevalence in MSM were identified through PubMed...
May 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535222/shigellosis-outbreak-among-msm-living-with-hiv-a-case-control-study-in-taiwan-2015-2016
#11
Hao-Hsin Wu, Yi-Ting Shen, Chien-Shun Chiou, Chi-Tai Fang, Yi-Chun Lo
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of shigellosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported since the late 1990s. HIV infection is an important risk factor. Since 2014, the global shigellosis epidemic has intensified. Whether chemsex (the use of crystal methamphetamine, γ-hydroxybutyrate or mephedrone to enhance sex) is a new risk factor has not been previously examined. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study in Taiwan. Acute shigellosis cases diagnosed during the 2015 outbreak among MSM living with HIV were compared with those without shigellosis...
March 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533974/mood-fluctuation-and-psychobiological-instability-the-same-core-functions-are-disrupted-by-novel-psychoactive-substances-and-established-recreational-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Andrew C Parrott
Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential...
March 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523484/patterns-of-injecting-and-non-injecting-drug-use-by-sexual-behaviour-in-people-who-inject-drugs-attending-services-in-england-wales-and-northern-ireland-2013-2016
#13
Ellen Heinsbroek, Rachel Glass, Claire Edmundson, Vivian Hope, Monica Desai
BACKGROUND: Higher levels of drug use have been reported in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities, some of which can be explained by sexualised drug use, including 'chemsex'; the use of drugs before or during planned sexual activity to sustain, enhance, disinhibit or facilitate sex. We explored injecting and non-injecting drug use by sexual behaviour among people who inject drugs (PWID) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. METHODS: Data were used from an unlinked-anonymous survey of PWID (2013-2016), where participants recruited through services self-completed a questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511295/publisher-correction-a-new-approach-towards-biomarker-selection-in-estimation-of-human-exposure-to-chiral-chemicals-a-case-study-of-mephedrone
#14
Erika Castrignanò, Marie Mardal, Axel Rydevik, Bram Miserez, John Ramsey, Trevor Shine, G Dan Pantoș, Markus R Meyer, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501570/exposure-to-mephedrone-during-gestation-increases-the-risk-of-stillbirth-and-induces-hippocampal-neurotoxicity-in-mice-offspring
#15
Gholamreza Naseri, Alireza Fazel, Mohammad Jafar Golalipour, Hossein Haghir, Hamid Sadeghian, Majid Mojarrad, Mahmoud Hosseini, Shokouh Shahrokhi Sabzevar, Farimah Beheshti, Ahmad Ghorbani
In recent years, abuse of synthetic cathinones, in particular, mephedrone, has increased among young adults worldwide. The study aim is to investigate the effects of mephedrone exposure during the gestational period on mice offspring outcomes, focusing on hippocampal neurotoxicity. The pregnant mice received mephedrone (50 mg/kg, sc) on a regular schedule (once daily on all days, from day 5 to 18 of gestation) or repeated schedule (thrice daily on day 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, and 18 of gestation) to simulate regular or recreational use of mephedrone, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465683/chemsex-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-sexualized-drug-use-survey-among-clients-of-the-sexually-transmitted-infection-outpatient-clinic-and-users-of-a-gay-dating-app-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands
#16
Susanne Drückler, Martijn S van Rooijen, Henry J C de Vries
OBJECTIVES: Chemsex (i.e., drug use during sex) is practiced by some men who have sex with men (MSM) and is associated with high-risk behavior. In a cross-sectional study at the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic of Amsterdam, we explored chemsex practices, risk behavior, and STI prevalence. METHOD: A survey on chemsex (γ-hydroxybutyrate, crystal methamphetamine, and/or mephedrone) was offered to clinic clients during routine STI screening and to Amsterdam users of a gay online dating app...
May 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364498/synthetic-cathinones-related-fatalities-an-update
#17
S Zaami, R Giorgetti, S Pichini, F Pantano, E Marinelli, F P Busardò
OBJECTIVE: Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as "bath salts", are synthetic drugs chemically related to cathinone, a psychostimulant found in the khat plant. They are the first most consumed products among new psychoactive substances, which cause psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects determining a number of fatalities worldwide.  In this paper, we have systematically reviewed cases of synthetic cathinones-related fatalities analytically confirmed, which have occurred in the last few years...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349706/effect-of-the-combination-of-mephedrone-plus-ethanol-on-serotonin-and-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-awake-rats
#18
Raúl López-Arnau, Mario Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Jorge Camarasa, David Pubill, Elena Escubedo
Cathinones, such as mephedrone (Meph), are often co-abused with alcoholic drinks. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of Meph plus ethanol (EtOH) on neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A guide canula was stereotaxically implanted into either the NAc or the mPFC of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven days after surgery, a microdialysis probe was inserted and rats were administered saline, EtOH (1 g/kg, i.p.), Meph (25 mg/kg, s...
March 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306167/wastewater-based-epidemiology-and-enantiomeric-profiling-for-drugs-of-abuse-in-south-african-wastewaters
#19
E Archer, E Castrignanò, B Kasprzyk-Hordern, G M Wolfaardt
The current study is aimed to introduce a wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach for the first time on the African continent where substance abuse data is limited. The study included the quantification of several drugs of abuse (DOA) in raw wastewater samples. Quantification of urinary metabolites as drug target residues (DTR), as well as enantiomeric profiling of chiral DOA was performed to distinguish between consumption and direct disposal into sewage. Monitoring campaigns were undertaken at two South African wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) located within two provinces of the country...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273776/publisher-correction-a-new-approach-towards-biomarker-selection-in-estimation-of-human-exposure-to-chiral-chemicals-a-case-study-of-mephedrone
#20
Erika Castrignanò, Marie Mardal, Axel Rydevik, Bram Miserez, John Ramsey, Trevor Shine, G Dan Pantoș, Markus R Meyer, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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