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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715672/genomic-and-pathogenic-analysis-of-a-muscovy-duck-parvovirus-strain-causing-short-beak-and-dwarfism-syndrome-without-tongue-protrusion
#1
Qiuling Fu, Yu Huang, Chunhe Wan, Guanghua Fu, Baomin Qi, Longfei Cheng, Shaohua Shi, Hongmei Chen, Rongchang Liu, Zhenhai Chen
In 2008, clinical cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) caused by Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection were found in mule duck and Taiwan white duck farms in Fujian, China. A MDPV LH strain causing duck SBDS without tongue protrusion was isolated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis show that the MDPV LH strain was clustered together with other MDPV strains, but divergent from GPV isolates. Two major fragment deletions were found in the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of MDPV LH similar to the ones in the ITR of MDPV GX5, YY and SAAS-SHNH strains...
July 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704276/effects-of-d1-and-d2-receptor-antagonists-on-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-methylendioxypyrovalerone-and-mephedrone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-d-amphetamine
#2
Eric L Harvey, Rachel L Burroughs, Lisa E Baker
Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684237/monoaminergic-toxicity-induced-by-cathinone-phthalimide-an-in-vitro-study
#3
Susan M Lantz, Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Bonnie Robinson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi, Syed Z Imam, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali
Bath salts, or synthetic cathinones, have cocaine-like or amphetamine-like properties and induce psychoactive effects via their capacity to modulate serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Structurally distinct synthetic cathinones are continuously being generated to skirt existing drug laws. One example of these modified compounds is cathinone phthalimide (CP), which has already appeared on the global market. The lack of toxicological studies on the effects of CP on monoaminergic systems led to the development of the present study in order to generate an acute toxicity profile for CP, and to clarify whether it primarily affects both dopamine and serotonin, like the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and methylone, or primarily affects dopamine, like 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)...
July 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677665/reinforcing-effects-of-binary-mixtures-of-common-bath-salts-constituents-studies-with-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-3-4-methylenedioxymethcathinone-methylone-and-caffeine-in-rats
#4
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Melson P Mesmin, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
Bath salts use is associated with high rates of abuse, toxicity, and death. Bath salts preparations often contain mixtures of drugs including multiple synthetic cathinones (eg, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone [MDPV] or 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone [methylone]) or synthetic cathinones and caffeine; however, little is known about whether interactions among bath salts constituents contribute to the abuse-related effects of bath salts preparations. This study used male Sprague Dawley rats responding under a progressive ratio schedule to quantify the reinforcing effectiveness of MDPV, methylone, and caffeine, administered alone and as binary mixtures (n=12 per mixture)...
July 5, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668987/a-case-of-fatal-idiosyncratic-reaction-to-the-designer-drug-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Brigitte Desharnais, Yann Dazé, Laura M Huppertz, Pascal Mireault, Cameron D Skinner
The stimulant designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) was first synthesized by Boehringer Ingelheim in 1969 and introduced on the black market in 2006. Only a small number of fatal intoxication cases have been reported in the literature, all with significant blood MDPV concentrations. In this report, we describe one fatality attributed to an idiosyncratic reaction to MDPV. The victim displayed agitation, violent behavior and delirium followed by cardiac arrest. Hyperthermia was observed at the hospital...
July 1, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646714/synthetic-cathinones-and-stereochemistry-s-enantiomer-of-mephedrone-reduces-anxiety-and-depressant-like-effects-in-cocaine-or-mdpv-abstinent-rats
#6
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Callum Hicks, Allen B Reitz, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neuropharmacological profile of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (MEPH) is influenced by stereochemistry. Both MEPH enantiomers are monoamine transporter substrates, but R-MEPH is primarily responsible for rewarding effects of MEPH as it produces greater locomotor activation and intracranial self-stimulation than S-MEPH. S-MEPH is a 50-fold more potent 5-HT releaser than R-MEPH and does not place preference in rats. MEPH is also structurally similar to the cathinone derivative bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, suggesting MEPH has therapeutic and addictive properties...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646469/the-cathinones-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-elicit-different-behavioral-and-molecular-effects-following-acute-exposure
#7
Giuseppe Giannotti, Isabella Canazza, Lucia Caffino, Sabrine Bilel, Andrea Ossato, Fabio Fumagalli, Matteo Marti
Since the mid-to-late 2000s, synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among drug users due to their psychostimulant effects greater than those produced by cocaine and amphetamine. Among them, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (α-PVP) are ones of the most popular cathinones available in the clandestine market as "bath salts" or "fertilizers." Pre-clinical studies indicate that MDPV and α-PVP induced psychomotor stimulation, affected thermoregulation, and promoted reinforcing properties in rodents...
June 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645576/mechanisms-of-hepatocellular-toxicity-associated-with-new-psychoactive-synthetic-cathinones
#8
Dino Luethi, Matthias E Liechti, Stephan Krähenbühl
Synthetic cathinones are a new class of psychostimulant substances. Rarely, they can cause liver injury but associated mechanisms are not completely elucidated. In order to increase our knowledge about mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, we investigated the effect of five frequently used cathinones on two human cell lines. Bupropion was included as structurally related drug used therapeutically. In HepG2 cells, bupropion, MDPV, mephedrone and naphyrone depleted the cellular ATP content at lower concentrations (0...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601767/pooled-human-liver-preparations-heparg-or-hepg2-cell-lines-for-metabolism-studies-of-new-psychoactive-substances-a-study-using-mdma-mdbd-butylone-mdppp-mdpv-mdpb-5-mapb-and-5-api-as-examples
#9
Lilian H J Richter, Veit Flockerzi, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
Metabolism studies play an important role in clinical and forensic toxicology. Because of potential species differences in metabolism, human samples are best suitable for elucidating metabolism. However, in the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS), human samples of controlled studies are not available. Primary human hepatocytes have been described as gold standard for in vitro metabolism studies, but there are some disadvantages such as high costs, limited availability, and variability of metabolic enzymes...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600798/inhibition-of-p38mapk-signaling-prevents-epidermal-blistering-and-alterations-of-desmosome-structure-induced-by-pemphigus-autoantibodies-in-human-epidermis
#10
D T Egu, E Walter, V Spindler, J Waschke
BACKGROUND: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a skin blistering disease caused by autoantibodies targeting the desmosomal adhesion proteins desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and 1. The mechanisms underlying pemphigus skin blistering are not fully elucidated but p38MAPK activation is one of the signaling events necessary for full loss of cell cohesion. However, it is unclear whether ultrastructural hallmarks of desmosome morphology as observed in patients' lesions are mediated by p38MAPK signaling. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we tested the relevance of p38MAPK for blister formation and the ultrastructural changes induced by PV autoantibodies in human skin...
June 10, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598863/characterization-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#11
Michael D Berquist, Lisa E Baker
Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in the early 2000s prompted numerous scientific investigations of its behavioral and neurochemical effects. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the interoceptive stimulus effects of MDPV using a validated in-vivo drug-detection assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg MDPV from saline under a fixed ratio 20 (FR 20) schedule of food reinforcement. After stimulus control was established with MDPV (∼35 training sessions), substitution tests were commenced with drugs from several chemical classes, including drugs with predominantly dopaminergic actions [MDPV, D-amphetamine, (+)-methamphetamine, (-)-cocaine], drugs with predominantly serotonergic actions [(+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, (+)-fenfluramine], and drugs with both serotonergic and dopaminergic actions (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone)...
August 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570297/reinforcing-effects-of-abused-bath-salts-constituents-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-and-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-and-their-enantiomers
#12
Brenda M Gannon, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
Synthetic cathinones found in abused 'bath salts' preparations are chiral molecules. Racemic 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) are two common constituents of these preparations that have been reported to be highly effective reinforcers; however, the relative contribution of each enantiomer toward these effects has not been determined. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for racemic MDPV or α-PVP (n=9/drug), with full dose-response curves for the racemate and the S and R enantiomers of MDPV and α-PVP generated under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement...
May 31, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527032/methylone-and-mdpv-activate-autophagy-in-human-dopaminergic-sh-sy5y-cells-a-new-insight-into-the-context-of-%C3%AE-keto-amphetamines-related-neurotoxicity
#13
Maria João Valente, Cristina Amaral, Georgina Correia-da-Silva, José Alberto Duarte, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Márcia Carvalho
Autophagy has an essential role in neuronal homeostasis and its dysregulation has been recently linked to neurotoxic effects of a growing list of psychoactive drugs, including amphetamines. However, the role of autophagy in β-keto amphetamine (β-KA) designer drugs-induced neurotoxicity has hitherto not been investigated. In the present study, we show that two commonly abused cathinone derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), elicit morphological changes consistent with autophagy and neurodegeneration, including formation of autophagic vacuoles and neurite retraction in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427995/conditioned-taste-avoidance-conditioned-place-preference-and-hyperthermia-induced-by-the-second-generation-bath-salt-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-%C3%AE-pvp
#14
Katharine H Nelson, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been reported to be rewarding in a variety of pre-clinical models. Given that a number of drugs of abuse have both rewarding and aversive effects, the balance of which influences addiction potential, the present study examined the aversive properties of α-PVP by assessing its ability to induce taste avoidance. This assessment was made in a combined taste avoidance/place conditioning design that also allowed an evaluation of the relationship between α-PVP's aversive and rewarding effects...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396142/atypical-binding-at-dopamine-and-serotonin-transporters-contribute-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-mephedrone
#15
Alyssa F DeLarge, Laura L Erwin, Peter J Winsauer
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a constituent of the recreational substances known as "bath salts", is a synthetic cathinone that can produce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as problematic cardiovascular effects. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of mephedrone (0.32-10 mg/kg) with other prototypical drugs of abuse: cocaine (0.56-32 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.18-3.2 mg/kg), ketamine (1.8-18 mg/kg), phencyclidine (PCP, 1-5.6 mg/kg), heroin (1-10 mg/kg), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-DOI, 0...
June 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352261/analysis-of-evolutionary-processes-of-species-jump-in-waterfowl-parvovirus
#16
Wentao Fan, Zhaoyu Sun, Tongtong Shen, Danning Xu, Kehe Huang, Jiyong Zhou, Suquan Song, Liping Yan
Waterfowl parvoviruses are classified into goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) according to their antigenic features and host preferences. A novel duck parvovirus (NDPV), identified as a new variant of GPV, is currently infecting ducks, thus causing considerable economic loss. This study analyzed the molecular evolution and population dynamics of the emerging parvovirus capsid gene to investigate the evolutionary processes concerning the host shift of NDPV. Two important amino acids changes (Asn-489 and Asn-650) were identified in NDPV, which may be responsible for host shift of NDPV...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347165/synthetic-cathinones-in-southern-germany-characteristics-of-users-substance-patterns-co-ingestions-and-complications
#17
Katrin Romanek, Jochen Stenzel, Sabrina Schmoll, Verena Schrettl, Stefanie Geith, Florian Eyer, Christian Rabe
OBJECTIVE: To define the characteristics of synthetic cathinone users admitted to hospital including clinical and laboratory parameters and the complications of use. DESIGN: Retrospective single-center study of patients treated for acute cathinone intoxication and complications of cathinone use between January 2010 and January 2016. SETTING: A specialized clinical toxicology unit at an academic tertiary care center in Southern Germany serving a population of about 4 million...
July 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328032/product-ion-tandem-mass-spectrometric-differentiation-of-regioisomeric-side-chain-groups-in-cathinone-derivatives
#18
Younis Abiedalla, Jack DeRuiter, C Randall Clark
RATIONALE: Precursor materials are available to prepare aminoketone drugs containing regioisomeric propyl and isopropyl side-chain groups related to the drug alpha-pyrrovalerone (Flakka) and MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrrovalerone). These compounds yield equivalent regioisomeric iminium cation base peaks in electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS). METHODS: The propyl and isopropyl side-chain groups related to alpha-pyrrovalerone and MDPV were prepared and evaluated in EI-MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion experiments...
July 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325154/the-behavioral-profile-of-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-pvp-a-systematic-review
#19
Cornel N Stanciu, Thomas M Penders, Samantha A Gnanasegaram, Elvin Pirapakaran, Juvraj S Padda, Jeeven S Padda
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances are emerging at an alarming rate. With novel structures and properties they produce unique behavioral characteristics during intoxication. Synthetic cathinones are some of the most common. More and more are presenting to emergency departments due to consequences of use. Aside from isolated reports, little is known about these compounds. OBJECTIVE: Here we review literature pertaining to two common synthetic cathinones, MDPV and alphaPVP, and correlate clinically with guidance on management of intoxications...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286575/chiral-determination-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-enantiomers-in-rat-serum
#20
Michael D Hambuchen, Howard P Hendrickson, S Michael Owens
The emerging stimulant drug of abuse (3,4)-methylenedioxypyrovalerone [(R,S)-MDPV] is self-administered as a racemic mixture by intranasal, iv, oral, and smoking routes. The individual enantiomers are known to have widely different pharmacological effects, with (S)-MDPV showing much greater potency than (R)-MDPV in pharmacological testing. The goal of these studies was to develop and validate an analytical method for quantitation of (R)-MDPV, (S)-MDPV and (R,S)-MDPV in small volumes of rat serum using a chiral separation column and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
January 28, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
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