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Zebrafish brain development

Emma D Spikol, Eric Glasgow
Transcriptional control of oxytocinergic cell development influences social, sexual, and appetite related behaviors, and is implicated in disorders such as autism and Prader-Willi syndrome. Mediator 12 (Med12) is a transcriptional coactivator required for multiple facets of brain development including subsets of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. We surveyed hormone gene expression within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis of med12 mutant zebrafish embryos with a focus on oxytocin ( oxt ) expression. Some transcripts, such as oxt , vasopressin ( avp ) and corticotrophin releasing hormone ( crh ) are undetectable in the med12 mutant, while others are upregulated or downregulated to varying degrees...
March 12, 2018: Biology Open
Zachary Jonas Hall, Vincent Tropepe
The postembryonic brain exhibits experience-dependent development, in which sensory experience guides normal brain growth. This neuroplasticity is thought to occur primarily through structural and functional changes in pre-existing neurons. Whether neurogenesis also mediates the effects of experience on brain growth is unclear. Here, we characterized the importance of motor experience on postembryonic neurogenesis in larval zebrafish. We found that movement maintains an expanded pool of forebrain neural precursors by promoting progenitor self-renewal over the production of neurons...
March 12, 2018: ELife
Cheri M Ackerman, Peter K Weber, Tong Xiao, Bao Thai, Tiffani J Kuo, Emily Zhang, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Christopher J Chang
Copper is essential for eukaryotic life, and animals must acquire this nutrient through the diet and distribute it to cells and organelles for proper function of biological targets. Indeed, mutations in the central copper exporter ATP7A contribute to a spectrum of diseases, including Menkes disease, with symptoms ranging from neurodegeneration to lax connective tissue. As such, a better understanding of the fundamental impacts of ATP7A mutations on in vivo copper distributions is of relevance to those affected by these diseases...
March 6, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Yu-Jen Chao, Wen-Hsin Wu, Maria Balazova, Ting-Yuan Wu, Jamie Lin, Yi-Wen Liu, Yuan-Hao Howard Hsu
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important and widely used vertebrate model organism for the study of human diseases which include disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. Mitochondria play an essential role in both energy metabolism and apoptosis, which are mediated through a mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin (CL). In order to examine the cardiolipin profile in the zebrafish model, we developed a CL analysis platform by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Meanwhile, we tested whether chlorella diet would alter the CL profile in the larval fish, and in various organs of the adult fish...
2018: PloS One
Gilles C Vanwalleghem, Misha B Ahrens, Ethan K Scott
Due to their small size and transparency, zebrafish larvae are amenable to a range of fluorescence microscopy techniques. With the development of sensitive genetically encoded calcium indicators, this has extended to the whole-brain imaging of neural activity with cellular resolution. This technique has been used to study brain-wide population dynamics accompanying sensory processing and sensorimotor transformations, and has spurred the development of innovative closed-loop behavioral paradigms in which stimulus-response relationships can be studied...
February 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Meltem Weger, Nicolas Diotel, Benjamin D Weger, Tanja Beil, Andreas Zaucker, Helen L Eachus, James A Oakes, Jean Luc do Rego, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Philipp Gut, Uwe Straehle, Sepand Rastegar, Ferenc Mueller, Nils Krone
The spatial and temporal expression of steroidogenic genes in zebrafish has not been fully characterized. Since zebrafish are increasingly employed in endocrine and stress research, a better characterization of steroidogenic pathways is required to target specific steps in the biosynthetic pathways in the future. Here, we have systematically defined the temporal and spatial expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in glucocorticoid biosynthesis (cyp21a2, cyp11c1, cyp11a1, cyp11a2, cyp17a1, cyp17a2, hsd3b1, hsd3b2), as well as the mitochondrial electron-providing co-factors ferredoxin (fdx1, fdx1b) during zebrafish development...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Stanislav Kislyuk, Wannes Van den Bosch, Erwin Adams, Peter de Witte, Deirdre Cabooter
The present study explores the potential of 10-day-old zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a predictive blood-brain-barrier model using a set of 7 pharmaceutical agents. For this purpose, zebrafish were incubated with each of these 7 drugs separately via the route of immersion and the concentration reaching the brain was determined by applying a brain extraction procedure allowing isolation of the intact brain from the head of the zebrafish larvae. Sample analysis was performed utilizing capillary ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (cap-UHPLC) on a Pepmap RSLC C18 capillary column (150 mm × 300 μm, dp  = 2 μm) coupled to a variable wavelength UV detector...
February 27, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kiryl D Piatkevich, Erica E Jung, Christoph Straub, Changyang Linghu, Demian Park, Ho-Jun Suk, Daniel R Hochbaum, Daniel Goodwin, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Nikita Pak, Takashi Kawashima, Chao-Tsung Yang, Jeffrey L Rhoades, Or Shemesh, Shoh Asano, Young-Gyu Yoon, Limor Freifeld, Jessica L Saulnier, Clemens Riegler, Florian Engert, Thom Hughes, Mikhail Drobizhev, Balint Szabo, Misha B Ahrens, Steven W Flavell, Bernardo L Sabatini, Edward S Boyden
We developed a new way to engineer complex proteins toward multidimensional specifications using a simple, yet scalable, directed evolution strategy. By robotically picking mammalian cells that were identified, under a microscope, as expressing proteins that simultaneously exhibit several specific properties, we can screen hundreds of thousands of proteins in a library in just a few hours, evaluating each along multiple performance axes. To demonstrate the power of this approach, we created a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicator, simultaneously optimizing its brightness and membrane localization using our microscopy-guided cell-picking strategy...
February 26, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Stéphanie Bouffard, Emilie Dambroise, Alessandro Brombin, Sylvain Lempereur, Isabelle Hatin, Matthieu Simion, Raphael Corre, Franck Bourrat, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Françoise Jamen
Fibrillarin (Fbl) is a highly conserved protein that plays an essential role in ribosome biogenesis and more particularly in the methylation of ribosomal RNAs and rDNA histones. In cellular models, FBL was shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis and stem cell differentiation. We used the zebrafish as an in vivo model to study Fbl function during embryonic development. We show here that the optic tectum and the eye are severely affected by Fbl depletion whereas ventral regions of the brain are less impacted...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Biology
Surendra Kumar Anand, Amal Chandra Mondal
The Tropomyosin related kinase (TrkB) receptor, is known to promote neuronal maturation, differentiation, maintenance and survival through its cognate ligands Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 4 (NT4). BDNF, NT4 and TrkB are highly conserved proteins among vertebrates. Although the role of TrkB during brain development is well established, its role in adult neurogenesis and brain regeneration awaits thorough investigation. In this study, we used the zebrafish stab wound injury model to determine whether the injury induced regeneration response in the telencephalon region is governed by TrkB or not...
February 19, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Serene S L Gwee, Rowan A W Radford, Sharron Chow, Monisha D Syal, Marco Morsch, Isabel Formella, Albert Lee, Emily K Don, Andrew P Badrock, Nicholas J Cole, Adrian K West, Steve N S Cheung, Roger S Chung
Aurora kinase B (AurkB) is a serine/threonine protein kinase with a well-characterised role in orchestrating cell division and cytokinesis, and is prominently expressed in healthy proliferating and cancerous cells. However, the role of AurkB in differentiated and non-dividing cells has not been extensively explored. Previously, we have described a significant upregulation of AurkB expression in cultured cortical neurons following an experimental axonal transection. This is somewhat surprising, as AurkB expression is generally associated only with dividing cells Frangini et al...
February 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Kelda Chia, Julie Mazzolini, Marina Mione, Dirk Sieger
It is now clear that microglia and macrophages are present in brain tumors, but whether or how they affect initiation and development of tumors is not known. Exploiting the advantages of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) model, we showed that macrophages and microglia respond immediately upon oncogene activation in the brain. Overexpression of human AKT1 within neural cells of larval zebrafish led to a significant increase in the macrophage and microglia populations. By using a combination of transgenic and mutant zebrafish lines, we showed that this increase was caused by the infiltration of peripheral macrophages into the brain mediated via Sdf1b-Cxcr4b signaling...
February 21, 2018: ELife
Chang Xue, Hai Hong Wang, Jun Zhu, Jun Zhou
Transcriptional cofactor Vestigial-like 4 (VGLL4) was considered to take part in the early stage of development. Different from human, three paralogs of vgll4 were found in zebrafish, which were vgll4a, vgll4b and vgll4l. However, the expression patterns of the three paralogs during zebrafish development remains unknown. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to elucidate the temporal and spatial expression of zebrafish vgll4 paralogs during normal embryonic and larval development. Similar expression was shown in certain areas at similar stages for the three paralogs...
February 14, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Alexandre Vivanti, Augustin Ozanne, Cynthia Grondin, Guillaume Saliou, Loic Quevarec, Helène Maurey, Patrick Aubourg, Alexandra Benachi, Marta Gut, Ivo Gut, Jelena Martinovic, Marie Victoire Sénat, Marcel Tawk, Judith Melki
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vasculature representing 30% of all paediatric vascular malformations. We conducted whole exome sequencing in 19 unrelated patients presenting this malformation and subsequently screened candidate genes in a cohort of 32 additional patients using either targeted exome or Sanger sequencing. In a cohort of 51 patients, we found five affected individuals with heterozygous mutations in EPHB4 including de novo frameshift (p.His191Alafs*32) or inherited deleterious splice or missense mutations predicted to be pathogenic by in silico tools...
February 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Andrey Massarsky, Ayham Abdel, Lilah Glazer, Edward D Levin, Richard T Di Giulio
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing despite insufficient information concerning their long-term effects, including the effects of maternal e-cigarette use on pre- and postnatal development. Our previous study demonstrated that developmental exposure to 1,2-propanediol (a principal component of e-cigarette liquid) affected early development of zebrafish, causing reduced growth, deformities, and hyperactive swimming behavior in larvae. The current study extends assessment of the developmental toxicity of 1,2-propanediol by examining additional long-term behavioral effects...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Cristina Rodríguez, Na Ji
With the ability to correct for the aberrations introduced by biological specimens, adaptive optics-a method originally developed for astronomical telescopes-has been applied to optical microscopy to recover diffraction-limited imaging performance deep within living tissue. In particular, this technology has been used to improve image quality and provide a more accurate characterization of both structure and function of neurons in a variety of living organisms. Among its many highlights, adaptive optical microscopy has made it possible to image large volumes with diffraction-limited resolution in zebrafish larval brains, to resolve dendritic spines over 600μm deep in the mouse brain, and to more accurately characterize the orientation tuning properties of thalamic boutons in the primary visual cortex of awake mice...
February 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Ajay Pradhan, Per-Erik Olsson
Zebrafish sex differentiation is under the control of multiple genes, but also relies on germ cell number for gonadal development. Morpholino and chemical mediated germ cell depletion leads to sterile male development in zebrafish. In this study we produced sterile males, using a dead end gene morpholino, to determine gonadal-brain interactions. Germ cell depletion following dnd inhibition downregulated the germ cell markers, vasa and ziwi, and later the larvae developed as sterile males. Despite lacking proper testis, the gonadal 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and estradiol (E2) levels of sterile males were similar to wild type males...
February 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Edward C Shontz, Christopher L Souders Ii, Jordan T Schmidt, Christopher J Martyniuk
Dopamine plays a significant role in cognition, motor function, and social behavior. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the temporal expression of transcripts (dopamine receptors, transporters, and tyrosine hydroxylase) associated with dopamine signaling during early stages of zebrafish development and to (2) determine their expression profiles following treatment with a D2 receptor antagonist domperidone (DMP). We also assessed locomotor behavior following treatment with domperidone using alternating periods of light and dark (i...
January 27, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Zachary J Hall, Vincent Tropepe
Postembryonic brain development is sensitive to environmental input and sensory experience, but the mechanisms underlying healthy adaptive brain growth are poorly understood. Here, we tested the importance of visual experience on larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) postembryonic development of the optic tectum (OT), a midbrain structure involved in visually guided behavior. We first characterized postembryonic neurogenic growth in OT, in which new neurons are generated along the caudal tectal surface and contribute appositionally to anatomical growth...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hifsa Zahid, Benjamin Tsang, Hira Ahmed, Richard Chi Yeung Lee, Steven Tran, Robert Gerlai
The growing popularity of zebrafish in psychopharmacology and behavioral brain research is partly due to the practicality and simplicity of drug administration in this species. Several drugs may be administered to zebrafish by immersing the fish in the drug solution. Furthermore, numerous drugs developed for mammals, including humans, have been found to show a similar effect profile in the zebrafish. Thus, the zebrafish has been suggested as a potentially useful animal screening tool. Despite decades of drug development, anxiety still represents a major unmet medical need, and the search for anxiolytic compounds is continuing...
January 19, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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