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fasciculus retroflexus

Reika Kubo, Atsu Aiba, Kouichi Hashimoto
Perioral tactile signals are transmitted via the infraorbital nerve (ION) to trigeminal nuclei. Each cerebellar Purkinje cell receives this signal as complex spikes (CSs) via a climbing fibre emerging from the inferior olive (IO). However, the anatomical pathway from the trigeminal nuclei to the IO is not clearly identified. In the present study, we recorded CSs from Purkinje cells in male mice by single unit recording, and examined the signal transduction pathway. CSs were evoked by electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral or contralateral ION with a latency of 20-70 ms...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Marc Fakhoury
The dorsal diencephalic conduction system (DDC) is a highly conserved pathway in vertebrates that provides a route for the neural information to flow from forebrain to midbrain structures. It contains the bilaterally paired habenular nuclei along with two fiber tracts, the stria medullaris and the fasciculus retroflexus. The habenula is the principal player in mediating the dialogue between forebrain and midbrain regions, and functional abnormalities in this structure have often been attributed to pathologies like mood disorders and substance use disorder...
August 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ulysse Gimenez, Benoit Boulan, Franck Mauconduit, Fanny Taurel, Maxime Leclercq, Eric Denarier, Jacques Brocard, Sylvie Gory-Fauré, Annie Andrieux, Hana Lahrech, Jean Christophe Deloulme
In the central nervous system, microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6) is expressed at high levels and is crucial for cognitive abilities. The large spectrum of social and cognitive impairments observed in MAP6-KO mice are reminiscent of the symptoms observed in psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, and respond positively to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. MAP6-KO mice have therefore been proposed to be a useful animal model for these diseases. Here, we explored the brain anatomy in MAP6-KO mice using high spatial resolution 3D MRI, including a volumetric T1w method to image brain structures, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) for white matter fiber tractography...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lely A Quina, Julie Harris, Hongkui Zeng, Eric E Turner
The habenulopeduncular pathway consists of the medial habenula (MHb), its output tract, the fasciculus retroflexus, and its principal target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP). Several IP subnuclei have been described, but their specific projections and relationship to habenula inputs are not well understood. Here we have used viral, transgenic, and conventional anterograde and retrograde tract-tracing methods to better define the relationship between the dorsal and ventral MHb, the IP, and the secondary efferent targets of this system...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Marc Fakhoury
The habenula is an epithalamic structure located at the center of the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, a pathway involved in linking forebrain to midbrain regions. Composed of a medial and lateral subdivisions, the habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia mainly through the stria medullaris (SM), and projects to midbrain regions through the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). An increasing number of studies have implicated this structure in psychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated reward circuitry function, notably mood disorders, schizophrenia, and substance use disorder...
December 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Duc Tri Lam, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
April 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
Elsie Tachie Mensah, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Andrew Donini, Suraj Unniappan
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60 amino acid neuropeptide originally discovered from porcine hypothalamus, and is involved in the regulation of food intake in mammals. Since its discovery, GALP and its receptors (GALR1 and GALR2) have been characterized in mammals, but no publications are available on GALP in fish and other non-mammals. The present study aimed to characterize brain and intestinal GALP and its receptors using immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), and to study its effects on feeding behavior...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Laura J Mahady, Sylvia E Perez, Dwaine F Emerich, Lars U Wahlberg, Elliott J Mufson
Central cholinergic structures within the brain of the even-toed hoofed Goettingen miniature domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) were evaluated by immunohistochemical visualization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75NTR . ChAT-immunoreactive (-ir) perikarya were seen in the olfactory tubercle, striatum, medial septal nucleus, vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial habenular nucleus, zona incerta, neurosecretory arcuate nucleus, cranial motor nuclei III and IV, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sangjoon Lee, Jiwan Woo, Yong Sik Kim, Heh-In Im
A considerable amount of evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in the neuroadaptation of drug addiction. Habenula (Hb), one of the critical brain regions involved in reward and addiction, can be divided into two anatomically and transcriptionally distinct regions: medial habenula (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb) nuclei. However, very few studies have compared the functional roles of these regions. Here, by using mirConnX integrator and KEGG pathway mapping, we simultaneously analysed the differential expression patterns of miRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA) within MHb and LHb under nicotine addiction...
2015: Scientific Reports
Yuji Ishikawa, Keiji Inohaya, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Kouichi Maruyama, Masami Yoshimoto, Masayuki Iigo, Tadashi Oishi, Akira Kudo, Hironobu Ito
The parapineal is present in many teleost families, while it is absent in several others. To find out why the parapineal is absent at adult stages in the latter families, the development of the epithalamus was examined in the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). For this purpose, a green fluorescent protein-transgenic medaka line, in which the pineal complex (pineal and parapineal) is visible fluorescently, was used. We found that a distinct parapineal was present in the roof plate at early developmental stages. Subsequently, however, the parapineal and the associated roof plate began to be incorporated into the habenula between embryonic stages 28 and 29...
2015: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Y Song, X Duan, J Chen, W Huang, Z Zhu, W Hu
Kisspeptin is a neuroendocrine hormone with a critical role in the activation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, which is vital for the onset of puberty in mammals. However, the functions of kisspeptin neurones in non-mammalian vertebrates are not well understood. We have used transgenics to labell kisspeptin neurones (Kiss1 and Kiss2) with mCherry in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In kiss1:mCherry transgenic zebrafish, Kiss1 cells were located in the dorsomedial and ventromedial habenula, with their nerve fibres contributing to the fasciculus retroflexus and projecting to the ventral parts of the interpeduncular and raphe nuclei...
March 2015: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Morgane Belle, David Godefroy, Chloé Dominici, Céline Heitz-Marchaland, Pavol Zelina, Farida Hellal, Frank Bradke, Alain Chédotal
Clearing techniques have been developed to transparentize mouse brains, thereby preserving 3D structure, but their complexity has limited their use. Here, we show that immunolabeling of axonal tracts followed by optical clearing with solvents (3DISCO) and light-sheet microscopy reveals brain connectivity in mouse embryos and postnatal brains. We show that the Robo3 receptor is selectively expressed by medial habenula axons forming the fasciculus retroflexus (FR) and analyzed the development of this commissural tract in mutants of the Slit/Robo and DCC/Netrin pathways...
November 20, 2014: Cell Reports
Philip Jean-Richard Dit Bressel, Gavan P McNally
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small epithalamic structure that projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the midbrain. The LHb is known to modulate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, including inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons via glutamatergic excitation of the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). A variety of lines of evidence show activity in LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway is correlated with, and is sufficient to support, punishment learning. However, it is not immediately clear whether LHb is necessary for punishment...
2014: PloS One
Hiroyuki Ichijo, Tomoko Toyama
We generated transgenic mice lines with a construct consisting of the zif268/egr1 promoter and the gene for the normal long-life yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) with a membrane localization sequence. One of the lines exhibited topographic labeling in the medial habenular nucleus (MHb) during postnatal development, which confirmed the previous findings that the medial, lateral, and dorsal areas of MHb project to the ventral, dorsal, and lateral parts of the interpeduncular nucleus, respectively. In addition, the membranous localization of the labeling allowed us to observe spacial arrangement of the labeled axons in the fasciculus retroflexus (FR) in the transgenic mice...
September 2015: Anatomical Science International
O Gardon, L Faget, P Chu Sin Chung, A Matifas, D Massotte, B L Kieffer
The habenular complex, encompassing medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) divisions, is a highly conserved epithalamic structure involved in the dorsal diencephalic conduction system (DDC). These brain nuclei regulate information flow between the limbic forebrain and the mid- and hindbrain, integrating cognitive with emotional and sensory processes. The MHb is also one of the strongest expression sites for mu opioid receptors (MORs), which mediate analgesic and rewarding properties of opiates. At present however, anatomical distribution and function of these receptors have been poorly studied in MHb pathways...
September 26, 2014: Neuroscience
Alissa R Carver, Maria Andrikopoulou, Jun Lei, Esther Tamayo, Phyllis Gamble, Zhipeng Hou, Jiangyang Zhang, Susumu Mori, George R Saade, Maged M Costantine, Irina Burd
OBJECTIVE: Using an animal model, we have previously shown that preeclampsia results in long-term adverse neuromotor outcomes in the offspring, and this phenotype was prevented by antenatal treatment with pravastatin. This study aims to localize the altered neuromotor programming in this animal model and to evaluate the role of pravastatin in its prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the preeclampsia model, pregnant CD-1 mice were randomly allocated to injection of adenovirus carrying sFlt-1 or its control virus carrying mFc into the tail vein...
2014: PloS One
Kenia M Velasquez, David L Molfese, Ramiro Salas
Interest in the habenula has greatly increased in recent years. The habenula is a small brain structure located posterior to the thalamus and adjacent to the third ventricle. Despite its small size, the habenula can be divided into medial habenula (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb) nuclei that are anatomically and transcriptionally distinct. The habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia primarily via the stria medullaris. The fasciculus retroflexus is the primary habenular output from the habenula to the midbrain and governs release of glutamate onto gabaergic cells in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and onto the interpeduncular nucleus...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Carey L Danna, Paul D Shepard, Greg I Elmer
The attribution of incentive salience to reward associated cues is critical for motivation and the pursuit of rewards. Disruptions in the integrity of the neural systems controlling these processes can lead to avolition and anhedonia, symptoms that cross the diagnostic boundaries of many neuropsychiatric illnesses. Here, we consider whether the habenula (Hb), a region recently demonstrated to encode negatively valenced events, also modulates the attribution of incentive salience to a neutral cue predicting a food reward...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Elad Lax, Alexander Friedman, Ofri Croitoru, Einav Sudai, Hila Ben-Moshe, Lior Redlus, Efrat Sasson, Tamar Blumenfeld-Katzir, Yaniv Assaf, Gal Yadid
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging technique for effective, non-pharmacological intervention in the course of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Several brain targets have been suggested as suitable for DBS treatment of drug addiction. Previously, we showed that DBS of the lateral habenula (LHb) can reduce cocaine intake, facilitate extinction and attenuate drug-induced relapse in rats trained to self-administrate cocaine. Herein, we demonstrated that cocaine self-administration dose-dependently decreased connectivity between the LHb and midbrain, as shown by neurodegeneration of the main LHb efferent fiber, the fasciculus retroflexus (FR)...
December 2013: Neuropharmacology
John A Dani, Mariella De Biasi
The majority of people who attempt to quit smoking without some assistance relapse within the first couple of weeks, indicating the increased vulnerability during the early withdrawal period. The habenula, which projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the interpeduncular nucleus, plays an important role in the withdrawal syndrome. Particularly the α2, α5, and β4 subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor have critical roles in mediating the somatic manifestations of withdrawal. Furthermore, withdrawal from nicotine induces a hypodopaminergic state, but there is a relative increase in the sensitivity to phasic dopamine release that is caused by nicotine...
June 2013: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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