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fasciculus retroflexus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884736/brain-and-intestinal-expression-of-galanin-like-peptide-galp-galanin-receptor-r1-and-galanin-receptor-r2-and-galp-regulation-of-food-intake-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#1
Elsie Tachie Mensah, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Andrew Donini, Suraj Unniappan
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60 amino acid neuropeptide originally discovered from porcine hypothalamus, and is involved in the regulation of food intake in mammals. Since its discovery, GALP and its receptors (GALR1 and GALR2) have been characterized in mammals, but no publications are available on GALP in fish and other non-mammals. The present study aimed to characterize brain and intestinal GALP and its receptors using immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), and to study its effects on feeding behavior...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490949/cholinergic-profiles-in-the-goettingen-miniature-pig-sus-scrofa-domesticus-brain
#2
Laura Mahady, Sylvia E Perez, Dwaine F Emerich, Lars U Wahlberg, Elliott J Mufson
Central cholinergic structures within the brain of the even-toed hoofed Goettingen miniature domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) were evaluated by immunohistochemical visualization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75(NTR) . ChAT immunoreactive (-ir) perikarya were seen in the olfactory tubercle, striatum, medial septal nucleus, vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca and the nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial habenular nucleus, zona incerta, neurosecretory arcuate nucleus, cranial motor nuclei III and IV, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26260614/integrated-mirna-mrna-analysis-in-the-habenula-nuclei-of-mice-intravenously-self-administering-nicotine
#3
Sangjoon Lee, Jiwan Woo, Yong Sik Kim, Heh-In Im
A considerable amount of evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in the neuroadaptation of drug addiction. Habenula (Hb), one of the critical brain regions involved in reward and addiction, can be divided into two anatomically and transcriptionally distinct regions: medial habenula (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb) nuclei. However, very few studies have compared the functional roles of these regions. Here, by using mirConnX integrator and KEGG pathway mapping, we simultaneously analysed the differential expression patterns of miRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA) within MHb and LHb under nicotine addiction...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26184391/the-parapineal-is-incorporated-into-the-habenula-during-ontogenesis-in-the-medaka-fish
#4
Yuji Ishikawa, Keiji Inohaya, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Kouichi Maruyama, Masami Yoshimoto, Masayuki Iigo, Tadashi Oishi, Akira Kudo, Hironobu Ito
The parapineal is present in many teleost families, while it is absent in several others. To find out why the parapineal is absent at adult stages in the latter families, the development of the epithalamus was examined in the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). For this purpose, a green fluorescent protein-transgenic medaka line, in which the pineal complex (pineal and parapineal) is visible fluorescently, was used. We found that a distinct parapineal was present in the roof plate at early developmental stages. Subsequently, however, the parapineal and the associated roof plate began to be incorporated into the habenula between embryonic stages 28 and 29...
2015: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25529211/the-distribution-of-kisspeptin-kiss-1-and-kiss2-positive-neurones-and-their-connections-with-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-3-neurones-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#5
Y Song, X Duan, J Chen, W Huang, Z Zhu, W Hu
Kisspeptin is a neuroendocrine hormone with a critical role in the activation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, which is vital for the onset of puberty in mammals. However, the functions of kisspeptin neurones in non-mammalian vertebrates are not well understood. We have used transgenics to labell kisspeptin neurones (Kiss1 and Kiss2) with mCherry in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In kiss1:mCherry transgenic zebrafish, Kiss1 cells were located in the dorsomedial and ventromedial habenula, with their nerve fibres contributing to the fasciculus retroflexus and projecting to the ventral parts of the interpeduncular and raphe nuclei...
March 2015: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25456121/a-simple-method-for-3d-analysis-of-immunolabeled-axonal-tracts-in-a-transparent-nervous-system
#6
Morgane Belle, David Godefroy, Chloé Dominici, Céline Heitz-Marchaland, Pavol Zelina, Farida Hellal, Frank Bradke, Alain Chédotal
Clearing techniques have been developed to transparentize mouse brains, thereby preserving 3D structure, but their complexity has limited their use. Here, we show that immunolabeling of axonal tracts followed by optical clearing with solvents (3DISCO) and light-sheet microscopy reveals brain connectivity in mouse embryos and postnatal brains. We show that the Robo3 receptor is selectively expressed by medial habenula axons forming the fasciculus retroflexus (FR) and analyzed the development of this commissural tract in mutants of the Slit/Robo and DCC/Netrin pathways...
November 20, 2014: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25365401/the-role-of-the-lateral-habenula-in-punishment
#7
Philip Jean-Richard Dit Bressel, Gavan P McNally
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small epithalamic structure that projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the midbrain. The LHb is known to modulate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, including inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons via glutamatergic excitation of the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). A variety of lines of evidence show activity in LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway is correlated with, and is sufficient to support, punishment learning. However, it is not immediately clear whether LHb is necessary for punishment...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25145706/axons-from-the-medial-habenular-nucleus-are-topographically-sorted-in-the-fasciculus-retroflexus
#8
Hiroyuki Ichijo, Tomoko Toyama
We generated transgenic mice lines with a construct consisting of the zif268/egr1 promoter and the gene for the normal long-life yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) with a membrane localization sequence. One of the lines exhibited topographic labeling in the medial habenular nucleus (MHb) during postnatal development, which confirmed the previous findings that the medial, lateral, and dorsal areas of MHb project to the ventral, dorsal, and lateral parts of the interpeduncular nucleus, respectively. In addition, the membranous localization of the labeling allowed us to observe spacial arrangement of the labeled axons in the fasciculus retroflexus (FR) in the transgenic mice...
September 2015: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25086313/expression-of-mu-opioid-receptor-in-dorsal-diencephalic-conduction-system-new-insights-for-the-medial-habenula
#9
O Gardon, L Faget, P Chu Sin Chung, A Matifas, D Massotte, B L Kieffer
The habenular complex, encompassing medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) divisions, is a highly conserved epithalamic structure involved in the dorsal diencephalic conduction system (DDC). These brain nuclei regulate information flow between the limbic forebrain and the mid- and hindbrain, integrating cognitive with emotional and sensory processes. The MHb is also one of the strongest expression sites for mu opioid receptors (MORs), which mediate analgesic and rewarding properties of opiates. At present however, anatomical distribution and function of these receptors have been poorly studied in MHb pathways...
September 26, 2014: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24963809/maternal-pravastatin-prevents-altered-fetal-brain-development-in-a-preeclamptic-cd-1-mouse-model
#10
Alissa R Carver, Maria Andrikopoulou, Jun Lei, Esther Tamayo, Phyllis Gamble, Zhipeng Hou, Jiangyang Zhang, Susumu Mori, George R Saade, Maged M Costantine, Irina Burd
OBJECTIVE: Using an animal model, we have previously shown that preeclampsia results in long-term adverse neuromotor outcomes in the offspring, and this phenotype was prevented by antenatal treatment with pravastatin. This study aims to localize the altered neuromotor programming in this animal model and to evaluate the role of pravastatin in its prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the preeclampsia model, pregnant CD-1 mice were randomly allocated to injection of adenovirus carrying sFlt-1 or its control virus carrying mFc into the tail vein...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24734015/the-role-of-the-habenula-in-drug-addiction
#11
REVIEW
Kenia M Velasquez, David L Molfese, Ramiro Salas
Interest in the habenula has greatly increased in recent years. The habenula is a small brain structure located posterior to the thalamus and adjacent to the third ventricle. Despite its small size, the habenula can be divided into medial habenula (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb) nuclei that are anatomically and transcriptionally distinct. The habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia primarily via the stria medullaris. The fasciculus retroflexus is the primary habenular output from the habenula to the midbrain and governs release of glutamate onto gabaergic cells in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and onto the interpeduncular nucleus...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24368898/the-habenula-governs-the-attribution-of-incentive-salience-to-reward-predictive-cues
#12
Carey L Danna, Paul D Shepard, Greg I Elmer
The attribution of incentive salience to reward associated cues is critical for motivation and the pursuit of rewards. Disruptions in the integrity of the neural systems controlling these processes can lead to avolition and anhedonia, symptoms that cross the diagnostic boundaries of many neuropsychiatric illnesses. Here, we consider whether the habenula (Hb), a region recently demonstrated to encode negatively valenced events, also modulates the attribution of incentive salience to a neutral cue predicting a food reward...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23891640/neurodegeneration-of-lateral-habenula-efferent-fibers-after-intermittent-cocaine-administration-implications-for-deep-brain-stimulation
#13
Elad Lax, Alexander Friedman, Ofri Croitoru, Einav Sudai, Hila Ben-Moshe, Lior Redlus, Efrat Sasson, Tamar Blumenfeld-Katzir, Yaniv Assaf, Gal Yadid
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging technique for effective, non-pharmacological intervention in the course of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Several brain targets have been suggested as suitable for DBS treatment of drug addiction. Previously, we showed that DBS of the lateral habenula (LHb) can reduce cocaine intake, facilitate extinction and attenuate drug-induced relapse in rats trained to self-administrate cocaine. Herein, we demonstrated that cocaine self-administration dose-dependently decreased connectivity between the LHb and midbrain, as shown by neurodegeneration of the main LHb efferent fiber, the fasciculus retroflexus (FR)...
December 2013: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23732854/mesolimbic-dopamine-and-habenulo-interpeduncular-pathways-in-nicotine-withdrawal
#14
John A Dani, Mariella De Biasi
The majority of people who attempt to quit smoking without some assistance relapse within the first couple of weeks, indicating the increased vulnerability during the early withdrawal period. The habenula, which projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the interpeduncular nucleus, plays an important role in the withdrawal syndrome. Particularly the α2, α5, and β4 subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor have critical roles in mediating the somatic manifestations of withdrawal. Furthermore, withdrawal from nicotine induces a hypodopaminergic state, but there is a relative increase in the sensitivity to phasic dopamine release that is caused by nicotine...
June 2013: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23593280/lesions-of-the-fasciculus-retroflexus-alter-footshock-induced-cfos-expression-in-the-mesopontine-rostromedial-tegmental-area-of-rats
#15
Paul Leon Brown, Paul D Shepard
Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential part of the circuitry underlying motivation and reinforcement. They are activated by rewards or reward-predicting cues and inhibited by reward omission. The lateral habenula (lHb), an epithalamic structure that forms reciprocal connections with midbrain dopamine neurons, shows the opposite response being activated by reward omission or aversive stimuli and inhibited by reward-predicting cues. It has been hypothesized that habenular input to midbrain dopamine neurons is conveyed via a feedforward inhibitory pathway involving the GABAergic mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22019302/multiple-origins-migratory-paths-and-molecular-profiles-of-cells-populating-the-avian-interpeduncular-nucleus
#16
Beatriz Lorente-Cánovas, Faustino Marín, Rubén Corral-San-Miguel, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez, José Luis Ferrán, Luis Puelles, Pilar Aroca
The interpeduncular nucleus (IP) is a key limbic structure, highly conserved evolutionarily among vertebrates. The IP receives indirect input from limbic areas of the telencephalon, relayed by the habenula via the fasciculus retroflexus. The function of the habenulo-IP complex is poorly understood, although there is evidence that in rodents it modulates behaviors such as learning and memory, avoidance, reward and affective states. The IP has been an important subject of interest for neuroscientists, and there are multiple studies about the adult structure, chemoarchitecture and its connectivity, with complex results, due to the presence of multiple cell types across a variety of subnuclei...
January 1, 2012: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21777302/a-role-for-the-habenula-in-the-regulation-of-locomotor-activity-cycles
#17
Matthew J Paul, Premananda Indic, William J Schwartz
Although much is known about the regulation of the circadian rest-activity cycle by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus in nocturnal rodents, little is known about the neural substrates that regulate the temporal organization of nocturnal activity within the active phase. In this report, data are presented in Syrian hamsters to implicate the habenula - believed to be involved in motivation, reward and motor control--as a candidate site for such a role. First, by examining hamsters during the day and night and by introducing a 'novel' running wheel in order to induce daytime motor activity, we showed that immunoreactive c-Fos expression in the lateral and medial habenula is related to motor activity/arousal...
August 2011: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21551761/the-role-of-the-habenula-interpeduncular-pathway-in-modulating-levels-of-circulating-adrenal-hormones
#18
M Murray, C A Murphy, L L Ross, F Haun
The fasciculus retroflexus (FR) is the major pathway by which the medial and lateral habenular nuclei project to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) and ventral tegmentum. Recent work has suggested that the habenula-interpeduncular system may be involved in the regulation of states of arousal. Bilateral FR lesions have been shown to disrupt chronically, and habenula transplants have been shown to restore normal sleep patterns in rats [J. NeuroscL, 12 (1992) 3282-3290]. In this study, we examined whether FR lesions and habenula cell transplants would also modify chronically the circulating plasma levels of the stress-related hormones, norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone...
January 1, 1994: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21203458/carbocyanine-dye-usage-in-demarcating-boundaries-of-the-aged-human-red-nucleus
#19
Satoru Onodera, T Philip Hicks
BACKGROUND: Though the adult human magnocellular Red nucleus (mNr) is essentially vestigial and its boundaries with neighbouring structures have never been well demarcated, human studies in utero have shown a well developed semilunar mNr wrapping around the caudal parvicellular Red nucleus (pNr), similar to what is seen in quadrupeds. In the present study, we have sought to better delineate the morphological determinants of the adult human Red nucleus (ahRn). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Serial sections of ahRn show fine myelinated fibers arising from pNr and turning toward the central tegmental tract...
2010: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21029041/central-core-of-the-cerebrum
#20
Chan-Young Choi, Seong-Rok Han, Gi-Taek Yee, Chae-Heuck Lee
OBJECT: The purpose of this study was to understand 3D relationships of white matter fibers and subcortical areas of gray matter in the central core. METHODS: The lateral and medial aspects of 4 cerebral hemispheres were dissected, applying the fiber dissection technique under the microscope. RESULTS: The central core between the insula and midline includes the extreme, external, and internal capsules; claustrum; putamen; globus pallidus; caudate nucleus; amygdala; diencephalon; substantia innominata; fornix; anterior commissure; mammillothalamic tract; fasciculus retroflexus; thalamic peduncles, including optic and auditory radiations; ansa peduncularis; thalamic fasciculus; and lenticular fasciculus...
February 2011: Journal of Neurosurgery
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