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Lingling Si, Xinyan Yan, Wenjin Hao, Xiaoyi Ma, Huanhuan Ren, Boxue Ren, Defang Li, Zhengping Dong, Qiusheng Zheng
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Licochalcone D (LD) on the apoptosis and migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V‑FITC/PI staining and JC‑1 assay. Total intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined by DCFH‑DA. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect migration and invasion of the cells. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP‑2 and MMP‑9) were assessed via gelatin zymography...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Linlin Wang, Fang Zhang, Jian-Ying Cui, Liang Chen, Yue-Ting Chen, Bo-Wen Liu
Carcinoma‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major components of mesenchymal cells in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. They are involved in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemotherapy resistance by directly contacting with cancer cells or secretory cytokines. In the present study, we examined the role of CAFs in the induction of EMT in ovarian cancer. Primary ovarian cancer cells, CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated from fresh cancer tissue and cultured for immunohistochemistry studies...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Eva Svandova, Barbora Vesela, Abigail S Tucker, Eva Matalova
Caspases are well known proteases in the context of inflammation and apoptosis. Recently, novel roles of pro-apoptotic caspases have been reported, including findings related to the development of hard tissues. To further investigate these emerging functions of pro-apoptotic caspases, the in vivo localisation of key pro-apoptotic caspases (-3,-6,-7,-8, and -9) was assessed, concentrating on the development of two neighbouring hard tissues, cells participating in odontogenesis (represented by the first mouse molar) and intramembranous osteogenesis (mandibular/alveolar bone)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mei Liu, Qiang Guo, Chunmei Wu, Delphine Sterlin, Shyamal Goswami, Ying Zhang, Teng Li, Chunde Bao, Nan Shen, Qiong Fu, Xiaoming Zhang
A hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the breaking of B-cell tolerance with the generation of high-affinity autoantibodies; however, the antibody-independent features of the B-cell compartment in SLE are less understood. In this study, we performed an extensive examination of B-cell subsets and their proinflammatory properties in a Chinese cohort of new-onset SLE patients. We observed that SLE patients exhibited an increased frequency of transitional B cells compared with healthy donors and rheumatoid arthritis patients...
March 21, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Jade Leahy, Schohraya Spahis, Eric Bonneil, Carole Garofalo, Guy Grimard, Sophia Morel, Caroline Laverdière, Maja Krajinovic, Simon Drouin, Edgard Delvin, Daniel Sinnett, Valérie Marcil, Emile Levy
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) is the most prevalent form of cancer in children. Due to advances in treatment and therapy, young cALL subjects now achieve a 90% survival rate. However, this tremendous advance does not come without consequence since ~2/3 of cALL survivors are affected by long-term and late, severe complications. Although the metabolic syndrome is a very serious sequel of cALL, the mechanisms remain undefined. It is also surprising to note that the mitochondrion, a central organelle in metabolic functions and the main cellular energy generator, have not yet been explored...
March 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Rinat O Esenaliev, Irene Y Petrov, Yuriy Petrov, Jutatip Guptarak, Deborah R Boone, Emanuele Mocciaro, Harris Weisz, Margaret O Parsley, Stacy L Sell, Helen L Hellmich, Jonathan M Ford, Connor Pogue, Douglas DeWitt, Donald S Prough, Maria Adelaide Micci
We have developed a novel, non-invasive Nano-Pulsed Laser Therapy (NPLT) system that combines the benefits of near-infrared laser light (808 nm) and ultrasound (optoacoustic) waves, which are generated with each short laser pulse within the tissue. We tested NPLT in a rat model of blast-induced neurotrauma to determine whether transcranial application of NPLT provides neuroprotective effects. The laser pulses were applied on the intact rat head one hour after injury using a specially developed fiber-optic system...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Wagdy M Eldehna, Mahmoud F Abo-Ashour, Hany S Ibrahim, Ghada H Al-Ansary, Hazem A Ghabbour, Mahmoud M Elaasser, Hanaa Y A Ahmed, Nesreen A Safwat
On account of their significance as apoptosis inducing agents, merging indole and 3-hydrazinoindolin-2-one scaffolds is a logic tactic for designing pro-apoptotic agents. Consequently, 27 hybrids (6a-r, 9a-f and 11a-c) were synthesised and evaluated for their cytotoxicity against MCF-7, HepG-2 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. SAR studies unravelled that N-propylindole derivatives were the most active compounds such as 6n (MCF-7; IC50 =1.04 µM), which displayed a significant decrease of cell population in the G2/M phase and significant increase in the early and late apoptosis by 19-folds in Annexin-V-FTIC assay...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Safia Ladha, Xiaofan Qiu, Lorenzo Casal, Nicholas S Caron, Dagmar E Ehrnhoefer, Michael R Hayden
Traditionally, the family of caspases has been subcategorised according to their respective main roles in mediating apoptosis or inflammation. However, recent studies have revealed that caspases participate in diverse cellular functions beyond their canonical roles. Caspase-6 (C6) is one such protease known for its role as a pro-apoptotic executioner caspase and its aberrant activity in several neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to apoptosis, C6 has been shown to regulate B-cell activation and differentiation in plasma cells as well as macrophage activation...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Leandra Linhares-Lacerda, Alessandra Granato, João Francisco Gomes-Neto, Luciana Conde, Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Elisangela O de Freitas, Celio G Freire-de-Lima, Shana P Coutinho Barroso, Rodrigo Jorge de Alcântara Guerra, Roberto C Pedrosa, Wilson Savino, Alexandre Morrot
Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most severe clinical manifestation of chronic Chagas disease. The disease affects most of the Latin American countries, being considered one of the leading causes of morbidity and death in the continent. The pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy is very complex, with mechanisms involving parasite-dependent cytopathy, immune-mediated myocardial damage and neurogenic disturbances. These pathological changes eventually result in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure and stroke during chronic infection phase...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fazeela Mahaboob Begum S M, Kalai Chitra, Benin Joseph, Raji Sundararajan, Hemalatha S
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of Non small cell lung cancer in which the PI3K/Akt cascade is frequently deregulated. The ubiquitous expression of the PI3K and the frequent inactivation of PTEN accounts for the prolonged survival, evasion of apoptosis and metastasis in cancer. This has led to the development of PI3K inhibitors in the treatment of cancer. Synthetic PI3K inhibitors undergoing clinical and preclinical studies are toxic in animals. Hence, there is a critical need to identify PI3K inhibitor(s) of natural origin...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Xiaojie Sun, Manhua Cui, Ding Wang, Baofeng Guo, Ling Zhang
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and functions to promote apoptosis by binding to cell surface death receptor (DR)4 and DR5. Cancer cells are more sensitive than normal cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and TRAIL-based therapeutic strategies have shown promise for the treatment of cancer. The present study investigated whether enforced overexpression of TRAIL in cervical cancer cells promoted cell death in the presence or absence of Taxol, an important first-line cancer chemotherapeutic drug...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Wei Chen, Xiaoqun Liu, Sujuan Yuan, Tiankui Qiao
Although cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment, resistance remains a major problem that restricts its efficacy. Therefore, identification of drugs that reverse or prevent resistance to CDDP in NSCLC has been a focus of a number of studies. The results of the present study revealed the effect of heat shock protein family A member 12B (HSPA12B) overexpression on chemoresistance in A549 cells in vitro . The effect of HSPA12B overexpression on chemoresistance in mice bearing A549 xenografted tumors was then determined via stable HSPA12B transfection...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Ruchi Mishra, Saurabh Sharma, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Savita Singh, Milind Madhav Sardesai, Sadhna Sharma, Vandana Mishra
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Viscum articulatum Burm. f. (leafless mistletoe) has been used in traditional system of medicines in India, China, Taiwan, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, to treat blood-related diseases and various inflammatory and degenerative diseases including cancer. Anticancer activities of some phytomolecules purified from Viscum articulatum Burm. f. have been tested. However scientific evidence for the anticancerous potential of aqueous extract of V. articularum (VAQE) used in traditional medicine is lacking...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ohseong Kwon, Youngsik Seo, Heonyong Park
Pinosylvin is known to have anti-inflammatory activity in endothelial cells. In this study, we found that pinosylvin had a pro-apoptotic activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-preconditioned leukocytes. This finding suggests that pinosylvin has an effect on the resolution of inflammation. To understand the detailed mechanism, we examined if pinosylvin enhances cyclooxygenase (COX) or lipoxygenase (LOX) activity in THP-1 and U937 cells. LOX activity was found to be markedly increased by pinosylvin, whereas COX activity was not altered...
March 20, 2018: BMB Reports
Yonglin Yu, Xinkun Shen, Zhong Luo, Yan Hu, Menghuan Li, Pingping Ma, Qichun Ran, Liangliang Dai, Ye He, Kaiyong Cai
Oxidative stress is commonly existed in bone degenerative disease (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis etc.) and some antioxidants had great potential to enhance osteogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the anti-oxidative properties of various TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) so to screen the desirable size for improved osteogenesis and reveal the underlying molecular mechanism in vitro. Comparing cellular behaviors under normal and oxidative stress conditions, an interesting conclusion was obtained. In normal microenvironment, small TNTs were beneficial for adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts, but large TNTs greatly increased osteogenic differentiation...
March 13, 2018: Biomaterials
Sheila A Kitchen, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis
In host-microbe interactions, signaling lipids function in interpartner communication during both the establishment and maintenance of associations. Previous evidence suggests that sphingolipids play a role in the mutualistic cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbiosis. Exogenously applied sphingolipids have been shown to alter this partnership, though endogenous host regulation of sphingolipids by the sphingosine rheostat under different symbiotic conditions has not been characterized. The rheostat regulates levels of pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and pro-apoptotic sphingosine (Sph) through catalytic activities of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and S1P phosphatase (SGPP)...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
Hussaina Banu, N Renuka, S M Faheem, Raees Ismail, Vinita Singh, Zahra Saadatmand, Saad Sultan Khan, Kavya Narayanan, Alma Raheem, Kumpati Premkumar, Geetha Vasanthakumar
Recently, several attempts have been made to use the phytopharmaceuticals from plant extracts as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents for the biomimetic synthesis of various metal nanoparticles conjugated to the phytopharmaceuticals. These biogenic metal nanoparticles are non-toxic and can be used as contrast agents, drug delivery vehicles and photothermal agents for cancer therapy. Herein, we report the synthesis of both silver and gold nanoparticles using the pollen extract of Phoenix dactylifera (Date Palm), characterization using UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, quantitation of phytochemicals capping the nanoparticles using Folin - Ciocalteu's method, cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, cancer cell death analysis using fluorescent microscopy, and modulation of expression of the pro-apoptotic p53 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins...
March 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Ruxing Wang, Yanjie Lu, Hong Li, Lixin Sun, Ning Yang, Mingzhen Zhao, Manli Zhang, Qingwen Shi
Ailanthone is isolated from the bark of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Simaroubaceae). The mechanism that underlies the activity of ailanthone on MCF-7 cells was investigated by MTT assay. Breast cancer MCF-7 cells were treated with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 µg/ml ailanthone for 24, 48 and 72 h. The inhibition of proliferation induced by treatment with ailanthone was assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution in MCF-7 cells with the same doses of ailanthone for 48 h were determined by flow cytometry...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Xuan Wang, Xiangli Yao, Shiming Fan, Chenshuang Xiang, Runjiao Liu, Juan Feng, Jing Huang, Shouxin Liu
Melanoma is highly resistant to most traditional treatments; therefore, its incidence and mortality rates are rapidly increasing. The effect of a novel sansalvamide A analogue named LY-15 on the growth and induction of apoptosis in B16 cancer cells was investigated in vitro . The inhibitory effects of LY-15 on B16 cells occurred in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The B16 cells were cultured in various concentrations of LY-15 (5, 15 and 25 µM), and the ameliorating effect of LY-15 was evaluated using apoptotic protein markers B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3 and caspase-9...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Suolin Zhang, Yayan Wang
Expression of angiotensin II (Ang II), a key biological peptide in the renin-angiotensin system, is closely associated with the occurrence and development of cancer. Ang II binds two receptor subtypes, the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the AT2R, to mediate a series of biological effects. Telmisartan, a specific AT1R blocker, has been reported to have potential as an anticancer drug for treating renal cancer. In the present study, whether telmisartan had an effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation and migration was investigated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
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