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Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919940/calcitox-aging-counterbalanced-by-endogenous-farnesol-like-sesquiterpenoids-an-undervalued-evolutionarily-ancient-key-signaling-pathway
#1
Arnold De Loof
Cells are powerful miniature electrophoresis chambers, at least during part of their life cycle. They die at the moment the voltage gradient over their plasma membrane, and their ability to drive a self-generated electric current carried by inorganic ions through themselves irreversibly collapses. Senescence is likely due to the progressive, multifactorial damage to the cell's electrical system. This is the essence of the "Fading electricity theory of aging" (De Loof et al., Aging Res. Rev. 2013;12:58-66)...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919556/measuring-inotocin-receptor-gene-expression-in-chronological-order-in-ant-queens
#2
Sarah Chérasse, Serge Aron
In vertebrates and invertebrates, oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides modulate a variety of behaviors. The recent discovery of the gene and receptor sequences of inotocin, the insect ortholog of oxytocin/vasopressin, opens new opportunities for understanding the role of this peptide family in regulating behaviors in the most populated class of living animals. Ants live in highly organized colonies. Once a year, they produce future queens that soon leave the nest to mate and found new colonies. During the first months of their lives, ant queens display a sequence of behaviors ranging from copulation and social interactions to violent fighting...
September 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916376/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae-ovary-reveals-genes-involved-in-oogenesis
#3
Lu Peng, Lei Wang, Yi-Fan Yang, Ming-Min Zou, Wei-Yi He, Yue Wang, Qing Wang, Liette Vasseur, Min-Sheng You
BACKGROUND: As a specialized organ, the insect ovary performs valuable functions by ensuring fecundity and population survival. Oogenesis is the complex physiological process resulting in the production of mature eggs, which are involved in epigenetic programming, germ cell behavior, cell cycle regulation, etc. Identification of the genes involved in ovary development and oogenesis is critical to better understand the reproductive biology and screening the potential molecular targets in Plutella xylostella, a worldwide destructive pest of economically major crops...
September 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912787/effect-of-light-availability-on-the-interaction-between-maritime-pine-and-the-pine-weevil-light-drives-insect-feeding-behavior-but-also-the-defensive-capabilities-of-the-host
#4
Estefanía Suárez-Vidal, Xosé López-Goldar, Luis Sampedro, Rafael Zas
Light is a major environmental factor that may determine the interaction between plants and herbivores in several ways, including top-down effects through changes in herbivore behavior and bottom-up effects mediated by alterations of plant physiology. Here we explored the relative contribution of these two regulation processes to the outcome of the interaction of pine trees with a major forest pest, the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis). We studied to what extent light availability influence insect feeding behavior and/or the ability of pines to produce induced defenses in response to herbivory...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912693/octopamine-underlies-the-counter-regulatory-response-to-a-glucose-deficit-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#5
Christina Buckemüller, Oliver Siehler, Josefine Göbel, Richard Zeumer, Anja Ölschläger, Dorothea Eisenhardt
An animal's internal state is a critical parameter required for adaptation to a given environment. An important aspect of an animal's internal state is the energy state that is adjusted to the needs of an animal by energy homeostasis. Glucose is one essential source of energy, especially for the brain. A shortage of glucose therefore triggers a complex response to restore the animal's glucose supply. This counter-regulatory response to a glucose deficit includes metabolic responses like the mobilization of glucose from internal glucose stores and behavioral responses like increased foraging and a rapid intake of food...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905488/genetically-engineering-better-fungal-biopesticides
#6
REVIEW
Brian Lovett, Raymond John St Leger
Microbial insect pathogens offer an alternative means of pest control with potential to wean our heavy reliance on chemical pesticides. Insect pathogenic fungi play an important natural role in controlling disease vectors and agricultural pests. Most commercial products employ Ascomycetes in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria. However, their utilization has been limited by inconsistent field results due to sensitivity to abiotic stresses and naturally low virulence. Other naturally occurring biocontrol agents also face these hurdles to successful application, but the availability of complete genomes and recombinant DNA technologies have facilitated design of multiple fungal pathogens with enhanced virulence and stress resistance...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904750/phenology-of-brown-marmorated-stink-bug-described-using-female-reproductive-development
#7
Anne L Nielsen, Shelby Fleischer, George C Hamilton, Tori Hancock, Gregorz Krawczyk, Jana C Lee, Emily Ogburn, John M Pote, Amy Raudenbush, Ann Rucker, Michael Saunders, Victoria P Skillman, Jeanne Sullivan, Jody Timer, James Walgenbach, Nik G Wiman, Tracy C Leskey
Temperature-based degree-day models describe insect seasonality and to predict key phenological events. We expand on the use of a temperature-based process defining timing of reproduction through the incorporation of female reproductive physiology for the invasive pentatomid species Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. A five-stage ranking system based on ovary development was able to distinguish between the reproductive statuses of field-collected females. Application of this ranking method described aspects of H...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902438/colony-level-behavioral-variation-correlates-with-differences-in-expression-of-the-foraging-gene-in-red-imported-fire-ants
#8
Alison A Bockoven, Craig J Coates, Micky D Eubanks
Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and have significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behavior at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902170/lipase-activity-in-the-larval-midgut-of-rhynchophorus-palmarum-biochemical-characterization-and-the-effects-of-reducing-agents
#9
Camilla Camerino Santana, Leandro A Barbosa, Irinaldo Diniz Basílio Júnior, Ticiano Gomes do Nascimento, Camila Braga Dornelas, Luciano A M Grillo
Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage, and mobilization and are also fundamental to many physiological processes in insects. Lipids are an important component of insect diets, where they are hydrolyzed in the midgut lumen, absorbed, and used for the synthesis of complex lipids. The South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum is one of the most important pests on commercial palm plantations. However, there are few studies about lipid digestion for this insect. In this work, we have described the biochemical characterization of the lipase activity in the posterior midgut of the R...
September 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894566/methyl-jasmonate-induction-of-cotton-a-field-test-of-the-attract-and-reward-strategy-of-conservation-biological-control
#10
Livy Williams, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Sandra C Castle Del Conte
Natural or synthetic elicitors can affect plant physiology by stimulating direct and indirect defence responses to herbivores. For example, increased production of plant secondary metabolites, a direct response, can negatively affect herbivore survival, development and fecundity. Indirect responses include increased emission of plant volatiles that influence herbivore and natural enemy behaviour, and production of extrafloral nectar that serves as a food source for natural enemies after their arrival on induced plants...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893327/new-activity-of-yamamarin-an-insect-pentapeptide-on-immune-system-of-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor
#11
K Walkowiak-Nowicka, G Nowicki, M Kuczer, G Rosiński
In insects, two types of the immune responses, cellular and humoral, constitute a defensive barrier against various parasites and pathogens. In response to pathogens, insects produce a wide range of immune agents that act on pathogens directly, such as cecropins or lysozyme, or indirectly by the stimulation of hemocyte migration or by increasing phenoloxidase (PO) activity. Recently, many new immunologically active substances from insects, such as peptides and polypeptides, have been identified. Nevertheless, in the most cases, their physiological functions are not fully known...
September 12, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893182/the-dynamic-landscape-of-gene-regulation-during-bombyx-mori-oogenesis
#12
Qiang Zhang, Wei Sun, Bang-Yong Sun, Yang Xiao, Ze Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oogenesis in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a complex process involving previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. During this process, follicles show drastic morphological and physiological changes. However, the genome-wide regulatory profiles of gene expression during oogenesis remain to be determined. RESULTS: In this study, we obtained time-series transcriptome data and used these data to reveal the dynamic landscape of gene regulation during oogenesis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879573/metabolism-or-behavior-explaining-the-performance-of-aphids-on-alkaloid-producing-fungal-endophytes-in-annual-ryegrass-lolium-multiflorum
#13
Daniel A Bastias, Andrea C Ueno, Cristina R Machado Assefh, Adriana E Alvarez, Carolyn A Young, Pedro E Gundel
Plant-herbivore interactions are often mediated by plant microorganisms, and the "defensive mutualism" of epichloid fungal endophytes of grasses is an example. These endophytes synthesize bioactive alkaloids that generally have detrimental effects on the performance of insect herbivores, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Our objective was to determine whether changes in the physiology and/or behavior of aphids explain the changes in performance of insects feeding on endophytic plants. We studied the interaction between the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi and the annual ryegrass Lolium multiflorum symbiotic (E+) or not symbiotic (E-) with the fungus Epichloë occultans that can synthesize loline alkaloids...
September 6, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878489/rnai-technology-a-new-platform-for-crop-pest-control
#14
REVIEW
B Mamta, M V Rajam
The insect pests are big threat in meeting the food demands for future generation. The present pest control strategies, including the existing transgenic approaches show certain limitations and are not completely successful in limiting the insect pests. However, the sequence-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi) holds a great promise for effective management of agricultural pests. RNAi is naturally occurring conserved process responsible for gene regulation and defense against pathogens. The efficacy of RNAi varies among different insect orders and also depends upon various factors, including the target gene selection, method of dsRNAs delivery, expression of dsRNAs and presence of off-target effects...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877227/hemocyte-mediated-phagocytosis-differs-between-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-worker-castes
#15
Eva Marit Hystad, Heli Salmela, Gro Vang Amdam, Daniel Münch
Honey bees as other insects rely on the innate immune system for protection against diseases. The innate immune system includes the circulating hemocytes (immune cells) that clear pathogens from hemolymph (blood) by phagocytosis, nodulation or encapsulation. Honey bee hemocyte numbers have been linked to hemolymph levels of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin is a multifunctional protein with immune-supportive functions identified in a range of species, including the honey bee. Hemocyte numbers can increase via mitosis, and this recruitment process can be important for immune system function and maintenance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872705/heat-stress-hardening-of-oriental-armyworms-is-induced-by-a-transient-elevation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-during-sublethal-stress
#16
Takashi Matsumura, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Yoichi Hayakawa
Pre-exposure to mild heat stress enhances the thermotolerance of insects. Stress hardening is a beneficial physiological plasticity, but the mechanism underlying it remains elusive. Here we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations were quickly and transiently elevated in the armyworms, Mythimna separata, by exposing them to 40°C, but not other tested temperatures. Larvae exposed to 40°C had subsequently elevated antioxidant activity and the highest survival of all tested heating conditions...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872112/fat-body-organ-culture-system-in-aedes-aegypti-a-vector-of-zika-virus
#17
Hae-Na Chung, Stacy D Rodriguez, Victoria K Carpenter, Julia Vulcan, C Donovan Bailey, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Yiyi Li, Geoffrey M Attardo, Immo A Hansen
The insect fat body plays a central role in insect metabolism and nutrient storage, mirroring functions of the liver and fat tissue in vertebrates. Insect fat body tissue is usually distributed throughout the insect body. However, it is often concentrated in the abdomen and attached to the abdominal body wall. The mosquito fat body is the sole source of yolk proteins, which are critical for egg production. Therefore, the in vitro culture of mosquito fat body tissues represents an important system for the study of mosquito physiology, metabolism, and, ultimately, egg production...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867173/different-processing-of-capa-and-pyrokinin-precursors-in-the-giant-mealworm-beetle-zophobas-atratus-tenebrionidae-and-the-boll-weevil-anthonomus-grandis-grandis-curculionidae
#18
Susanne Neupert, Pawel Marciniak, Rene Köhler, Ronald J Nachman, Charles P-C Suh, Reinhard Predel
Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our data revealed that even within Coleoptera, which represents a very well-defined group of insects, highly different evolutionary developments occurred in the neuropeptidergic system. These differences, however, primarily affect the general structure of the precursors and differential processing of mature peptides and, to a lesser degree, the sequences of the active core motifs...
August 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864301/the-scolopidial-accessory-organs-and-nebenorgans-in-orthopteroid-insects-comparative-neuroanatomy-mechanosensory-function-and-evolutionary-origin
#19
REVIEW
Johannes Strauß
Scolopidial sensilla in insects often form large sensory organs involved in proprioception or exteroception. Here the knowledge on Nebenorgans and accessory organs, two organs with scolopidial sensory cells, is summarised. These organs are present in some insects which are model organisms for the physiology of mechanosensory systems (cockroaches and tettigoniids). Recent comparative studies documented the accessory organ in several taxa of Orthoptera (bushcrickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets) and the Nebenorgan in related insects (Mantophasmatodea)...
August 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861046/genomic-physiologic-and-symbiotic-characterization-of-serratia-marcescens-strains-isolated-from-the-mosquito-anopheles-stephensi
#20
Shicheng Chen, Jochen Blom, Edward D Walker
Strains of Serratia marcescens, originally isolated from the gut lumen of adult female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, established persistent infection at high rates in adult A. stephensi whether fed to larvae or in the sugar meal to adults. By contrast, the congener S. fonticola originating from Aedes triseriatus had lower infection in A. stephensi, suggesting co-adaptation of Serratia strains in different species of host mosquitoes. Coinfection at high infection rate in adult A. stephensi resulted after feeding S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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