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Insect Physiology

Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
Chikako Ono, Junki Hirano, Toru Okamoto, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Insect expression systems based on baculovirus are widely used for the generation of recombinant proteins. Here, we evaluated the infectivity of baculoviruses under the physiological stresses of 'freeze- thaw' and sonication, and the baculoviral contamination of recombinant proteins after protein purification. Our findings suggest that Nonidet™ P-40 (NP-40) treatment of baculoviruses completely abolishes their infectivity and that recombinant proteins purified with affinity beads do not include infectious baculoviruses...
January 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Zu-Lian Liu, Jun Xu, Lin Ling, Ru Zhang, Peng Shang, Yong-Ping Huang
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved and multifunctional protein with activities ranging from cytoskeletal regulation to transcription regulation in numerous organisms. In insects, TCTP is essential for cell growth and proliferation. Recently, TCTP has been reported to affect the innate intestinal immune pathway in the Bombyx mori silkworm, a lepidopteran model insect. However, the comprehensive physiological roles of TCTP in the silkworm remain poorly understood. Here, we performed functional analysis of BmTCTP by using a binary transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromin repeats/RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases) system...
January 9, 2018: Insect Science
Andrew J Myrick, Thomas C Baker
Gas-chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) is a technique used in the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as pheromones and plant host odors, which are physiologically relevant to insects. Although pheromones often elicit large EAD responses, other behaviorally relevant odors may elicit responses that are difficult to discern from noise. Lock-in amplification has long been used to reduce noise in a wide range of applications. Its utility when incorporated with GC-EAD was demonstrated previosuly by chopping (or pulsing) effluent-laden air that flowed over an insect antenna...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Huifang Wang, Zhangjiang He, Linli Luo, Xin Zhao, Zhuoyue Lu, Tingying Luo, Min Li, Yongjun Zhang
The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) belong to the NADP-dependent oxidoreductase superfamily, which play important roles in various physiological functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, many AKR superfamily members remain uncharacterized. Here, a downstream target gene of the HOG1 MAPK pathways coding for an aldo-keto reductase, named Bbakr1, was characterized in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Bbakr1 expression increased in response to osmotic and salt stressors, and oxidative and heavy metal (chromium) stress...
January 3, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Tian-Mei Dai, Yu-Sheng Wang, Wan-Xue Liu, Zhi-Chuang Lü, Fang-Hao Wan
Anthropogenic climate change and global warming are expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many ectothermic species, which will increase the invasion of new areas by exotic species. To survive in variable or fluctuating temperature conditions, insects require sensitive thermal sensory mechanisms to detect external thermal stimuli and induce the appropriate behavioral and physiological responses. TRPA, a thermal-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channel, is essential for thermotaxis in insects...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Shashwat Singh, Geetanjali Mishra, Omkar
All organisms are exposed to daily as well as seasonal variation in temperature in nature. However, ectotherms are strongly affected by temperature and its variations. Most laboratory studies on effect of temperature on life history traits employ constant instead of fluctuating temperature regimes, though the latter is more reflective of nature. We conducted investigations on the effect of constant, fluctuating and alternate temperature regimes on reproductive and developmental attributes of a biocontrol agent ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Michelle C Agne, Peter A Beedlow, David C Shaw, David R Woodruff, E Henry Lee, Steven P Cline, Randy L Comeleo
Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated changes, such as increasing severity of droughts and insect outbreaks. We review the major insects and pathogens affecting the disturbance regime for coastal Douglas-fir forests in western Oregon and Washington State, USA, and ask how future climate changes may influence their role in disturbance ecology. Although the physiological constraints of light, temperature, and moisture largely control tree growth, episodic and chronic disturbances interacting with biological factors have substantial impacts on the structure and functioning of forest ecosystems in this region...
February 1, 2018: Forest Ecology and Management
G Angelella, V Nalam, P Nachappa, J White, I Kaplan
Insect endosymbionts (hereafter, symbionts) can modify plant virus epidemiology by changing the physiology or behavior of vectors, but their role in nonpersistent virus pathosystems remains uninvestigated. Unlike propagative and circulative viruses, nonpersistent plant virus transmission occurs via transient contamination of mouthparts, making direct interaction between symbiont and virus unlikely. Nonpersistent virus transmission occurs during exploratory intracellular punctures with styletiform mouthparts when vectors assess potential host-plant quality prior to phloem feeding...
December 30, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Zulian Liu, Lin Ling, Jun Xu, Baosheng Zeng, Yongping Huang, Peng Shang, Anjiang Tan
MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate multiple physiological processes including development and metamorphosis in insects. In the current study, we demonstrate that a conserved invertebrate miRNA-14 (miR-14) plays an important role in ecdysteroid regulated development in the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of miR-14 using the GAL4/UAS system resulted in delayed silkworm larval development and smaller body size of larva and pupa with decrease in ecdysteriod titers...
December 27, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jine Chen, Fengbo Li, Yan Liu, Weifeng Shen, Xin Du, Lihua He, Zhiqi Meng, Xianliang Ma, Yongqiang Wang
Lysine succinylation is a newly identified protein post-translational modification (PTM) of lysine residues. Increasing evidences demonstrate that this modification is prevalent in mitochondria and regulates many vital cellular processes, especially metabolism. Here, we determined the succinylome of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) midgut mitochondria during the larval gluttonous stage (the fifth instar) using succinylated peptides enrichment coupled with nano HPLC/MS/MS. A total of 1884 lysine succinylation sites on 373 mitochondrial proteins were identified...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Yuncai Liu, Hang Su, Rongqiao Li, Xiaotong Li, Yusong Xu, Xiangping Dai, Yanyan Zhou, Huabing Wang
BACKGROUND: Heat tolerance is a key parameter that affects insect distribution and abundance. Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a devastating pest of mulberry in the main mulberry-growing regions and can cause tremendous losses to sericulture by directly feeding on mulberry leaves and transmitting viruses to Bombyx mori. Moreover, G. pyloalis shows a prominent capacity for adaptation to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations and can survive several hours under high temperature...
December 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
L Liu, M Qu, J Yang, Q Yang
The ectoperitrophic space (EcPS) between the insect midgut epithelial cells and the peritrophic matrix is an unexplored, clean resource for concentrated proteins secreted by the midgut epithelial cells, which offers an ideal opportunity to uncover the midgut functions. In this study, we used Bombyx mori as a model organism and performed comparative proteomic analyses of the secreted proteins in the EcPS at the feeding and wandering stages. A total of 372 proteins were identified from both stages and 70 proteins were predicted to be secreted...
December 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Lei Peng, Yan Zhao, Huiying Wang, Chengpan Song, Xinxin Shangguan, Yinhua Ma, Lili Zhu, Guangcun He
Plant-insect interactions constitute a complex of system, whereby plants synthesize toxic compounds as the main defense strategy to combat herbivore assault, and insects deploy detoxification systems to cope with toxic plant compounds. Cytochrom P450s are among the main detoxification enzymes employed by insects to combat the chemical defenses of host plants. In this study, we used Nilaparvata lugens (BPH) to constitute an ideal system for studying plant-insect interactions. By feeding BPHs with artificial diets containing ethanol extracts, we show that biotype Y BPHs have a greater ability to metabolize exogenous substrates than biotype 1 BPHs...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Hitoshi Miyakawa, Tomomi Sato, You Song, Knut E Tollefsen, Taisen Iguchi
The two essential insect hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones, are possessed not only by insects, but also widely by arthropods, and regulate various developmental and physiological processes. In contrast to the abundant information about molecular endocrine mechanisms in insects, the knowledge of non-insect arthropod endocrinology is still limited. In this review, we summarize recent reports about the molecular basis of these two major insect hormones in the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia, a keystone taxon in limnetic ecology and a bioindicator in environmental studies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ichiro Kawahata, Tohru Yamakuni
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide acting as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the target insects. However, questions about the safety to mammals, including human have emerged. Overactivation of mammalian peripheral catecholaminergic systems leads to onset of tachycardia, hypertension, vomiting, etc., which have been observed in acutely imidacloprid-poisoned patients as well. Physiological activation of the nAChRs is known to drive catecholamine biosynthesis and secretion in mammalian adrenal chromaffin cells...
December 12, 2017: Toxicology
Wei Chen, Shengqiang Shen, Lili Dong, Jianjun Zhang, Qing Yang
To develop selective inhibitors for β-N-acetylhexosaminidases which are involved in a myriad of physiological processes, a series of novel thioglycosyl-naphthalimide hybrid inhibitors were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition activity against glycosyl hydrolase family 20 and 84 (GH20 and GH84) β-N-acetylhexosaminidases. These compounds which incorporate groups with varied sizes and lengths at the linker region between thioglycosyl moiety and naphthalimide moiety are designed to improve the selectivity and stacking interactions...
November 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
João Ramalho Ortigão-Farias, Tatiana Di-Blasi, Erich Loza Telleria, Ana Carolina Andorinho, Thais Lemos-Silva, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão, Antônio Jorge Tempone, Yara Maria Traub-Csekö
BACKGROUND The insect chitinase gene family is composed by more than 10 paralogs, which can codify proteins with different domain structures. In Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, a chitinase cDNA from adult female insects was previously characterized. The predicted protein contains one catalytic domain and one chitin-binding domain (CBD). The expression of this gene coincided with the end of blood digestion indicating a putative role in peritrophic matrix degradation...
February 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
LinQuan Ge, HaoTian Gu, Bo Huang, Qisheng Song, David Stanley, Fang Liu, Guo-Qing Yang, Jin-Cai Wu
The cAMP/PKA intracellular signaling pathway is launched by adenylyl cyclase (AC) conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to 3', 5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent activation of PKA. Although this pathway is very well known in insect physiology, there is little to no information on it in some very small pest insects, such as the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål. BPH is a destructive pest responsible for tremendous crop losses in rice cropping systems. We are investigating the potentials of novel pest management technologies from RNA interference perspective...
2017: PloS One
Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Kamila Stokowa-Sołtys
Peptide antibiotics are produced by bacterial, mammalian, insect or plant organisms in defense against invasive microbial pathogens. Therefore, they are gaining importance as anti-infective agents. There are a number of antibiotics that require metal ions to function properly. Metal ions play a key role in their action and are involved in specific interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. On the other hand, it is well known that some antimicrobial agents possess functional groups that enable them interacting with metal ions present in physiological fluids...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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