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Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150386/role-of-endosymbionts-in-insect-parasitic-nematode-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Ioannis Eleftherianos, Shruti Yadav, Eric Kenney, Dustin Cooper, Yaprak Ozakman, Jelena Patrnogic
Endosymbiotic bacteria exist in many animals where they develop relationships that affect certain physiological processes in the host. Insects and their nematode parasites form great models for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of immune and parasitic processes. Both organisms contain endosymbionts that possess the ability to interfere with certain mechanisms of immune function and pathogenicity. This review summarizes recent information on the involvement of insect endosymbionts in the response to parasitic nematode infections, and the influence of nematode endosymbionts on specific aspects of the insect immune system...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149192/diet-improvement-for-western-corn-rootworm-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larvae
#2
Man P Huynh, Lisa N Meihls, Bruce E Hibbard, Stephen L Lapointe, Randall P Niedz, Dalton C Ludwick, Thomas A Coudron
The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most serious insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and parts of Europe, and arguably one of the world's most expensive pests to control. Several diet formulations are currently used by industry and public researchers to evaluate WCR larvae in diet-toxicity bioassays. However, a publicly available diet that produces normative insects that are physiologically similar to WCR larvae reared on corn roots will accelerate development of management technologies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134443/circadian-clock-during-plant-development
#3
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Plants have endogenous biological clocks that allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for daily and seasonal environmental changes and increase their fitness in changing environments. The circadian clock in plants, as in animals and insects, mainly consists of multiple interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops. The circadian clock can be entrained by environmental cues such as light, temperature and nutrient status to synchronize internal biological rhythms with surrounding environments. Output pathways link the circadian oscillator to various physiological, developmental, and reproductive processes for adjusting the timing of these biological processes to an appropriate time of day or a suitable season...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133150/structure-and-function-of-per-arnt-sim-domains-and-their-possible-role-in-the-life-cycle-biology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#4
REVIEW
Maura Rojas-Pirela, Daniel J Rigden, Paul A Michels, Ana J Cáceres, Juan Luis Concepción, Wilfredo Quiñones
Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains of proteins play important roles as modules for signalling and cellular regulation processes in widely diverse organisms such as Archaea, Bacteria, protists, plants, yeasts, insects and vertebrates. These domains are present in many proteins where they are used as sensors of stimuli and modules for protein interactions. Characteristically, they can bind a broad spectrum of molecules. Such binding causes the domain to trigger a specific cellular response or to make the protein containing the domain susceptible to responding to additional physical or chemical signals...
November 10, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133063/octopamine-enhances-the-immune-responses-of-freshwater-giant-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-via-octopamine-receptors
#5
Hsin-Wei Kuo, Winton Cheng
Octopamine (OA) is known to play an important role in regulating insect immune responses. In Macrobrachium rosenbergii (18.0 ± 1.7 g), OA at 25.0 and 250.0 pmol/prawn significantly increased THC, semigranular cells (SGCs) and PO activity in hemocytes per 50 μL hemolymph, hyaline cells, granular cells (GCs) and RBs in hemocytes per 10 μL hemolymph, and RBs per hemocyte, and however, significantly decreased PO activity per granulocyte (GC + SGC), which returned to control levels after 4 h of injection...
November 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130369/from-moths-to-caterpillars-ideal-conditions-for-galleria-mellonella-rearing-for-in-vivo-microbiological-studies
#6
Adeline L Jorjão, Luciane D Oliveira, Liliana Scorzoni, Lívia Mara A Figueiredo-Godoi, Marcia Cristina A Prata, Antonio Olavo C Jorge, Juliana C Junqueira
Galleria mellonella is a well-accepted insect model for the study of pathogen-host interactions and antimicrobial compounds. The main advantages of this model include the low cost of maintenance, the fast life cycle, the possibility of using a large number of caterpillars and the innate immune system, which is evolutionarily conserved relative to mammals. Because of these advantages, different research groups have been working to implement the rearing of G. mellonella in laboratory conditions. This protocol describes our experience in the rearing of G...
November 13, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129291/editorial-overview-molecular-physiology-insect-nutrition-beyond-energy
#7
EDITORIAL
Matthew Piper, Carlos Ribeiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129284/the-b-vitamin-nutrition-of-insects-the-contributions-of-diet-microbiome-and-horizontally-acquired-genes
#8
REVIEW
Angela E Douglas
Insects generally cannot synthesize eight B vitamins that function as co-enzymes in various required enzymatic reactions. Most insects derive their B vitamin requirements from the diet, microbial symbionts, or a combination of these complementary sources. Exceptionally, the genomes of a few insects bear genes in vitamin B5 (pantothenate) and B7 (biotin) synthesis, horizontally acquired from bacteria. Biomarkers of B vitamin deficiency (e.g. vitamin titers, activity of vitamin-dependent enzymes) offer routes to investigate the incidence and the physiological and fitness consequences of B vitamin deficiency in laboratory and field populations of insects...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129281/the-essential-roles-of-metal-ions-in-insect-homeostasis-and-physiology
#9
REVIEW
Julian At Dow
Metal ions play distinct roles in living organisms, including insects. Some, like sodium and potassium, are central players in osmoregulation and 'blood and guts' transport physiology, and have been implicated in cold adaptation. Calcium is a key player as a second messenger, and as a structural element. Other metals, particularly those with multiple redox states, can be cofactors in many metalloenzymes, but can contribute to toxic oxidative stress on the organism in excess. This short review selects some examples where classical knowledge has been supplemented with recent advances, in order to emphasize the importance of metals as essential nutrients for insect survival...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129274/using-artificial-diets-to-understand-the-nutritional-physiology-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
REVIEW
Matthew Dw Piper
Artificial diets have been in use for rearing insects for more than 100 years. Their composition ranges from completely chemically defined (holidic), to semi-defined (meridic) to non-defined (oligidic). Recently, meridic and holidic diets have been used to demonstrate previously unrecognised nutrient-sensitive behaviours and patterns of fitness trait expression in adult Drosophila melanogaster. This article presents a summary of the basic nutritional requirements of Drosophila followed by an account of some of these nutrient-modified phenotypes and what they can reveal about fundamental mechanisms...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126087/label-free-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-identifies-proteins-involved-in-the-testis-maturation-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#11
Dong Wei, Meng-Yi Zhang, Pei-Ming Gu, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Complex structural and biochemical processes take place in insect testis maturation, but the mechanisms by which functional proteins induce and regulate male fertility are unknown. Proteomics has been widely used to identify functional proteins involved in such complex physiological processes. In this study, we performed a label-free based quantitative proteomic analysis of developing testis of Bactrocera dorsalis with the aim of shedding light on spermatogenesis, sperm formation and also tissue development...
October 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126020/mechanistic-insight-in-potential-dual-role-of-sinigrin-against-helicoverpa-armigera
#12
Aniruddha R Agnihotri, Chaitanya V Hulagabali, Anmol S Adhav, Rakesh S Joshi
The adverse effect of glucosinolates on diverse phytophagous insects is well documented, but its impact on insect physiology has remained enigmatic. Here we report insights into detrimental effects of plant glucosinolate molecule, sinigrin, on Helicoverpa armigera growth and development. In-silico screening of multiple glucosinolates predicted sinigrin as one of the potential inhibitor of H. armigera cathepsin B and L. Insects fed on sinigrin containing diet showed significantly reduced growth (20-30%), delayed pupation (10-15%), decreased fecundity (50-80%) and developmental abnormalities...
November 7, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122550/supply-and-demand-how-does-variation-in-atmospheric-oxygen-during-development-affect-insect-tracheal-and-mitochondrial-networks
#13
John M VandenBrooks, Gregory Gstrein, Jason Harmon, Jessica Friedman, Matthew Olsen, Anna Ward, Gregory Parker
Atmospheric oxygen is one of the most important atmospheric component for all terrestrial organisms. Variation in atmospheric oxygen has wide ranging effects on animal physiology, development, and evolution. This variation in oxygen has the potential to affect both respiratory systems (the supply side) and mitochondrial networks (the demand side) in animals. Insect respiratory systems supplying oxygen to tissues in the gas phase through blind ended tracheal systems are particularly susceptible to this variation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121909/successful-production-of-the-potato-antimicrobial-peptide-snakin-1-in-baculovirus-infected-insect-cells-and-development-of-specific-antibodies
#14
Natalia Inés Almasia, María Paula Molinari, Guillermo Andrés Maroniche, Vanesa Nahirñak, María Pilar Barrios Barón, Oscar Alberto Taboga, Cecilia Vazquez Rovere
BACKGROUND: Snakin-1 (StSN1) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from Solanum tuberosum. Its biotechnological potential has been already recognized since it exhibits in vivo antifungal and antibacterial activity. Most attempts to produce StSN1, or homologous peptides, in a soluble native state using bacterial, yeast or synthetic expression systems have presented production bottlenecks such as insolubility, misfolding or low yields. RESULTS: In this work, we successfully expressed a recombinant StSN1 (rSN1) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells by optimizing several of the parameters for its expression in the baculovirus expression system...
November 9, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119316/accessing-the-hidden-microbial-diversity-of-aphids-an-illustration-of-how-culture-dependent-methods-can-be-used-to-decipher-the-insect-microbiota
#15
Alina S Grigorescu, François Renoz, Ahmed Sabri, Vincent Foray, Thierry Hance, Philippe Thonart
Microorganism communities that live inside insects can play critical roles in host development, nutrition, immunity, physiology, and behavior. Over the past decade, high-throughput sequencing reveals the extraordinary microbial diversity associated with various insect species and provides information independent of our ability to culture these microbes. However, their cultivation in the laboratory remains crucial for a deep understanding of their physiology and the roles they play in host insects. Aphids are insects that received specific attention because of their ability to form symbiotic associations with a wide range of endosymbionts that are considered as the core microbiome of these sap-feeding insects...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107658/physiological-characterization-and-regulation-of-the-contractile-properties-of-the-mosquito-ventral-diverticulum-crop
#16
Travis L Calkins, Andrew DeLaat, Peter M Piermarini
In adult dipteran insects (flies), the crop is a diverticulum of the esophagus that serves as a food storage organ. The crop pumps stored contents into the alimentary canal for digestion and absorption. The pumping is mediated by peristaltic contractions of the crop musculature. In adult female mosquitoes, the crop (ventral diverticulum) selectively stores sugar solutions (e.g., nectar); proteinaceous blood meals by-pass the crop and are transferred directly to the midgut for digestion. The mechanisms that regulate crop contractions have never been investigated in mosquitoes...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107249/a-chitin-binding-lectin-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds-wsmol-impairs-the-digestive-physiology-of-the-mediterranean-flour-larvae-anagasta-kuehniella
#17
Caio Fernando Ramalho de Oliveira, Maiara Celine de Moura, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo
Biotechnological techniques allow the investigation of alternatives to outdated chemical insecticides for crop protection; some investigations have focused on the identification of molecules tailored from nature for this purpose. We, herein, describe the negative effects of water-soluble lectin from Moringa oleifera seeds (WSMoL) on Anagasta kuehniella development. The chitin-binding lectin, WSMoL, impaired the larval weight gain by 50% and affected the activity of the pest's major digestive enzymes. The commitment of the digestive process became evident after controlled digestion studies, where the capacity of protein digestion was compromised by >90%...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104168/identification-and-analysis-of-up-regulated-proteins-in-lissorhoptrus-oryzophilus-adults-for-rapid-cold-hardening
#18
Shuang Yang, Xinxin Zhang, Jinxin Wang, Shang Wang, Yu Pan, Juhong Zhang, Jinghui Xi
Rapid cold hardening (RCH) is a central physiological adaptation in which brief chilling significantly enhances the cold tolerance ability of insects. However, the mechanism of rapid cold stress response remains unknown for rice water weevils. To elucidate the mechanism, a comparative proteomic analysis was applied with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) between RCH and control treatment samples. A total of 21 protein spots were found to be up-regulated in rice water weevil adults for the RCH condition...
November 2, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099952/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitor-from-avena-sativa-seeds-on-life-history-and-physiological-characteristics-of-sitotroga-cerealella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#19
Ehsan Borzoui, Gadir Nouri-Ganbalani, Bahram Naseri
The inhibitory effects of Avena sativa L. seed extract were studied on life history and some physiological aspects of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The inhibition of α-amylase activity in vitro by A. sativa proteinaceous extract suggested its potential antimetabolic effect on S. cerealella larvae. Although, chronic ingestion of A. sativa inhibitor (I10: 0.108 mg protein/artificial seed) did not show significant reduction of the growth and development of S. cerealella. However, a delay in the developmental time of immature stages was detected when S...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097282/isolation-of-carboxylesterase-esterase-fe4-from-apis-cerana-cerana-and-its-role-in-oxidative-resistance-during-adverse-environmental-stress
#20
Manli Ma, Haihong Jia, Xuepei Cui, Na Zhai, Hongfang Wang, Xingqi Guo, Baohua Xu
Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play vital roles in metabolising different physiologically important endogenous compounds and in detoxifying various harmful exogenous compounds in insects. Multiple studies of CarEs have focused on pesticide metabolism in insects, while few studies have aimed to identify CarE functions in oxidative resistance, particularly in Apis cerana cerana. In this study, we isolated a carboxylesterase gene, esterase FE4, from Apis cerana cerana and designated it towards an exploration of its roles as an antioxidant and in detoxification...
October 30, 2017: Biochimie
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