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Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522417/physiological-responses-of-insects-to-microbial-fermentation-products-insights-from-the-interactions-between-drosophila-and-acetic-acid
#1
Geonho Kim, Jia Hsin Huang, John G McMullen, Peter D Newell, Angela E Douglas
Acetic acid is a fermentation product of many microorganisms, including some that inhabit the food and guts of Drosophila. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary acetic acid on oviposition and larval performance of Drosophila. At all concentrations tested (0.34-3.4%), acetic acid promoted egg deposition by mated females in no-choice assays; and females preferred to oviposit on diet with acetic acid relative to acetic acid-free diet. However, acetic acid depressed larval performance, particularly extending the development time of both larvae colonized with the bacterium Acetobacter pomorum and axenic (microbe-free) larvae...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522347/functional-analysis-of-tcctlp-5c2-a-chymotrypsin-like-serine-protease-needed-for-molting-in-tribolium-castaneum
#2
Daniel Albaum, Gunnar Broehan, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Hans Merzendorfer
In a previous study, we have characterized a gene family encoding chymotrypsin-like proteases from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcCTLPs). We identified 14 TcCTLP genes that were predominantly expressed in the midgut, where they presumably function in digestion. Two genes (TcCTLP-6C and TcCTLP-5C2), however, additionally showed considerable expression in the carcass, and RNAi studies demonstrated that they are required for molting (Broehan et al., 2010; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol 40, 274-83). Thus, the enzyme has distinct functions in different physiological environments...
May 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510721/cold-tolerance-of-pityophthorus-juglandis-coleoptera-scolytidae-from-northern-california
#3
Andrea R Hefty, Steven J Seybold, Brian H Aukema, Robert C Venette
Winter survivorship of insects is determined by a combination of physiological, behavioral, and microhabitat characteristics. We characterized the cold tolerance of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman, a domestic alien invasive bark beetle that vectors a phytopathogenic fungus. The beetle and fungus cause thousand cankers disease in species of Juglans and Pterocarya. The disease is spreading in the United States of America (USA) and Italy. Contact thermocouple thermometry was used to measure the supercooling points of adults and larvae and lower lethal temperatures of adults from a population from northern California...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506897/aegerolysins-lipid-binding-proteins-with-versatile-functions
#4
REVIEW
Matej Butala, Maruša Novak, Nada Kraševec, Matej Skočaj, Peter Veranič, Peter Maček, Kristina Sepčić
Proteins of the aegerolysin family span many kingdoms of life. They are relatively widely distributed in bacteria and fungi, but also appear in plants, protozoa and insects. Despite being produced in abundance in cells at specific developmental stages and present in secretomes, only a few aegerolysins have been studied in detail. In particular, their organism-specific physiological roles are intriguing. Here, we review published findings to date on the distribution, molecular interactions and biological activities of this family of structurally and functionally versatile proteins, the aegerolysins...
May 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505265/the-influence-of-the-topography-of-the-ailao-mountains-on-congregated-landings-of-airborne-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae-populations
#5
Yan Wu, Xi-Jie Li, Xiao Chen, Gao Hu, Yan-Yue Hu, Kai Xiong, Guo Zhang, Jian Zhu, Shao-Lei Chen, Ming-Hong Lu, Ai-Dong Chen, Bao-Ping Zhai
The Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is an important migrating rice pest whose outbreak may be caused by large-scale congregated landings. Hitherto, the meteorological factors that influence congregated landings were thought to be rainfall and downdraft. However, for migratory insects on a plateau, low temperature may be another key factor leading to congregated landings. However, no reports have been published. Therefore, this paper evaluates the reason for a large-scale congregated landing in the mountainous area in Yuanjiang via light trap monitoring...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503179/molecular-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-cuticular-wax-for-plant-drought-tolerance
#6
REVIEW
Dawei Xue, Xiaoqin Zhang, Xueli Lu, Guang Chen, Zhong-Hua Chen
Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503020/circadian-rhythm-in-mrna-expression-of-the-glutathione-synthesis-gene-gclc-is-controlled-by-peripheral-glial-clocks-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Eileen S Chow, Dani M Long, Jadwiga M Giebultowicz
Circadian coordination of metabolism, physiology, and behaviour is found in all living kingdoms. Clock genes are transcriptional regulators, and their rhythmic activities generate daily rhythms in clock-controlled genes which result in cellular and organismal rhythms. Insects provide numerous examples of rhythms in behaviour and reproduction, but less is known about control of metabolic processes by circadian clocks in insects. Recent data suggest that several pathways involved in protecting cells from oxidative stress may be modulated by the circadian system, including genes involved in glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis...
December 2016: Physiological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502662/-what-not-detectors-help-the-brain-see-in-depth
#8
Nuno R Goncalves, Andrew E Welchman
Binocular stereopsis is one of the primary cues for three-dimensional (3D) vision in species ranging from insects to primates. Understanding how the brain extracts depth from two different retinal images represents a tractable challenge in sensory neuroscience that has so far evaded full explanation. Central to current thinking is the idea that the brain needs to identify matching features in the two retinal images (i.e., solving the "stereoscopic correspondence problem") so that the depth of objects in the world can be triangulated...
May 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502574/diner-database-for-insect-neuropeptide-research
#9
Joseph G C Yeoh, Aniruddha A Pandit, Meet Zandawala, Dick R Nässel, Shireen-Anne Davies, Julian A T Dow
Neuropeptides are responsible for regulating a variety of functions, including development, metabolism, water and ion homeostasis, and as neuromodulators in circuits of the central nervous system. Numerous neuropeptides have been identified and characterized. However, both discovery and functional characterization of neuropeptides across the massive Class Insecta has been sporadic. To leverage advances in post-genomic technologies for this rapidly growing field, insect neuroendocrinology requires a consolidated, comprehensive and standardised resource for managing neuropeptide information...
May 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493870/functional-male-accessory-glands-and-fertility-in-drosophila-require-novel-ecdysone-receptor
#10
Vandana Sharma, Anuj K Pandey, Ajay Kumar, Snigdha Misra, Himanshu P K Gupta, Snigdha Gupta, Anshuman Singh, Norene A Buehner, Kristipati Ravi Ram
In many insects, the accessory gland, a secretory tissue of the male reproductive system, is essential for male fertility. Male accessory gland is the major source of proteinaceous secretions, collectively called as seminal proteins (or accessory gland proteins), which upon transfer, manipulate the physiology and behavior of mated females. Insect hormones such as ecdysteroids and juvenoids play a key role in accessory gland development and protein synthesis but little is known about underlying molecular players and their mechanism of action...
May 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493488/seasonality-of-odonate-mediated-methyl-mercury-flux-from-permanent-and-semi-permanent-ponds-and-potential-risk-to-red-winged-blackbirds-agelaius-phoeniceus
#11
Edward B Williams, Matthew M Chumchal, Ray W Drenner, James H Kennedy
Methyl mercury (MeHg) is an aquatic contaminant that can be transferred to terrestrial predators by emergent aquatic insects such as odonates (dragonflies and damselflies). We assessed the effects of month and pond permanence on odonate-mediated MeHg flux (calculated as emergent odonate biomass x MeHg concentration) in 10 experimental ponds and the potential risk to nestling red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) posed by consuming MeHg-contaminated odonates. Emergent odonates were collected weekly from permanent ponds with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) (n = 5) and semi-permanent ponds without fish (n = 5) over an 8-month period (January - August, 2015)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491041/describing-the-diapause-preparatory-proteome-of-the-beetle-colaphellus-bowringi-and-identifying-candidates-affecting-lipid-accumulation-using-isobaric-tags-for-mass-spectrometry-based-proteome-quantification-itraq
#12
Qian-Qian Tan, Wen Liu, Fen Zhu, Chao-Liang Lei, Daniel A Hahn, Xiao-Ping Wang
Prior to entering diapause, insects must prepare themselves physiologically to withstand the stresses of arresting their development for a lengthy period. While studies describing the biochemical and cellular milieu of the maintenance phase of diapause are accumulating, few studies have taken an "omics" approach to describing molecular events during the diapause preparatory phase. We used isobaric tags and mass spectrometry (iTRAQ) to quantitatively compare the expression profiles of proteins identified during the onset of diapause preparation phase in the heads of adult female cabbage beetles, Colaphellus bowringi...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490635/the-foxo-transcription-factor-controls-insect-growth-and-development-by-regulating-juvenile-hormone-degradation-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#13
Baosheng Zeng, Yuping Huang, Jun Xu, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Hua Bai, Subba Reddy Palli, Yongping Huang, Anjiang Tan
Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO (BmFOXO) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489937/impact-of-sublethal-exposure-to-a-pyrethroid-neonicotinoid-insecticide-on-mating-fecundity-and-development-in-the-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius-l-hemiptera-cimicidae
#14
Sydney E Crawley, Jennifer R Gordon, Katelyn A Kowles, Michael F Potter, Kenneth F Haynes
Sublethal exposure to an insecticide may alter insect feeding, mating, oviposition, fecundity, development, and many other life history parameters. Such effects may have population-level consequences that are not apparent in traditional dose-mortality evaluations. Earlier, we found that a routinely used combination insecticide that includes a pyrethroid and a neonicotinoid (Temprid® SC) had deleterious effects on multiple bed bug (Cimex lectularius, L.) behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that sublethal exposure impacts physiology and reproduction as well...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487555/adaptation-to-dietary-conditions-by-trehalose-metabolism-in-drosophila
#15
Tetsuo Yasugi, Takayuki Yamada, Takashi Nishimura
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide that serves as the main sugar component of haemolymph in insects. Trehalose hydrolysis enzyme, called trehalase, is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. However, our understanding of the physiological role of trehalase remains incomplete. Here, we analyze the phenotypes of several Trehalase (Treh) loss-of-function alleles in a comparative manner in Drosophila. The previously reported mutant phenotype of Treh affecting neuroepithelial stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the optic lobe is caused by second-site alleles in addition to Treh...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486146/plant-insect-pathogen-interactions-a-naturally-complex-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois
#16
REVIEW
Flávia P Franco, Daniel S Moura, Jorge M Vivanco, Marcio C Silva-Filho
Under environmental conditions, plants are constantly exposed to a wide range of biotic interactions, which include insects, and pathogens. Usually scientists are tempted to study each association individually, which reduces the complexity of the interaction. This restricted view of the problem does not consider that plants are the ballroom in which a multitude of organisms are constantly interacting with each other affecting not only plant responses but also how one organism responds to the other. Plants attacked by insects and pathogens display profound physiological, morphological and chemical changes or adaptations that result in organism attraction or avoidance, depending on the species involved...
May 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485267/blue-light-induced-immunosuppression-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-adults-as-a-carryover-effect-of-larval-exposure
#17
K Tariq, M Noor, M Hori, A Ali, A Hussain, W Peng, C-J Chang, H Zhang
Detrimental effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on living organisms are well understood, little is known about the effects of blue light irradiation. Although a recent study revealed that blue light caused more harmful effects on insects than UV light and blue light irradiation killed insect pests of various orders including Diptera, the effects of blue light on physiology of insects are still largely unknown. Here we studied the effects of blue light irradiation on cuticular melanin in larval and the immune response in adult stage of Bactrocera dorsalis...
May 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479122/what-does-heat-tell-a-mosquito-characterization-of-the-orientation-behaviour-of-aedes-aegypti-towards-heat-sources
#18
Paula F Zermoglio, Eddy Robuchon, María Soledad Leonardi, Fabrice Chandre, Claudio R Lazzari
The use of heat as a cue for the orientation of haematophagous insects towards hot-blooded hosts has been acknowledged for many decades. In mosquitoes, thermoreception has been studied at the molecular, physiological and behavioural levels, and the response to heat has been evaluated in multimodal contexts. However, a direct characterization of how these insects evaluate thermal sources is still lacking. In this study we characterize Aedes aegypti thermal orientation using a simple dual choice paradigm, providing direct evidence on how different attributes of heat sources affect their choice...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476910/the-immune-phenotype-of-three-drosophila-leukemia-models
#19
Badrul Arefin, Martin Kunc, Robert Krautz, Ulrich Theopold
Many leukemia patients suffer from dysregulation of their immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and leading to general weakening (cachexia). Both adaptive and innate immunity are affected. The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster has an innate immune system including cells of the myeloid lineage (hemocytes). To study Drosophila immunity and physiology during leukemia we established three models by driving expression of a dominant-active version of the Ras oncogene (Ras(V12) ) alone or combined with knockdowns of tumor suppressors in Drosophila hemocytes...
May 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472152/using-proximal-remote-sensing-in-non-invasive-phenotyping-of-invertebrates
#20
Xiaowei Li, Hongxing Xu, Ling Feng, Xiao Fu, Yalin Zhang, Christian Nansen
Proximal imaging remote sensing technologies are used to phenotype and to characterize organisms based on specific external body reflectance features. These imaging technologies are gaining interest and becoming more widely used and applied in ecological, systematic, evolutionary, and physiological studies of plants and also of animals. However, important factors may impact the quality and consistency of body reflectance features and therefore the ability to use these technologies as part of non-invasive phenotyping and characterization of organisms...
2017: PloS One
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