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Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792944/enrichment-of-low-density-symbiont-dna-from-minute-insects
#1
Corinne M Stouthamer, Suzanne Kelly, Martha S Hunter
Symbioses between bacteria and insects are often associated with changes in important biological traits that can significantly affect host fitness. To a large extent, studies of these interactions have been based on physiological changes or induced phenotypes in the host, and the genetic mechanisms by which symbionts interact with their hosts have only recently become better understood. Learning about symbionts has been challenging in part due to difficulties such as obtaining enough high quality genomic material for high throughput sequencing technology, especially for symbionts present in low titers, and in small or difficult to rear non-model hosts...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788052/fast-evolution-and-lineage-specific-gene-family-expansions-of-aphid-salivary-effectors-driven-by-interactions-with-host-plants
#2
Hélène Boulain, Fabrice Legeai, Endrick Guy, Stéphanie Morlière, Nadine E Douglas, Jonghee Oh, Marimuthu Murugan, Michael Smith, Julie Jaquiéry, Jean Peccoud, Frank F White, James C Carolan, Jean-Christophe Simon, Akiko Sugio
Effector proteins play crucial roles in plant-parasite interactions by suppressing plant defenses and hijacking plant physiological responses to facilitate parasite invasion and propagation. Although effector proteins have been characterized in many microbial plant pathogens, their nature and role in adaptation to host plants are largely unknown in insect herbivores. Aphids rely on salivary effector proteins injected into the host plants to promote phloem sap uptake. Therefore, gaining insight into the repertoire and evolution of aphid effectors is key to unveiling the mechanisms responsible for aphid virulence and host plant specialization...
May 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787823/members-of-the-neuropeptide-transcriptional-network-in-helicoverpa-armigera-and-their-expression-in-response-to-light-stress
#3
Lijun Wang, Xinhui Liu, Zhengxing Liu, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Fen Zhu
Neuropeptides and peptide hormones play central roles in the regulation of various types of insect physiology and behavior. Artificial light at night, a form of environmental stress, has recently been regarded as a source of light stress on nocturnal insects. Because related genomic information is not available, molecular biological studies on the response of neuropeptides in nocturnal insects to light stress are limited. Based on the de novo sequencing of the Helicoverpa armigera head transcriptome, we obtained 124,960 unigenes...
May 19, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785628/gut-associated-bacteria-of-helicoverpa-zea-indirectly-trigger-plant-defenses-in-maize
#4
Jie Wang, Mingyu Yang, Yuanyuan Song, Flor E Acevedo, Kelli Hoover, Rensen Zeng, Gary W Felton
Insect-associated microbes can contribute to the physiological and ecological functions of insects. Despite a few examples in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, the varied mechanisms of how insect-associated bacteria mediate plant-insect interactions are still not fully understood. The polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa zea is a major agricultural pest that harbors certain microbes in their digestive systems. Enterobacter ludwigii is one of the gut-associated bacteria identified from field-collected caterpillars, and it has been shown to indirectly induce defenses in the dicot plant tomato by triggering the biosynthesis of salivary elicitors, but there are no clear mechanisms to show how gut microbes alter these salivary cues and how a different host plant responds to these inducible elicitors...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778903/orcokinins-regulate-the-expression-of-neuropeptide-precursor-genes-related-to-ecdysis-in-the-hemimetabolous-insect-rhodnius-prolixus
#5
Juan Pedro Wulff, Natalia Capriotti, Sheila Ons
Ecdysis is a vital process for insects, during which they shed the old cuticle in order to emerge as the following developmental stage. Given its relevance for survival and reproduction, ecdysis is tightly regulated by peptidic hormones that conform an interrelated neuromodulatory network. This network was studied in species that undergo a complete metamorphosis, but not in hemimetabola. In a recent work, we demonstrated that orcokinin neuropeptides are essential for ecdysis to occur in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777142/the-programmed-dna-elimination-and-formation-of-micronuclei-in-germ-line-cells-of-the-natural-hybridogenetic-water-frog-pelophylax-esculentus
#6
Magdalena Chmielewska, Dmitry Dedukh, Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Mikołaj Kaźmierczak, Krzysztof Kolenda, Ewa Serwa, Agnieszka Pietras-Lebioda, Alla Krasikova, Maria Ogielska
DNA elimination is a radical form of gene silencing and occurs both in somatic and germ cells. The programmed DNA elimination occurs during gametogenesis in interspecies hybrids that reproduce by hybridogenesis (stick insects, fishes, and amphibians) and concerns removal of whole genomes of one of the parental species and production of clonal gametes propagating the genome of the other species. The cellular mechanisms differ considerably in hybridogenetic insects and fishes but remains unknown in edible frogs Pelophylax esculentus, natural hybrids between Pelophylax lessonae and Pelophylax ridibundus...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775568/neonicotinoids-decrease-sucrose-responsiveness-of-honey-bees-at-first-contact
#7
Fabien J Démares, Christian W W Pirk, Susan W Nicolson, Hannelie Human
For two decades, neonicotinoid insecticides have been extensively used worldwide. Targeting neuronal receptors, they have deleterious effects on the behaviour and physiology of many of many beneficial as well as harmful insects. Bees are exposed to these insecticides in pollen and nectar while providing pollination services to agricultural crops, and neonicotinoids have been shown to impair navigation by bees and to decrease their foraging activity. We have previously reported the effect of dietary thiamethoxam on sucrose responsiveness of young worker bees...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770355/host-regulated-hepatitis-b-virus-capsid-assembly-in-a-mammalian-cell-free-system
#8
Kuancheng Liu, Jianming Hu
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important global human pathogen and represents a major cause of hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. The HBV capsid is composed of multiple copies of a single viral protein, the capsid or core protein (HBc), plays multiple roles in the viral life cycle, and has emerged recently as a major target for developing antiviral therapies against HBV infection. Although several systems have been developed to study HBV capsid assembly, including heterologous overexpression systems like bacteria and insect cells, in vitro assembly using purified protein, and mammalian cell culture systems, the requirement for non-physiological concentrations of HBc and salts and the difficulty in manipulating host regulators of assembly presents major limitations for detailed studies on capsid assembly under physiologically relevant conditions...
April 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770112/circadian-plasticity-in-the-brain-of-insects-and-rodents
#9
REVIEW
Wojciech Krzeptowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elżbieta Pyza
In both vertebrate and invertebrate brains, neurons, glial cells and synapses are plastic, which means that the physiology and structure of these components are modified in response to internal and external stimuli during development and in mature brains. The term plasticity has been introduced in the last century to describe experience-dependent changes in synapse strength and number. These changes result from local functional and morphological synapse modifications; however, these modifications also occur more commonly in pre- and postsynaptic neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769575/characterization-of-antennal-chemosensilla-and-associated-odorant-binding-as-well-as-chemosensory-proteins-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator-hymenoptera-braconidae
#10
Shan-Ning Wang, Shuang Shan, Jing-Tao Liu, Rui-Jun Li, Zi-Yun Lu, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo, Adel Khashaveh, Yong-Jun Zhang
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) expressed in antennal chemosensilla are believed to be important in insect chemoreception. In the current study, we fully described the morphological characteristics of the antennal sensilla in parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator and analyzed the expression patterns of OBPs and CSPs within the antennae. In M. mediator, eight types of sensilla were observed on the antennae. Sensilla basiconica type 2 and s. placodea with wall pores may be involved in olfactory perception, whereas s...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767342/characterization-of-xanthine-dehydrogenase-and-aldehyde-oxidase-of-marsupenaeus-japonicus-and-their-response-to-microbial-pathogen
#11
Yo Okamura, Mari Inada, Gehad Elsaid Elshopakey, Toshiaki Itami
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many physiological processes. In particular, the sterilization mechanism of bacteria using ROS in macrophages is a very important function for biological defense. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and aldehyde oxidase (AOX), members of the molybdo-flavoenzyme subfamily, are known to generate ROS. Although these enzymes occur in many vertebrates, some insects, and plants, little research has been conducted on XDHs and AOXs in crustaceans. Here, we cloned the entire cDNA sequences of XDH (MjXDH: 4328 bp) and AOX (MjAOX: 4425 bp) from Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764648/rapid-evolution-to-host-plant-resistance-by-an-invasive-herbivore-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines-virulence-in-north-america-to-aphid-resistant-cultivars
#12
REVIEW
Matthew E O'Neal, Adam J Varenhorst, Matthew C Kaiser
Preventing rapid evolution of herbivores to plant traits that confer resistance is an area of active research for applied entomologists. The subfield of insect resistance management (IRM) uses elements of population genetics and ecology to prevent increases in the frequency of virulent (i.e. resistant) sub-populations of an insect pest. Efforts to delay such an increase include using highly lethal toxins (i.e., a high dose), combining multiple resistance traits in one cultivar (i.e., pyramids), and using susceptible plants (i...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763430/policosanol-fabrication-from-insect-wax-and-optimization-by-response-surface-methodology
#13
Jinju Ma, Liyi Ma, Hong Zhang, Zhongquan Zhang, Youqiong Wang, Kai Li, Xiaoming Chen
BACKGROUND: Insect wax is a famous biological resource for the role in economic production in China. Insect wax is a good source of policosanol, which may is a candidate supplement in foodstuff and pharmaceuticals that has important physiological activities. Therefore, this work aims to investigate a high-yield and rapid method for policosanol fabrication from insect wax. RESULTS: The conditions for policosanol fabrication were optimized as follows: an oil bath temperature of 112...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760441/origin-and-maintenance-of-chemical-diversity-in-a-species-rich-tropical-tree-lineage
#14
Diego Salazar, John Lokvam, Italo Mesones, Magno Vásquez Pilco, Jacqueline Milagros Ayarza Zuñiga, Perry de Valpine, Paul V A Fine
Plant secondary metabolites play important ecological and evolutionary roles, most notably in the deterrence of natural enemies. The classical theory explaining the evolution of plant chemical diversity is that new defences arise through a pairwise co-evolutionary arms race between plants and their specialized natural enemies. However, plant species are bombarded by dozens of different herbivore taxa from disparate phylogenetic lineages that span a wide range of feeding strategies and have distinctive physiological constraints that interact differently with particular plant metabolites...
May 14, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758190/conserved-characteristics-of-ocular-refractive-development-did-the-eye-evolve-once
#15
REVIEW
Jacob G Sivak, Jeremy M Sivak
It has been speculated that the unitary eyes of vertebrates and molluscs, and the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans, evolved separately. On the other hand, the common use of rhodopsin as a photoreceptor molecule, and the conservation of Pax6 as a master control gene for eye development, suggest instead that the eye evolved once. Yet, recently the molecular genetics that had seemed to suggest a definitive answer to this evolutionary point has once again become cloudy. Here we propose an alternative approach to addressing the question of eye evolution through comparative analyses of physiological optics...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750393/losp-a-putative-marker-of-parasperm-lineage-in-male-reproductive-system-of-the-prosobranch-mollusk-littorina-obtusata
#16
Arseniy A Lobov, Arina L Maltseva, Viktor V Starunov, Irina Y Babkina, Vadim A Ivanov, Natalia A Mikhailova, Andrey I Granovitch
Reproductive isolation is the key attribute of biological species and establishment of the reproductive barriers is an essential event for speciation. Among the mechanisms of reproductive isolation, gamete incompatibility due to the variability of gamete interaction proteins may drive fast divergence even in sympatry. However, the number of available models to study this phenomenon is limited. In case of internally fertilized invertebrates, models to study gamete incompatibility and sperm competition mechanisms are restricted to a single taxon: insects...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749114/mechanisms-underlying-insect-freeze-tolerance
#17
Jantina Toxopeus, Brent J Sinclair
Freeze tolerance - the ability to survive internal ice formation - has evolved repeatedly in insects, facilitating survival in environments with low temperatures and/or high risk of freezing. Surviving internal ice formation poses several challenges because freezing can cause cellular dehydration and mechanical damage, and restricts the opportunity to metabolise and respond to environmental challenges. While freeze-tolerant insects accumulate many potentially protective molecules, there is no apparent 'magic bullet' - a molecule or class of molecules that appears to be necessary or sufficient to support this cold-tolerance strategy...
May 10, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746854/morphological-changes-in-different-caste-adult-ant-specificities-of-polyrhachis-vicina-roger-hymenoptera-formicidae-caused-in-estrogen-related-receptor
#18
Juan-Juan Zhang, Geng-Si Xi
The estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene is a member of the nuclear receptor subfamily. Previous studies have indicated that ERR plays important roles in regulating insect growth and development. How ERR is associated with ant caste specificities remains unclear. In this study, we attempted to identify the role of ERR in the regulation of different adult caste specificities of Polyrhachis vicina Roger. Significant variations were detected in the ants including PvERR expressions, some physiological indexes and morphological traits including survival rate, body weight, body length, head width and abdominal appearance by different techniques...
May 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745349/automated-moth-flight-analysis-in-the-vicinity-of-artificial-light
#19
P Gaydecki
Instrumentation and software for the automated analysis of insect flight trajectories is described, intended for quantifying the behavioural dynamics of moths in the vicinity of artificial light. For its time, this moth imaging system was relatively advanced and revealed hitherto undocumented insights into moth flight behaviour. The illumination source comprised a 125 W mercury vapour light, operating in the visible and near ultraviolet wavelengths, mounted on top of a mobile telescopic mast at heights of 5 and 7...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743927/functional-characterization-of-the-hyles-euphorbiae-hawkmoth-transcriptome-reveals-strong-expression-of-phorbol-ester-detoxification-and-seasonal-cold-hardiness-genes
#20
M Benjamin Barth, Katja Buchwalder, Akito Y Kawahara, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Nicolas Krezdorn, Björn Rotter, Ralf Horres, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
Background: The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. Method: A draft transcriptome of H...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
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