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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944273/defining-the-determinants-of-endurance-running-performance-in-the-heat
#1
Carl A James, Mark Hayes, Ashley G B Willmott, Oliver R Gibson, Andreas D Flouris, Zachary J Schlader, Neil S Maxwell
In cool conditions, physiologic markers accurately predict endurance performance, but it is unclear whether thermal strain and perceived thermal strain modify the strength of these relationships. This study examined the relationships between traditional determinants of endurance performance and time to complete a 5-km time trial in the heat. Seventeen club runners completed graded exercise tests (GXT) in hot (GXTHOT; 32°C, 60% RH, 27.2°C WBGT) and cool conditions (GXTCOOL; 13°C, 50% RH, 9.3°C WBGT) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), running economy (RE), velocity at V̇O2max (vV̇O2max), and running speeds corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT, 2 mmol...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940917/determinants-of-transient-and-persistent-hospital-efficiency-the-case-of-italy
#2
Roberto Colombi, Gianmaria Martini, Giorgio Vittadini
In this paper, we extend the 4-random-component closed skew-normal stochastic frontier model by including exogenous determinants of hospital persistent (long-run) and transient (short-run) inefficiency, separated from unobserved heterogeneity. We apply this new model to a dataset composed by 133 Italian hospitals during the period 2008-2013. We show that average total inefficiency is about 23%, higher than previous estimates; hence, a model where the different types of inefficiency and hospital unobserved characteristics are not confounded allows us to get less biased estimates of hospital inefficiency...
September 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935825/effect-of-tapering-after-a-period-of-high-volume-sprint-interval-training-on-running-performance-and-muscular-adaptations-in-moderately-trained-runners
#3
Casper Skovgaard, Nicki Winfield Almquist, Thue Kvorning, Peter Møller Christensen, Jens Bangsbo
The effect of tapering following a period of high-volume sprint interval training (SIT) and a basic volume of aerobic training on performance and muscle adaptations in moderately trained runners was examined. Eleven (8 males, 3 females) runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 56.8±2.9 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1); mean±SD) conducted high-volume SIT (HV; 20 SIT sessions; 8-12 x 30-s all-out) for 40 days followed by 18 days of tapering (TAP; 4 SIT sessions; 4 x 30-s all-out). Before and after HV as well as midway through and at the end of TAP, the subjects completed a 10-km running test and a repeated running test at 90% of vVO2-max to exhaustion (RRT)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920161/tapered-us-carbon-emissions-during-good-times-what-s-old-what-s-new
#4
Yoke-Kee Eng, Chin-Yoong Wong
In light of a slow buildup in CO2 emissions since the recovery, this paper revisits the relationship between CO2 emissions and the US economy using a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model, in which the determinants are identified through an expanded real business cycle model. We find convincing evidence that CO2 emissions decline more rapidly during recessions than increase during expansions over the long run. Of all determinants considered, long-run asymmetry is fostered once vehicle miles traveled is controlled...
September 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916956/transitioning-to-minimal-footwear-a-systematic-review-of-methods-and-future-clinical-recommendations
#5
REVIEW
Joe P Warne, Allison H Gruber
BACKGROUND: Recent interest in barefoot running has led to the development of minimalist running shoes that are popular in distance runners. A careful transition to these shoes has been suggested and examined in the literature. However, no guidelines based on systematic evidence have been presented. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the methods employed in the literature to transition to minimal footwear (MFW), as well as the outcomes to these studies in distance runners...
September 15, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902113/comparative-effects-of-two-interval-shuttle-run-training-modes-on-physiological-and-performance-adaptations-in-female-professional-futsal-players
#6
Anderson S Teixeira, Francimara B Arins, Ricardo D De Lucas, Lorival J Carminatti, Naiandra Dittrich, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Luiz Guilherme A Guglielmo
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of two shuttle-run interval training (SRIT) models with one and three directional changes per running bout on the aerobic and anaerobic performances of elite female futsal players. Sixteen players competing in the Brazilian National Division League took part in the study. The training protocols consisted of shuttle-run intervals organized in four sets of 4-min bouts with 3- min of rest intervals between the sets. The SRIT models were composed of one (7...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886502/nature-based-solutions-in-the-eu-innovating-with-nature-to-address-social-economic-and-environmental-challenges
#7
Nicolas Faivre, Marco Fritz, Tiago Freitas, Birgit de Boissezon, Sofie Vandewoestijne
Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851860/a-qualitative-study-of-gp-nurse-and-practice-manager-views-on-using-targeted-case-finding-to-identify-patients-with-copd-in-primary-care
#8
Rachael H Summers, Taniya Sharmeen, Kate Lippiett, Kate Gillett, Carla Astles, Linh Vu, Mark Stafford-Watson, Anne Bruton, Mike Thomas, Tom Wilkinson
'Finding the missing millions' with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease became part of the Department of Health strategy for England in 2010. Targeted case-finding within primary care is one potential pro-active strategy, but currently little is known about the views of healthcare professionals on this approach. In this study, 36 healthcare professionals (12 GPs, 14 nurses, and 10 practice managers) from 34 UK practices participated in semi-structured telephone interviews about targeted case-finding. Interviews followed an interview guide, were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed using 'Framework Approach'...
August 29, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841706/effects-of-manipulating-the-duration-and-intensity-of-aerobic-training-sessions-on-the-physical-performance-of-rats
#9
Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, Cletiana Gonçalves Fonseca, Nicolas Henrique Santos Barbosa, Filipe Ferreira Vaz, Letícia Maria de Souza Cordeiro, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Washington Pires, Danusa Dias Soares, Samuel Penna Wanner
This study investigated the effects of manipulating the load components of aerobic training sessions on the physical performance of rats. To achieve this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: an untrained control (CON) group and training groups with a predominant overload in intensity (INT) or duration (DUR) or alternating and similar overloads in intensity and duration (ID). Prior to, during, and after 8 weeks of the control or training protocols, the performance of the rats (evaluated by their workload) was determined during fatiguing, incremental-speed treadmill running...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829688/test-retest-reliability-of-physiological-parameters-in-elite-junior-distance-runners-following-allometric-scaling
#10
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
This study aimed to quantify the intra-individual reliability of a number of physiological variables in a group of national and international young distance runners. Sixteen (8 male, 8 female) participants (16.7 ± 1.4 years) performed a submaximal incremental running assessment followed by a maximal running test, on two occasions separated by no more than seven days. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), speed at V̇O2max (km h(-1)), running economy and speed and heart rate (HR) at fixed blood lactate concentrations were determined...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817510/elite-distance-runners-a-45-year-follow-up
#11
Sarah Everman, James W Farris, R Curtis Bay, Jack T Daniels
PURPOSE: The present longitudinal study assessed cardiorespiratory capacity and running economy of Olympic athletes over several decades to measure changes in fitness in an elite group during aging. METHODS: Twenty-six male runners training for the 1968 Olympics were recruited. Heart rate, VO2max, ventilation, and running economy were measured in 1968, 1993, and 2013. In 2013, 22 of the original runners participated: three passed away between 1993 and 2013, and one declined to participate...
August 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791448/the-cost-of-providing-district-level-surgery-in-malawi
#12
Dennis Cornelissen, Gerald Mwapasa, Jakub Gajewski, Tracey McCauley, Eric Borgstein, Ruairi Brugha, Leon Bijlmakers
BACKGROUND: Three district hospitals in Malawi that provide essential surgery, which for many patients can be lifesaving or prevent disability, formed the setting of this costing study. METHODS: All resources used at district hospitals for the delivery of surgery were identified and quantified. The hospital departments were divided into three categories of cost centres-the final cost centre, intermediate and ancillary cost centres. All costs of human resources, buildings, equipment, medical and non-medical supplies and utilities were quantified and allocated to surgery through step-down accounting...
August 8, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752018/project-house-water-a-novel-interdisciplinary-framework-to-assess-the-environmental-and-socioeconomic-consequences-of-flood-related-impacts
#13
Sarah E Crawford, Catrina Brüll Nee Cofalla, Benedikt Aumeier, Markus Brinkmann, Elisa Classen, Verena Esser, Caroline Ganal, Elena Kaip, Roger Häussling, Frank Lehmkuhl, Peter Letmathe, Anne-Katrin Müller, Ilja Rabinovitch, Klaus Reicherter, Jan Schwarzbauer, Marco Schmitt, Georg Stauch, Matthias Wessling, Süleyman Yüce, Markus Hecker, Karen A Kidd, Rolf Altenburger, Werner Brack, Holger Schüttrumpf, Henner Hollert
Protecting our water resources in terms of quality and quantity is considered one of the big challenges of the twenty-first century, which requires global and multidisciplinary solutions. A specific threat to water resources, in particular, is the increased occurrence and frequency of flood events due to climate change which has significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In addition to climate change, flooding (or subsequent erosion and run-off) may be exacerbated by, or result from, land use activities, obstruction of waterways, or urbanization of floodplains, as well as mining and other anthropogenic activities that alter natural flow regimes...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751372/energy-cost-of-running-instability-evaluated-with-wearable-trunk-accelerometry
#14
Kurt Heinrich Schütte, Saint Sackey, Rachel Venter, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Maintaining stability under dynamic conditions is an inherent challenge to bipedal running. This challenge may impose an energetic cost (Ec) thus hampering endurance running performance, yet the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Wireless tri-axial trunk accelerometry is a simple tool that could be used to unobtrusively evaluate these mechanisms. Here, we test a cost of instability hypothesis by examining the contribution of trunk accelerometry-based measures (tri-axial root mean square, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy) to inter-individual variance in Ec (kcal...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731978/differences-in-spatiotemporal-parameters-between-trained-runners-and-untrained-participants
#15
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesús Cámara, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
Gómez-Molina, J, Ogueta-Alday, A, Stickley, C, Tobalina, JC, Cabrejas-Ugartondo, J, and García-López, J. Differences in spatiotemporal parameters between trained runners and untrained participants. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2169-2175, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the spatiotemporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in 2 groups according to their training experience: Trained (n = 10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n = 11, healthy untrained participants)...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726725/a-cultural-conscience-for-conservation
#16
Caroline Good, Dawn Burnham, David W Macdonald
On 2 July 2015, the killing of a lion nicknamed "Cecil" prompted the largest global reaction in the history of wildlife conservation. In response to this, it is propitious to consider the ways in which this moment can be developed into a financial movement to transform the conservation of species such as the lion that hold cultural significance and sentiment but whose numbers in the wild are dwindling dangerously. This provocative piece explores how a species royalty could be used effectively by drawing revenue from the heavy symbolic use of charismatic animals in affluent economies...
July 20, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704725/simultaneous-estimation-of-lisofylline-and-pentoxifylline-in-rat-plasma-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-photodiode-array-detector-and-its-application-to-pharmacokinetics-in-rat
#17
Kishan S Italiya, Saurabh Sharma, Ishit Kothari, Deepak Chitkara, Anupama Mittal
Lisofylline (LSF) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent with proven activity in serious infections associated with cancer chemotherapy, hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury, autoimmune disorders including type-1 diabetes (T1DM) and islet rejection after islet transplantation. It is also an active metabolite of another anti-inflammatory agent, Pentoxifylline (PTX). LSF bears immense therapeutic potential in multiple pharmacological activities and hence appropriate and accurate quantification of LSF is very important...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690549/running-economy-from-a-muscle-energetics-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Jared R Fletcher, Brian R MacIntosh
The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun) can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674605/changes-in-running-economy-respiratory-exchange-ratio-and-vo2max-in-runners-following-a-10-day-altitude-training-camp
#19
Sebastian R Diebel, Ian Newhouse, David S Thompson, Vineet B K Johnson
Running economy (RE) and VO2max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), and VO2max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO2max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO2max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658509/relationship-between-achilles-tendon-length-and-running-performance-in-well-trained-male-endurance-runners
#20
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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