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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#1
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760089/uncertainty-in-forecasts-of-long-run-economic-growth
#2
P Christensen, K Gillingham, W Nordhaus
Forecasts of long-run economic growth are critical inputs into policy decisions being made today on the economy and the environment. Despite its importance, there is a sparse literature on long-run forecasts of economic growth and the uncertainty in such forecasts. This study presents comprehensive probabilistic long-run projections of global and regional per-capita economic growth rates, comparing estimates from an expert survey and a low-frequency econometric approach. Our primary results suggest a median 2010-2100 global growth rate in per-capita gross domestic product of 2...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751254/isometric-pre-conditioning-blunts-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-but-does-not-attenuate-changes-in-running-economy-following-downhill-running
#3
Leonardo C R Lima, Natália M Bassan, Adalgiso C Cardozo, Mauro Gonçalves, Camila C Greco, Benedito S Denadai
Running economy (RE) is impaired following unaccustomed eccentric-biased exercises that induce muscle damage. It is also known that muscle damage is reduced when maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) are performed at a long muscle length 2-4 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise with the same muscle, a phenomenon that can be described as isometric pre-conditioning (IPC). We tested the hypothesis that IPC could attenuate muscle damage and changes in RE following downhill running. Thirty untrained men were randomly assigned into experimental or control groups and ran downhill on a treadmill (-15%) for 30 min...
May 8, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747103/the-impact-of-electricity-consumption-on-co-2-emission-carbon-footprint-water-footprint-and-ecological-footprint-the-role-of-hydropower-in-an-emerging-economy
#4
Mufutau Opeyemi Bello, Sakiru Adebola Solarin, Yuen Yee Yen
The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the isolated impacts of hydroelectricity consumption on the environment in Malaysia as an emerging economy. We use four different measures of environmental degradation including ecological footprint, carbon footprint, water footprint and CO2 emission as target variables, while controlling for GDP, GDP square and urbanization for the period 1971 to 2016. A recently introduced unit root test with breaks is utilized to examine the stationarity of the series and the bounds testing approach to cointegration is used to probe the long run relationships between the variables...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746386/whole-body-high-intensity-interval-training-induce-similar-cardiorespiratory-adaptations-compared-with-traditional-high-intensity-interval-training-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-in-healthy-men
#5
Gustavo Z Schaun, Stephanie S Pinto, Mariana R Silva, Davi B Dolinski, Cristine L Alberton
Schaun, GZ, Pinto, SS, Silva, MR, Dolinski, DB, and Alberton, CL. Sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training induce similar cardiorespiratory responses compared with traditional high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols that use the body weight as resistance could be an interesting and inexpensive alternative to traditional ergometer-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT-T) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT)...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735394/dorzagliatin-monotherapy-in-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-dose-ranging-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-study
#6
Dalong Zhu, Shenglian Gan, Yu Liu, Jianhua Ma, Xiaolin Dong, Weihong Song, Jiao'e Zeng, Guixia Wang, Wenjuan Zhao, Qiu Zhang, Yukun Li, Hui Fang, Xiaofeng Lv, Yongquan Shi, Haoming Tian, Linong Ji, Xin Gao, Lihui Zhang, Yuqian Bao, Minxiang Lei, Ling Li, Longyi Zeng, Xiaoying Li, Xinghua Hou, Yu Zhao, Tianxin Hu, Xiaoyun Ge, Guiyu Zhao, Yongguo Li, Yi Zhang, Li Chen
BACKGROUND: Glucokinase acts as a glucose sensor in the pancreas and a glucose processor in the liver, and has a central role in glucose homoeostasis. Dorzagliatin is a new, dual-acting, allosteric glucokinase activator that targets both pancreatic and hepatic glucokinases. Dorzagliatin has good pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties in humans, and provides effective 24-h glycaemic control and improves glucose sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of dorzagliatin monotherapy at different doses in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes...
May 4, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722253/running-economy-and-energy-cost-of-running-with-backpacks
#7
Volker Scheer, Leoni Cramer, Hans-Christian Heitkamp
BACKGROUND: Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. METHODS: 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682293/methodological-aspects-of-serosurveillance-in-resource-poor-settings
#8
Susanna Sternberg Lewerin, Cecilia Wolff, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl, Sofia Boqvist, Mikael Andersson Franko
Animal production is important for the agricultural economy in low-income countries, but is threatened by infectious diseases. Serosurveys are conducted for different reasons such as disease detection, risk factor studies, disease monitoring and establishing disease-free status. Most reports on such serosurveys include some discussion about methodological constraints but still, by necessity, rely on serological results for case definition. This study uses a cross-sectional serosurvey for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Rift Valley fever (RVF) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in cattle in three districts in Western Uganda to illustrate the limitations of this approach, addressing the questions of what flaws can be expected in sampling and diagnostics and how these influence the results...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663075/comparison-of-running-and-cycling-economy-in-runners-cyclists-and-triathletes
#9
Wannes Swinnen, Shalaya Kipp, Rodger Kram
PURPOSE: Exercise economy is one of the main physiological factors determining performance in endurance sports. Running economy (RE) can be improved with running-specific training, while the improvement of cycling economy (CE) with cycling-specific training is controversial. We investigated whether exercise economy reflects sport-specific skills/adaptations or is determined by overall physiological factors. METHODS: We compared RE and CE in 10 runners, 9 cyclists and 9 triathletes for running at 12 km/h and cycling at 200 W...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588114/post-marathon-cardiac-troponin-t-is-associated-with-relative-exercise-intensity
#10
A J Richardson, T Leckie, E R Watkins, D Fitzpatrick, R Galloway, R Grimaldi, P Baker
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether measures of cardiopulmonary fitness and relative exercise intensity were associated with high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT) rise after a road marathon. METHODS: Fifty-two marathon runners (age 39±11 years, body mass 76.2±12.9kg, height 1.74±0.09m) attended the laboratory between 2 and 3 weeks prior to attempting the Brighton Marathon, UK. Running economy at 10kmh-1 (RE10) and race pace (RERP), ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO2 max tests were completed...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576960/effect-of-fatigue-and-gender-on-kinematics-and-ground-reaction-forces-variables-in-recreational-runners
#11
Bruno Bazuelo-Ruiz, Juan V Durá-Gil, Nicolás Palomares, Enrique Medina, Salvador Llana-Belloch
The presence of fatigue has been shown to modify running biomechanics. Overall in terms of gender, women are at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries, although it depends on the factors taken into account. One possible reason for these differences in the injury rate and location might be the dissimilar running patterns between men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fatigue and gender on the kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) parameters in recreational runners...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561907/pilates-training-improves-5-km-run-performance-by-changing-metabolic-cost-and-muscle-activity-in-trained-runners
#12
Paula Finatto, Edson Soares Da Silva, Alexandre B Okamura, Bruna P Almada, Henrique B Oliveira, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
PURPOSE: Strength training improves distance running economy and performance. This finding is based predominantly on maximal and explosive strength programmes applied to locomotor muscles, particularly on the lower limbs. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic cost (Cmet) and an improvement in running performance is feasible with strength training of the postural and trunk muscles. METHODS: Using kinematic, neuromuscular and metabolic measurements of running at two different speeds before and after a 12-week Pilates training programme, we tested the hypothesis that core training might improve the running Cmet and performance of trained runners...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561245/the-efficacy-of-downhill-running-as-a-method-to-enhance-running-economy-in-trained-distance-runners
#13
Andrew J Shaw, Stephen A Ingham, Jonathan P Folland
Running downhill, in comparison to running on the flat, appears to involve an exaggerated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) due to greater impact loads and higher vertical velocity on landing, whilst also incurring a lower metabolic cost. Therefore, downhill running could facilitate higher volumes of training at higher speeds whilst performing an exaggerated SSC, potentially inducing favourable adaptations in running mechanics and running economy (RE). This investigation assessed the efficacy of a supplementary 8-week programme of downhill running as a means of enhancing RE in well-trained distance runners...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550786/quantification-of-energy-expenditure-of-military-loaded-runs-what-is-the-performance-of-laboratory-based-equations-when-applied-to-the-field-environment
#14
Alessandro L Colosio, S Pogliaghi
INTRODUCTION: Performance during army loaded runs provides a synthetic indicator of a soldier's capacity to move while carrying loads and thereby remain able to execute a mission. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare the energy expenditure (EE) of army loaded runs, conducted in a field environment using laboratory-based equations and HR index (HRindex ). METHODS: 45 Ranger recruits had HR monitored during three loaded runs (10, 15 and 20 km) in full military equipment in the field environment...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520551/effects-of-export-concentration-on-co-2-emissions-in-developed-countries-an-empirical-analysis
#15
Nicholas Apergis, Muhlis Can, Giray Gozgor, Chi Keung Marco Lau
This paper provides the evidence on the short- and the long-run effects of the export product concentration on the level of CO2 emissions in 19 developed (high-income) economies, spanning the period 1962-2010. To this end, the paper makes use of the nonlinear panel unit root and cointegration tests with multiple endogenous structural breaks. It also considers the mean group estimations, the autoregressive distributed lag model, and the panel quantile regression estimations. The findings illustrate that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is valid in the panel dataset of 19 developed economies...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517422/locomotor-respiratory-coupling-is-maintained-in-simulated-moderate-altitude-in-trained-distance-runners
#16
Timothy J Fulton, Hunter L Paris, Abigail S L Stickford, Allison H Gruber, Timothy D Mickleborough, Robert F Chapman
To determine if acute exposure to simulated moderate altitude alters locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) patterns in runners, 13 trained male distance runners performed a running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max ) test in normoxia (NORM) and hypoxia (HYP) (FIO2 = 15.8%; ~ 2400m / 8000ft) on separate days. Running economy (RE), the degree of LRC, stride frequency-to-breathing frequency quotients (SF/fb ), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and dyspnea (DYS) were assessed at three common submaximal speeds and V̇O2max ...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509644/mesocycles-with-different-training-intensity-distribution-in-recreational-runners
#17
Christoph Zinner, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Billy Sperlich
PURPOSE: The aim was to compare mesocycles with progressively increasing workloads and varied training intensity distribution (TID), i.e. high-intensity (HIGH, > 4 mmol·L blood lactate), low-intensity (LOW, < 2 mmol·L blood lactate) or a combination of HIGH and LOW (referred to as "polarized", POL) on 5000-m running time and key components of endurance performance in recreational runners. METHODS: Forty-two runners (peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak): 45...
March 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504199/transformation-of-the-health-care-industry-curb-your-enthusiasm
#18
Lawton R Burns, Mark V Pauly
Policy Points: Policymakers seek to transform the US health care system along two dimensions simultaneously: alternative payment models and new models of provider organization. This transformation is supposed to transfer risk to providers and make them more accountable for health care costs and quality. The transformation in payment and provider organization is neither happening quickly nor shifting risk to providers. The impact on health care cost and quality is also weak or nonexistent. In the longer run, decision makers should be prepared to accept the limits on transformation and carefully consider whether to advocate solutions not yet supported by evidence...
March 2018: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481447/photobiomodulation-therapy-on-physiological-and-performance-parameters-during-running-tests-dose-response-effects
#19
Rodolfo André Dellagrana, Mateus Rossato, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Bruno Mafredini Baroni, Fernando Diefenthaeler
This study was aimed at verifying effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) with different energy doses (15, 30, and 60 J per site) on physiological and performance parameters during running tests. Fifteen male recreational runners participated in a crossover, randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. They performed testing protocol in 5 sessions with different treatments: control, placebo, and PBMT with 15, 30 or 60 J per site (14 sites in each lower limb). Physiological and performance variables were assessed during submaximal (at 8 km·h-1 and 9 km·h-1) and maximal running tests...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480788/commentaries-on-viewpoint-resistance-training-and-exercise-tolerance-during-high-intensity-exercise-moving-beyond-just-running-economy-and-muscle-strength
#20
Romulo Bertuzzi, Arthur F. Gáspari, Lucas R. Trojbicz, Marcos D. Silva-Cavalcante, Adriano E. Lima-Silva, François Billaut, Oliver Girard, Grégoire P. Millet, Arthur Henrique Bossi, James Hopker, Domingos R. Pandeló, Timothy J. Fulton, Hunter L. Paris, Robert F. Chapman, Gregory J. Grosicki, Kevin A. Murach, Thomas J. Hureau, Stéphane P. Dufour, Fabrice Favret, Nicholas T. Kruse, Andrea Nicolò, Massimo Sacchetti, Marinei Pedralli, Fabiano A. Pinheiro, Valmor Tricoli, Cayque Brietzke, Flávio Oliveira Pires, Gareth N. Sandford, Simon Pearson, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross, Paul B. Laursen, Anderson Luiz B. da Silveira, Emerson Lopes Olivares, Fernando de Azevedo Cruz Seara, Rodrigo Miguel-dos-Santos, Thássio Ricardo Ribeiro Mesquita, Sudarshan Nelatury, Mary Vagula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
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