Read by QxMD icon Read

Running economy

Cory W Baumann, Dongmin Kwak
PURPOSE: Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood's oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Tatsuro Amano, Masaki Ishitobi, Yukio Ogura, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Shunsaku Koga, Takeshi Nishiyasu, Narihiko Kondo
Changing stride frequency may influence oxygen uptake and heart rate during running as a function of running economy and central command. This study investigated the influence of stride frequency manipulation on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running. Seven healthy endurance runners ran on a treadmill at a velocity of 15km/h for 60min in a controlled environmental chamber (ambient temperature 27°C and relative humidity 50%), and stride frequency was manipulated. Stride frequency was intermittently manipulated by increasing and decreasing frequency by 10% from the pre-determined preferred frequency...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Jeffrey P Bishop
The essays in this issue of JMP are devoted to critical engagement of my book, The Anticipatory Corpse The essays, for the most part, accept the main thrust of my critique of medicine. The main thrust of the criticism is whether the scope of the critique is too totalizing, and whether the proposed remedy is sufficient. I greatly appreciate these interventions because they allow me this occasion to respond and clarify, and to even further extend the argument of my book. In this response essay, I maintain that the regnant social imaginary of medicine is the regnant social imaginary of our time...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Martin Mooses, Anthony C Hackney
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), fractional utilization of VO2max during running and running economy (RE) are crucial factors for running success for all endurance athletes. Although evidence is limited, investigations of these key factors indicate that the East Africans superiority in distance running is to a large exent due to a unique combination of these factors. East African runners appear to have a very high level of RE most likely associated, at least partly, with anthropometric characteristics rather than with any specific metabolic property of the working muscle...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Thibault Lussiana, Cyrille Gindre, Kim Hébert-Losier, Yoshimasa Sagawa, Philippe Gimenez, Laurent Mourot
PURPOSE: There is no unique or 'ideal' running pattern that is the most economical for all runners. Classifying the global running patterns of individuals into two categories (aerial and terrestrial) using the Volodalen® method could permit a better understanding of the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanics. The main purpose was to compare RE between aerial and terrestrial runners. METHODS: Two coaches classified 58 runners into aerial (n=29) or terrestrial (n=29) running patterns on the basis of visual observations...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Richard T Marcello, Beau K Greer, Anna E Greer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Miles A Mercer, Tori Stone, Jack Young, John Mercer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Adam M Coughlin, Brian C Rider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alex R Burtch, Ben T Ogle, Patrick A Sims, Craig A Harms, Thorburn B Symons, Rodney J Folz, Gerald S Zavorsky
Controlled frequency breathing (CFB) is a common swim training modality involving holding one's breath for about 7 to 10 strokes before taking another breath. We sought to examine the effects of CFB training on reducing respiratory muscle fatigue. Competitive college swimmers were randomly divided into either the CFB group that breathed every 7 to 10 strokes, or a control group that breathed every 3-4 strokes. Twenty swimmers completed the study. The training intervention included 5-6 weeks (16 sessions) of 12x50-m repetitions with breathing 8-10 breaths per 50m (control group), or 2-3 breaths per 50-m (CFB group)...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Y Wang, J M Bian, S N Wang, S Y Nie
The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
M Gallego-Llorente, S Connell, E R Jones, D C Merrett, Y Jeon, A Eriksson, V Siska, C Gamba, C Meiklejohn, R Beyer, S Jeon, Y S Cho, M Hofreiter, J Bhak, A Manica, R Pinhasi
The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding, ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting those of the Central Zagros were somewhat isolated from other populations of the Fertile Crescent...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ian Nauhaus, Kristina J Nielsen, Edward M Callaway
The primary visual cortex (V1) encodes a diverse set of visual features, including orientation, ocular dominance (OD), and spatial frequency (SF), whose joint organization must be precisely structured to optimize coverage within the retinotopic map. Prior experiments have only identified efficient coverage based on orthogonal maps. Here we used two-photon calcium imaging to reveal an alternative arrangement for OD and SF maps in macaque V1; their gradients run parallel but with unique spatial periods, whereby low-SF regions coincide with monocular regions...
August 17, 2016: Neuron
Benedito Sérgio Denadai, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Leonardo Coelho Rabello de Lima, Camila Coelho Greco, Fabrizio Caputo
BACKGROUND: Several strategies have been used to improve running economy (RE). Defined as the oxygen uptake required at a given submaximal running velocity, it has been considered a key aerobic parameter related to endurance running performance. In this context, concurrent strength and endurance training has been considered an effective method, although conclusions on the optimal concurrent training cannot yet be drawn. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of concurrent training on RE in endurance running athletes and identify the effects of subject characteristics and concurrent training variables on the magnitude of RE improvement...
August 6, 2016: Sports Medicine
D D Ferley, D T Hopper, M D Vukovich
This study compared 6 weeks of incline treadmill interval training (INC) performed on a 10% treadmill grade using either sprint-like efforts or slower, longer bouts. 24 individuals were randomly assigned between 2 groups that each completed 2 INC and one 30-min level-grade sessions∙wk(-1). Training intensities, bout durations and the number of intervals per INC session were the velocity associated with VO2max (Vmax), 30 s and 10-14 (INCShort n=12), and 68%Vmax, ~3 min and 4-6 (INCLong n=12), respectively...
August 1, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Hok Sum Man, Wing Kai Lam, Justin Lee, Catherine M Capio, Aaron Kam Lun Leung
This study examined whether passive metatarsophalangeal joints (MPJ) stiffness was associated with leg stiffness (Kleg) vertical stiffness (Kvert) and running economy (RE) during sub-maximal running. Nine male experienced runners underwent passive MPJ stiffness measurements in standing and sitting positions followed by sub-maximal running on an instrumented treadmill. With the individual foot position properly aligned, the MPJ passive stiffness in both sitting (MPJsit) and standing positions (MPJstand) were measured with a computerized dynamometer...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
S Mizuno, I Morii, Y Tsuchiya, K Goto
The present study examined the effects of wearing a lower-body compression garment (CG) after endurance exercise on recovery of physiological function. 18 males were divided into 2 experiments, the downhill running (n=10, DHR) experiments and the level running (n=8, LR) experiments. Subjects performed 30 min of DHR (gradient: - 10%) or LR (gradient: 0%) at 70% of  ˙VO2max with either wearing a CG (CG trial) or normal garment (CON trial) for 24 h after running. Changes in jump performance (counter movement jump; CMJ, rebound jump; RJ, drop jump; DJ), subjective feelings, circumferences of leg, and blood variables (creatine kinase, myoglobin, interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were evaluated before exercise, immediately after exercise, 1, 3 and 24 h following exercise...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Antony Millner, Thomas K J McDermott
Benefit-cost integrated assessment models (BC-IAMs) inform climate policy debates by quantifying the trade-offs between alternative greenhouse gas abatement options. They achieve this by coupling simplified models of the climate system to models of the global economy and the costs and benefits of climate policy. Although these models have provided valuable qualitative insights into the sensitivity of policy trade-offs to different ethical and empirical assumptions, they are increasingly being used to inform the selection of policies in the real world...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carl A James, Ashley G B Willmott, Alan J Richardson, Peter W Watt, Neil S Maxwell
PURPOSE: Ischaemic preconditioning (IP) has been shown to be ergogenic for endurance performance in normothermic conditions and alleviate physiological strain under hypoxia, potentially through haemodynamic and/or metabolic mechanisms. Exertional hyperthermia is characterised by competition for blood flow between the muscles and skin, an enhanced metabolic strain and impaired endurance performance. This study investigated the effect of IP on the determinants of endurance performance, through an incremental exercise test in the heat...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"