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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704725/simultaneous-estimation-of-lisofylline-and-pentoxifylline-in-rat-plasma-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-photodiode-array-detector-and-its-application-to-pharmacokinetics-in-rat
#1
Kishan S Italiya, Saurabh Sharma, Ishit Kothari, Deepak Chitkara, Anupama Mittal
Lisofylline (LSF) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent with proven activity in serious infections associated with cancer chemotherapy, hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury, autoimmune disorders including type-1 diabetes (T1DM) and islet rejection after islet transplantation. It is also an active metabolite of another anti-inflammatory agent, Pentoxifylline (PTX). LSF bears immense therapeutic potential in multiple pharmacological activities and hence appropriate and accurate quantification of LSF is very important...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690549/running-economy-from-a-muscle-energetics-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Jared R Fletcher, Brian R MacIntosh
The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun) can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674605/changes-in-running-economy-respiratory-exchange-ratio-and-vo2max-in-runners-following-a-10-day-altitude-training-camp
#3
Sebastian R Diebel, Ian Newhouse, David S Thompson, Vineet B K Johnson
Running economy (RE) and VO2max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), and VO2max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO2max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO2max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658509/relationship-between-achilles-tendon-length-and-running-performance-in-well-trained-male-endurance-runners
#4
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
The present study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654236/closed-bipolar-electrodes-for-spatial-separation-of-h2-and-o2-evolution-during-water-electrolysis-and-the-development-of-high-voltage-fuel-cells
#5
Sean Goodwin, Darren A Walsh
Electrolytic water splitting could potentially provide clean H2 for a future "hydrogen economy". However, as H2 and O2 are produced in close proximity to each other in water electrolyzers, mixing of the gases can occur during electrolysis, with potentially dangerous consequences. Herein, we describe an electrochemical water-splitting cell, in which mixing of the electrogenerated gases is impossible. In our cell, separate H2- and O2-evolving cells are connected electrically by a bipolar electrode in contact with an inexpensive dissolved redox couple (K3Fe(CN)6/K4Fe(CN)6)...
July 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642437/human-in-the-loop-optimization-of-exoskeleton-assistance-during-walking
#6
Juanjuan Zhang, Pieter Fiers, Kirby A Witte, Rachel W Jackson, Katherine L Poggensee, Christopher G Atkeson, Steven H Collins
Exoskeletons and active prostheses promise to enhance human mobility, but few have succeeded. Optimizing device characteristics on the basis of measured human performance could lead to improved designs. We have developed a method for identifying the exoskeleton assistance that minimizes human energy cost during walking. Optimized torque patterns from an exoskeleton worn on one ankle reduced metabolic energy consumption by 24.2 ± 7.4% compared to no torque. The approach was effective with exoskeletons worn on one or both ankles, during a variety of walking conditions, during running, and when optimizing muscle activity...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633035/economy-and-endurance-in-human-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Herman Pontzer
The evolutionary pressures shaping humans' unique bipedal locomotion have been a focus of research since Darwin, but the origins of humans' economical walking gait and endurance running capabilities remain unclear. Here, I review the anatomical and physiological determinants of locomotor economy (e.g., limb length and posture) and endurance (e.g., muscle volume and fiber type) and investigate their development in the hominin fossil record. The earliest hominins were bipedal but retained ape-like features in the hind limb that would have limited their walking economy compared to living humans...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613067/the-american-health-care-act-economic-and-employment-consequences-for-states
#8
Leighton Ku, Erika Steinmetz, Erin Brantley, Nikhil Holla, Brian K Bruen
ISSUE: The American Health Care Act (AHCA), passed by the U.S. House of Representatives, would repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act. The Congressional Budget Office indicates that the AHCA could increase the number of uninsured by 23 million by 2026. GOAL: To determine the consequences of the AHCA on employment and economic activity in every state. METHODS: We compute changes in federal spending and revenue from 2018 to 2026 for each state and use the PI+ model to project the effects on states’ employment and economies...
June 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593509/health-expenditure-and-economic-growth-a-review-of-the-literature-and-an-analysis-between-the-economic-community-for-central-african-states-cemac-and-selected-african-countries
#9
Serge Mandiefe Piabuo, Julius Chupezi Tieguhong
African leaders accepted in the year 2001 through the Abuja Declaration to allocate 15% of their government expenditure on health but by 2013 only five (5) African countries achieved this target. In this paper, a comparative analysis on the impact of health expenditure between countries in the CEMAC sub-region and five other African countries that achieved the Abuja declaration is provided. Data for this study was extracted from the World Development Indicators (2016) database, panel ordinary least square (OLS), fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) were used as econometric technic of analysis...
December 2017: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556613/scale-up-scale-down-of-microbial-bioprocesses-a-modern-light-on-an-old-issue
#10
Frank Delvigne, Henk Noorman
The bio-economy is in transit from innovation to commercialization. The bioprocess industry is expected to increasingly deliver bio-products to the market, in large amounts, at high quality and at competitive cost levels. This requires flawless start-up of new large-scale bioprocesses and continuous improvement of running processes. Fermentation scale-up and operation can benefit from recent advances in three areas: 1. computation-driven design of scale-down simulators, 2. omics-driven metabolic engineering and 3...
July 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544858/effects-of-resistance-training-on-performance-in-previously-trained-endurance-runners-a-systematic-review
#11
Manuel Alcaraz-Ibañez, Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez
The aim of this work was to identify, synthesize and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of resistance training on performance indicators in previously trained endurance runners. A database search was carried out in PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSPMedLine, Wiley, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar. In accordance with the PRISMA checklist, 18 published articles dated prior to May 2016 involving 321 endurance runners were reviewed using the PEDro scale. Resistance training led to general improvements in muscular strength, running economy, muscle power factors, and direct performance in distances between 1,500 and 10,000 m...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543734/the-effect-of-repeated-periods-of-speed-endurance-training-on-performance-running-economy-and-muscle-adaptations-113-120-characters
#12
Casper Skovgaard, Nicki Winfield Almquist, Jens Bangsbo
The effect of repeated intense training interventions was investigated in eight trained male runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 -max): 59.3±3.2 ml·kg(-1) ·min(-1) , mean±SD) who performed ten speed endurance training (SET; repeated 30-s 'all-out' bouts) and ten aerobic moderate-intensity training sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530461/increase-in-leg-stiffness-reduces-joint-work-during-backpack-carriage-running-at-slow-velocities
#13
Bernard Liew, Kevin Netto, Susan Morris
Optimal tuning of leg stiffness has been associated with better running economy. Running with load is energetically expensive, which could have a significant impact on athletic performance where backpack carriage is involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of load magnitude and velocity on leg stiffness. We also explored the relationship between leg stiffness and running joint work. Thirty-one healthy participants ran overground at three velocities (3.0, 4.0, 5.0 m.s(-1)), whilst carrying three load magnitude (0%, 10%, 20% weight)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515840/self-optimization-of-stride-length-among-experienced-and-inexperienced-runners
#14
Iain Hunter, Kelly Lee, Jared Ward, James Tracy
Experienced runners appear to naturally select a stride length which is optimal for minimizing oxygen uptake. However, whether this ability is naturally built into the human body or whether it is learned through experience has not been previously tested. This study investigated whether inexperienced runners are as capable as experienced runners of self-optimizing stride length to minimize oxygen uptake. Thirty-three subjects (nineteen experienced and fourteen inexperienced) ran for twenty-minutes while preferred and economical stride lengths were measured...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503379/a-public-dataset-of-running-biomechanics-and-the-effects-of-running-speed-on-lower-extremity-kinematics-and-kinetics
#15
Reginaldo K Fukuchi, Claudiane A Fukuchi, Marcos Duarte
BACKGROUND: The goals of this study were (1) to present the set of data evaluating running biomechanics (kinematics and kinetics), including data on running habits, demographics, and levels of muscle strength and flexibility made available at Figshare (DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.4543435); and (2) to examine the effect of running speed on selected gait-biomechanics variables related to both running injuries and running economy. METHODS: The lower-extremity kinematics and kinetics data of 28 regular runners were collected using a three-dimensional (3D) motion-capture system and an instrumented treadmill while the subjects ran at 2...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498143/the-crucible-simulation-behavioral-simulation-improves-clinical-leadership-skills-and-understanding-of-complex-health-policy-change
#16
Daniel Cohen, Ivo Vlaev, Laurie McMahon, Sarah Harvey, Andy Mitchell, Leah Borovoi, Ara Darzi
BACKGROUND: The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. PURPOSE: This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service...
May 11, 2017: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483557/six-week-transition-to-minimalist-shoes-improves-running-economy-and-time-trial-performance
#17
Joel T Fuller, Dominic Thewlis, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Jonathan D Buckley
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated if gradually introducing runners to minimalist shoes during training improved running economy and time-trial performance compared to training in conventional shoes. Changes in stride rate, stride length, footfall pattern and ankle plantar-flexor strength were also investigated. DESIGN: Randomised parallel intervention trial. METHODS: 61 trained runners gradually increased the amount of running performed in either minimalist (n=31) or conventional (n=30) shoes during a six-week standardised training program...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469761/lower-leg-length-is-associated-with-running-economy-in-high-level-caucasian-distance-runners
#18
Rauno Laumets, Karel Viigipuu, Kerli Mooses, Jarek Mäestu, Priit Purge, Ando Pehme, Priit Kaasik, Martin Mooses
The aim of the present study was to investigate lower limb anthropometric and composition variables related to running economy (RE) and running performance in a homogeneous group of high level European distance runners. RE at the speeds of 14, 16 and 18 km·h(-1) (189 ± 12; 188 ± 11; 187 ± 11 O2 ml·kg(-1)·km(-1)) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (67.3 ± 2.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) of 13 high level distance runners were determined on a motorised treadmill. Anthropometric variables and body composition were measured...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468871/a-disparity-between-locomotor-economy-and-territory-holding-ability-in-male-house-mice
#19
Jeremy S Morris, James S Ruff, Wayne K Potts, David R Carrier
Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance, and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462571/effects-of-minimal-dose-of-strength-training-on-running-performance-in-female-recreational-runners
#20
Michal Štohanzl, Jiri Baláš, Nick Draper
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyse the extent to which minimal dose strength training would elicit improvements in running performance for female recreational runners. METHODS: Forty-one female recreational runners were randomly assigned to one of three groups (endurance running [E] n=14; combined endurance running and strength training program once [ES30] n=14 and twice a week [ES60] n=13, respectively). During the 10-week training program, the E group completed 3 hours of continuous endurance running per week; ES30 completed 2 ½ hours of continuous endurance running and 1 x 30 min of strength training per week, while ES60 group completed 2 hours of continuous endurance running and 2x30 min of strength training per week...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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