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Brian Kim, Kang Wook Chung, Ji Hoon Lee
A cost-effective and simple biosensor was developed for the accurate and rapid monitoring of norovirus GII in a sample. The modified DNA aptamer, 5 guanines linked to conventional DNA aptamer, designed for the research, was able to rapidly capture norovirus GII in tap water as well artificial urine. In addition, the extra guanines of the modified DNA aptamer enhanced the sensitivity of biosensor with guanine chemiluminescence detection based on the principle of intra chemiluminescent resonance transfer (Intra-CRET)...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Eva Nieuwenhuis, Johan Post, Alex Duinmeijer, Jeroen Langeveld, François Clemens
The accumulation of FOG (Fat, Oil and Grease) deposits in sewer pumping stations results in an increase in maintenance costs, malfunctioning of pumps and, a potential increase of wastewater spills in receiving open water bodies. It is thought that a variety of parameters (e.g. geometry of the pump sump, pump operation, socioeconomic parameters of the catchment) influences the built-up of FOG. Based on a database containing data of 126 pumping stations located in five Dutch municipalities a statistical model was built...
February 13, 2018: Water Research
Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bobby K Cheon
Many people struggle to control their food intake and bodyweight. This is often interpreted as evidence that humans are generally predisposed to consume food when it is available, because adiposity offered insurance against the threat of starvation in our ancestral environment. In this paper we suggest that modern humans have actually inherited a far broader range of foraging skills that continue to influence our dietary behaviour. To evaluate this idea, we identify three challenges that would need to be addressed to achieve efficient foraging; (1) monitoring the 'procurement cost' of foods, (2) determining the energy content of foods, and (3) proactively adapting to perceived food insecurity...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Bandhana Devi, M Venkateswarulu, Himmat Kushwaha, Aditi Halder, Rik Koner
Low cost, non-noble metal catalyst with good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity comparable to that of platinum and having good energy storage properties is highly desirable but challenging. Several challenges are associated with the development of such materials. Herein, we demonstrate a new polycarboxyl functionalized Fe (III) based gel material, synthesized following solvothermal method and the development of its composite (Fe3O4/Fe/C) by annealing at optimised temperature. The developed composite displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with onset potential of 0...
February 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Gao Xiao, Wei Chen, Fan Tian, Joseph J Richardson, Blaise L Tardy, Minghua Liu, Neel Joshi, Junling Guo
The development and utilization of biomass resources could contribute to explore novel materials for long-term sustainable energy storage and environmental applications, reduce environmental impacts, and meet the urgent need for green and sustainable development strategies. Herein, a bimetallic metal-phenolic networks (MPN) was applied to incorporate different metallic element species into cattle skin and fabricate collagen fiber-derived complex oxide nanofibers using natural polyphenols (Myrica tannins). Direct thermal transition of these biomass-MPN composites generates hierarchically porous nanofibers possessing micro- and mesoporous architectures along with a well-preserved macroscopic structure...
February 22, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Patrice Bacchin
A membrane can be represented by an energy landscape that solutes or colloids must cross. A model accounting for the momentum and the mass balances in the membrane energy landscape establishes a new way of writing for the Darcy law. The counter-pressure in the Darcy law is no longer written as the result of an osmotic pressure difference but rather as a function of colloid-membrane interactions. The ability of the model to describe the physics of the filtration is discussed in detail. This model is solved in a simplified energy landscape to derive analytical relationships that describe the selectivity and the counter-pressure from ab initio operating conditions...
February 22, 2018: Membranes
Hao Jia, Mahmut Dirican, Chen Chen, Jiadeng Zhu, Pei Zhu, Chaoyi Yan, Ya Li, Xia Dong, Jiansheng Guo, Xiangwu Zhang
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries due to the low cost and natural abundance of sodium resources. Nevertheless, low energy density and poor cycling stability of current SIBs unfavorably hinder their practical implementation for smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Antimony tin (SnSb) is one of the most promising anode materials for next-generation SIBs attributing to its high capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, the practical application of SnSb anodes in SIBs is currently restricted because of their large volume changes during cycling, which results in serious pulverization and loss of electrical contact between the active material and carbon conductor...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanbiao Liu, Fang Li, Qin Xia, Jiawei Wu, Jianshe Liu, Mingzhi Huang, Jianping Xie
Effective, affordable and low energy water purification technologies are highly desirable to address the current environmental issues. In this study, we developed a low-cost method to achieve efficient organic pollutants degradation by incorporating conductive nanomaterials (i.e., carbon nanotubes, CNTs) to assist electro-oxidation, leading to an efficient conductive nano-sponge filtration device. The integration of electrochemistry has significantly improved the performance of the sponge-based device to adsorb and oxidize organic compounds in aqueous solution...
February 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Huang Zhang, Sangsik Jeong, Bingsheng Qin, Diogo Carvalho, Daniel Buchholz, Stefano Passerini
Aqueous Na-ion batteries may offer a solution to the cost and safety issues of high energy batteries. However, substantial challenges remain in the development of electrode materials and electrolytes enabling high performance and long cycle life. Herein we report the characterization of a symmetric Na-ion battery with NASICON-type Na2VTi(PO4)3 electrode material in conventional aqueous and "water-in-salt" electrolytes. Extremely stable cycling performance for 1000 cycles at high rate (20 C) is found with the highly concentrated aqueous electrolytes due to the formation of a resistive but protective interphase between the electrode and the electrolyte...
February 22, 2018: ChemSusChem
Kai Landskron
Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method can turn scrap metal and CO2 into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost.
February 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Eman Hassan Beshr, Hazem Abdelghany, Mahmoud Eteiba
This paper presents a novel optimization technique for energy management studies of an isolated microgrid. The system is supplied by various Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), Photovoltaic (PV) arrays and supported by fuel cell/electrolyzer Hydrogen storage system for short term storage. Multi-objective optimization is used through non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to suit the load requirements under the given constraints. A novel multi-objective flower pollination algorithm is utilized to check the results...
2018: PloS One
Sarah Beck, Matthew A Wyon, Emma Redding
Beck, S, Wyon, MA, and Redding, E. Changes in energy demand of dance activity and cardiorespiratory fitness during 1 year of vocational contemporary dance training. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 841-848, 2018-Previous literature has demonstrated that the intensity of dance class as well as its discontinuous nature is not sufficient to elicit an aerobic training response and that the aerobic capacity of dancers is relatively low. These findings have raised questions on the suitability of training, through class and rehearsal, as adequate preparation for the physical demands of performance and a sustained, successful career in dance...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Seyedmohammad Abtahi, Nima Jamshidi, Aram Ghaziasgar
The purpose of this simulation study was to analyze the effect of variation in Knee-Ankle-Foot-Orthosis stiffness on the joint power and the energy cost of walking. The effect of contractile tissue was simulated using linear elastic spring and viscous dampers in knee and ankle joints. Then, joint angles, ground reaction force, were collected from Twenty chronic hemiparesis subjects (15 males and 5 females) and twenty control subjects (14 males and 6 females), and spring stiffness were considered as the inputs...
February 21, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
L Guirant, F Carlos, D Curiel, J A Kanis, F Borgström, A Svedbom, P Clark
We investigated changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) due to hip fracture in Mexican adults aged ≥ 50 years during the first year post-fracture. Mean accumulated loss was 0.27 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). HRQoL before fracture was the main contributor to explain the loss of QALYs. INTRODUCTION: We aimed to estimate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) loss over 1 year in patients sustaining a hip fracture in Mexico. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥ 50 years old with diagnosis of a low-energy-induced hip fracture enrolled in the International Costs and Utilities Related to Osteoporotic Fractures Study (ICUROS) composed the study population...
February 20, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Jan Řezáč, Daniel Bím, Ondrej Gutten, Lubomír Rulíšek
Carefully selected set of acyclic and cyclic model peptides and several other macrocycles comprising 13 compounds in total, has been used to calibrate accuracy of DFT(-D3) method for conformational energies, employing BP86, PBE0, PBE, B3LYP, BLYP, TPSS, TPSSh, M06-2X, B97-D, OLYP, revPBE, M06-L, SCAN, revTPSS, BH-LYP, and ωB97X-D3 functionals. Both high- and low-energy conformers, 15‑16 for each compound adding to 196 in total, denoted as MPCONF196 data set, were included and the reference values were obtained by the composite protocol yielding the CCSD(T)/CBS extrapolated energies or their DLPNO-CCSD(T)/CBS equivalents in the case of larger systems...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
John Peterson, Haseeb Chaudhry, Karim Abdelatty, John Bird, Kevin Kochersberger
This work presents a collaborative unmanned aerial and ground vehicle system which utilizes the aerial vehicle's overhead view to inform the ground vehicle's path planning in real time. The aerial vehicle acquires imagery which is assembled into a orthomosaic and then classified. These terrain classes are used to estimate relative navigation costs for the ground vehicle so energy-efficient paths may be generated and then executed. The two vehicles are registered in a common coordinate frame using a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) and all image processing is performed onboard the unmanned aerial vehicle, which minimizes the data exchanged between the vehicles...
February 20, 2018: Sensors
Dan-Ni Pei, Ai-Yong Zhang, Xiao-Qiang Pan, Yang Si, Han-Qing Yu
Noble metals, nano-structured carbon and their hybrids are widely used for electrochemical detection of persistent organic pollutants. However, despite of the rapid detection process and high accuracy, these materials generally suffer from high costs, metallic impurity, heterogeneity, irreversible adsorption and poor sensitivity. Herein, the high-energy {001}-exposed TiO2 single crystals with specific inorganic-framework molecular recognition ability was prepared as the electrode material to detect bisphenol A (BPA), a typical and widely present organic pollutant in the environment...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jeffrey J Marlow, Amit Kumar, Brandon Enalls, Linda M Reynard, Noreen Tuross, Gregory Stephanopoulos, Peter Girguis
Harnessing the metabolic potential of uncultured microbial communities is a compelling opportunity for the biotechnology industry, an approach that would vastly expand the portfolio of usable feedstocks. Methane is particularly promising because it is abundant and energy-rich, yet the most efficient methane-activating metabolic pathways involve mixed communities of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria. These communities oxidize methane at high catabolic efficiency and produce chemically reduced by-products at a comparable rate and in near-stoichiometric proportion to methane consumption...
February 20, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Narayanasamy Padmanathan, Han Shao, Kafil M Razeeb
Multifunctional, low-cost electrode and catalyst are desirable for next generation electrochemical energy storage and sensor applications. In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of Ni3(PO4)2·8H2O nano/micro flakes layer on nickel foam (NF) by a facile one-pot hydrothermal approach and investigated this electrode for multiple applications including sweat based glucose and pH sensor as well as hybrid energy storage device, e. g., supercapattery. The electrode displays a specific capacity of 301.8 mAh g-1 (1552 F g-1) at an applied current of 5 mA cm-2 and able to retain 84% of its initial capacity after 10,000 cycles...
February 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daqiang Gao, Baorui Xia, Yanyan Wang, Wen Xiao, Pinxian Xi, Desheng Xue, Jun Ding
Although transition metal dichalcogenide MoSe2 is recognized as one of the low-cost and efficient electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), its thermodynamically stable basal plane and semiconducting property still hamper the electrocatalytic activity. Here, it is demonstrated that the basal plane and edges of 2H-MoSe2 toward HER can be activated by introducing dual-native vacancy. The first-principle calculations indicate that both the Se and Mo vacancies together activate the electrocatalytic sites in the basal plane and edges of MoSe2 with the optimal hydrogen adsorption free energy (ΔGH* ) of 0 eV...
February 20, 2018: Small
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