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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231177/the-goal-of-adequate-nutrition-can-it-be-made-affordable-sustainable-and-universal
#1
REVIEW
Ian McFarlane
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area...
November 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228843/a-new-mechanism-for-efficient-hydrocarbon-electro-extraction-from-botryococcus-braunii
#2
Alexis Guionet, Bahareh Hosseini, Justin Teissié, Hidenori Akiyama, Hamid Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Recent understanding that specific algae have high hydrocarbon production potential has attracted considerable attention. Botryococcus braunii is a microalga with an extracellular hydrocarbon matrix, which makes it an appropriate green energy source. RESULTS: This study focuses on extracting oil from the microalgae matrix rather than the cells, eliminating the need for an excessive electric field to create electro-permeabilization. In such a way, technical limitations due to high extraction energy and cost can be overcome...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228517/high-monetary-reward-rates-and-caloric-rewards-decrease-temporal-persistence
#3
Bowen J Fung, Stefan Bode, Carsten Murawski
Temporal persistence refers to an individual's capacity to wait for future rewards, while forgoing possible alternatives. This requires a trade-off between the potential value of delayed rewards and opportunity costs, and is relevant to many real-world decisions, such as dieting. Theoretical models have previously suggested that high monetary reward rates, or positive energy balance, may result in decreased temporal persistence. In our study, 50 fasted participants engaged in a temporal persistence task, incentivised with monetary rewards...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228328/techno-economic-assessment-of-catalytic-gasification-of-biomass-powders-for-methanol-production
#4
Lara Carvalho, Erik Furusjö, Kawnish Kirtania, Elisabeth Wetterlund, Joakim Lundgren, Marie Anheden, Jens Wolf
This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130€/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228169/characterization-of-sulfur-and-nanostructured-sulfur-battery-cathodes-in-electron-microscopy-without-sublimation-artifacts
#5
Barnaby D A Levin, Michael J Zachman, Jörg G Werner, Ritu Sahore, Kayla X Nguyen, Yimo Han, Baoquan Xie, Lin Ma, Lynden A Archer, Emmanuel P Giannelis, Ulrich Wiesner, Lena F Kourkoutis, David A Muller
Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li-S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon-sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes...
February 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228007/unit-with-fluidized-bed-for-gas-vapor-activation-of-different-carbonaceous-materials-for-various-purposes-design-computation-implementation
#6
Eugene Strativnov
We propose the technology of obtaining the promising material with wide specter of application-activated nanostructured carbon. In terms of technical indicators, it will stand next to the materials produced by complex regulations with the use of costly chemical operations. It can be used for the following needs: as a sorbent for hemosorption and enterosorption, for creation of the newest source of electric current (lithium and zinc air batteries, supercapacitors), and for processes of short-cycle adsorption gas separation...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227649/metabolic-cost-of-level-ground-walking-with-a-robotic-transtibial-prosthesis-combining-push-off-power-and-nonlinear-damping-behaviors-preliminary-results
#7
Yanggang Feng, Jinying Zhu, Qining Wang, Yanggang Feng, Jinying Zhu, Qining Wang, Jinying Zhu, Qining Wang, Yanggang Feng
Recent advances in robotic technology are facilitating the development of robotic prostheses. Our previous studies proposed a lightweight robotic transtibial prosthesis with a damping control strategy. To improve the performance of power assistance, in this paper, we redesign the prosthesis and improve the control strategy by supplying extra push-off power. A male transtibial amputee subject volunteered to participate in the study. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed prosthesis with push-off control improves energy expenditure by a percentage ranged from 9...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227585/tribowalk-triboelectric-dual-functional-wireless-system-for-gait-monitoring-and-energy-harvesting
#8
Xian Li, Hui Huang, Ye Sun, Xian Li, Hui Huang, Ye Sun, Ye Sun, Hui Huang, Xian Li
In this paper, we report the design and validation of a novel wearable wireless system, TriboWalk, for gait monitoring and motion energy harvesting based on triboelectrification. Gait analysis is an important diagnostic method for medical rehabilitation. The TriboWalk system is capable of gait monitoring and analysis by capturing gait timing parameters and ground contact force (GCF) pattern based on four tribo-elements on each shoe sole. The tribo-elements are removable and easily placed on different shoes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227187/estimation-of-heart-rate-from-foot-worn-photoplethysmography-sensors-during-fast-bike-exercise
#9
Delaram Jarchi, Alexander J Casson, Delaram Jarchi, Alexander J Casson, Alexander J Casson, Delaram Jarchi
This paper presents a new method for estimating the average heart rate from a foot/ankle worn photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor during fast bike activity. Placing the PPG sensor on the lower half of the body allows more energy to be collected from energy harvesting in order to give a power autonomous sensor node, but comes at the cost of introducing significant motion interference into the PPG trace. We present a normalised least mean square adaptive filter and short-time Fourier transform based algorithm for estimating heart rate in the presence of this motion contamination...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226498/a-diaper-embedded-disposable-nitrite-sensor-with-integrated-on-board-urine-activated-battery-for-uti-screening
#10
W Yu, W Seo, T Tan, B Jung, B Ziaie, W Yu, W Seo, T Tan, B Jung, B Ziaie, B Ziaie, W Seo, W Yu, T Tan, B Jung
This paper reports a low-cost solution to the early detection of urinary nitrite, a common surrogate for urinary tract infection (UTI). We present a facile method to fabricate a disposable and flexible colorimetric [1] nitrite sensor and its urine-activated power source [2] on a hydrophobic (wax) paper through laser-assisted patterning and lamination. Such device, integrated with interface circuitry and a Bluetooth low energy (BLE) module can be embedded onto a diaper, and transmit semi-quantitative UTI monitoring information in a point-of-care and autonomous fashion...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225207/ultrahigh-carrier-mobility-achieved-in-photoresponsive-hybrid-perovskite-films-via-coupling-with-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#11
Feng Li, Hong Wang, Dominik Kufer, Liangliang Liang, Weili Yu, Erkki Alarousu, Chun Ma, Yangyang Li, Zhixiong Liu, Changxu Liu, Nini Wei, Fei Wang, Lang Chen, Omar F Mohammed, Andrea Fratalocchi, Xiaogang Liu, Gerasimos Konstantatos, Tom Wu
Organolead trihalide perovskites have drawn substantial interest for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications due to their remarkable physical properties and low processing cost. However, perovskite thin films suffer from low carrier mobility as a result of their structural imperfections such as grain boundaries and pinholes, limiting their device performance and application potential. Here we demonstrate a simple and straightforward synthetic strategy based on coupling perovskite films with embedded single-walled carbon nanotubes...
February 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224148/hypercrosslinked-porous-polymer-materials-design-synthesis-and-applications
#12
REVIEW
Liangxiao Tan, Bien Tan
Hypercrosslinked polymers (HCPs) are a series of permanent microporous polymer materials initially reported by Davankov, and have received an increasing level of research interest. In recent years, HCPs have experienced rapid growth due to their remarkable advantages such as diverse synthetic methods, easy functionalization, high surface area, low cost reagents and mild operating conditions. Judicious selection of monomers, appropriate length crosslinkers and optimized reaction conditions yielded a well-developed polymer framework with an adjusted porous topology...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222601/energy-related-small-molecule-activation-reactions-oxygen-reduction-and-hydrogen-and-oxygen-evolution-reactions-catalyzed-by-porphyrin-and-corrole-based-systems
#13
Wei Zhang, Wenzhen Lai, Rui Cao
Globally increasing energy demands and environmental concerns related to the use of fossil fuels have stimulated extensive research to identify new energy systems and economies that are sustainable, clean, low cost, and environmentally benign. Hydrogen generation from solar-driven water splitting is a promising strategy to store solar energy in chemical bonds. The subsequent combustion of hydrogen in fuel cells produces electric energy, and the only exhaust is water. These two reactions compose an ideal process to provide clean and sustainable energy...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222198/algorithmic-design-of-a-noise-resistant-and-efficient-closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-system-a-computational-approach
#14
Sofia D Karamintziou, Ana Luísa Custódio, Brigitte Piallat, Mircea Polosan, Stéphan Chabardès, Pantelis G Stathis, George A Tagaris, Damianos E Sakas, Georgia E Polychronaki, George L Tsirogiannis, Olivier David, Konstantina S Nikita
Advances in the field of closed-loop neuromodulation call for analysis and modeling approaches capable of confronting challenges related to the complex neuronal response to stimulation and the presence of strong internal and measurement noise in neural recordings. Here we elaborate on the algorithmic aspects of a noise-resistant closed-loop subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation system for advanced Parkinson's disease and treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, ensuring remarkable performance in terms of both efficiency and selectivity of stimulation, as well as in terms of computational speed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220488/optimization-of-foraging-and-diet-by-the-piscivorous-othos-dentex-serranidae
#15
B French, M E Platell, K R Clarke, I C Potter
The aim of this study was to determine the dietary characteristics and mouth morphology of Othos dentex and to use these data, together with in situ observations of feeding behaviour, to elucidate how foraging and diet are optimized by this piscivorous serranid. Seasonal spear and line fishing over reefs in south-western Australia yielded 426 O. dentex (total length, LT , 183-605 mm), among which the stomachs of 95 contained food. The food in the stomachs of 76 fish was sufficiently undigested to be seen to contain, almost invariably, a single fish prey, which was typically identifiable to family and often to species...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219818/ultrasonic-versus-electrosurgical-device-for-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Hong-Peng Jiang, Ya-Dong Liu, Yan-Sen Li, Zhan-Long Shen, Ying-Jiang Ye
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic and electrosurgical energy dissectors are main dissecting devices widely used for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Trial sequential analyses can establish whether firm evidence favoring a specific device has been reached from accumulated literature. To explore this, we performed a meta-analysis and trial sequential analyses. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to October 2016. The primary outcome was operative time...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219078/mechanical-metamaterials-at-the-theoretical-limit-of-isotropic-elastic-stiffness
#17
J B Berger, H N G Wadley, R M McMeeking
A wide variety of high-performance applications require materials for which shape control is maintained under substantial stress, and that have minimal density. Bio-inspired hexagonal and square honeycomb structures and lattice materials based on repeating unit cells composed of webs or trusses, when made from materials of high elastic stiffness and low density, represent some of the lightest, stiffest and strongest materials available today. Recent advances in 3D printing and automated assembly have enabled such complicated material geometries to be fabricated at low (and declining) cost...
February 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218920/a-non-volatile-organic-electrochemical-device-as-a-low-voltage-artificial-synapse-for-neuromorphic-computing
#18
Yoeri van de Burgt, Ewout Lubberman, Elliot J Fuller, Scott T Keene, Grégorio C Faria, Sapan Agarwal, Matthew J Marinella, A Alec Talin, Alberto Salleo
The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ∼1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach...
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218806/novel-bimorphological-anisotropic-bulk-nanocomposite-materials-with-high-energy-products
#19
Xiaohong Li, Li Lou, Wenpeng Song, Guangwei Huang, Fuchen Hou, Qian Zhang, Hai-Tian Zhang, Jianwei Xiao, Bin Wen, Xiangyi Zhang
Nanostructuring of magnetically hard and soft materials is fascinating for exploring next-generation ultrastrong permanent magnets with less expensive rare-earth elements. However, the resulting hard/soft nanocomposites often exhibit random crystallographic orientations and monomorphological equiaxed grains, leading to inferior magnetic performances compared to corresponding pure rare-earth magnets. This study describes the first fabrication of a novel bimorphological anisotropic bulk nanocomposite using a multistep deformation approach, which consists of oriented hard-phase SmCo rod-shaped grains and soft-phase Fe(Co) equiaxed grains with a high fraction (≈28 wt%) and small size (≈10 nm)...
February 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218728/compliment-graphene-oxide-coating-on-silk-fiber-surface-via-electrostatic-force-for-capacitive-humidity-sensor-applications
#20
Kook In Han, Seungdu Kim, In Gyu Lee, Jong Pil Kim, Jung-Ha Kim, Suck Won Hong, Byung Jin Cho, Wan Sik Hwang
Cylindrical silk fiber (SF) was coated with Graphene oxide (GO) for capacitive humidity sensor applications. Negatively charged GO in the solution was attracted to the positively charged SF surface via electrostatic force without any help from adhesive intermediates. The magnitude of the positively charged SF surface was controlled through the static electricity charges created on the SF surface. The GO coating ability on the SF improved as the SF's positive charge increased. The GO-coated SFs at various conditions were characterized using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, and LCR meter...
February 19, 2017: Sensors
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