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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346505/long-duration-effect-of-multi-factor-stresses-on-the-cellular-biochemistry-oil-yielding-performance-and-morphology-of-nannochloropsis-oculata
#1
Likun Wei, Xuxiong Huang
Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel. Elevating its oil-yielding capacity is conducive to cost-saving biodiesel production. However, the regulatory processes of multi-factor collaborative stresses (MFCS) on the oil-yielding performance of N. oculata are unclear. The duration effects of MFCS (high irradiation, nitrogen deficiency and elevated iron supplementation) on N. oculata were investigated in an 18-d batch culture. Despite the reduction in cell division, the biomass concentration increased, resulting from the large accumulation of the carbon/energy-reservoir...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345911/subtle-microwave-induced-overheating-effects-in-an-industrial-de-methylation-reaction-and-their-direct-use-in-the-development-of-an-innovative-microwave-reactor
#2
Mario De Bruyn, Vitaliy L Budarin, Guido S J Sturm, Georgios D Stefanidis, Marilena Radoiu, Andrzej Stankiewicz, Duncan J Macquarrie
A systematic study of the conventional and microwave (MW) kinetics of an industrially relevant demethylation reaction is presented. In using industrially relevant reaction conditions the dominant influence of the solvent on the MW energy dissipation is avoided. Below the boiling point, the effect of MWs on the activation energy Ea and k0 is found non-existent. Interestingly under reflux conditions the microwave heated (MWH) reaction displays very pronounced zero order kinetics, displaying a much higher reaction rate than observed for the conventionally thermal heated (CTH) reaction...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345220/boosting-the-performance-of-the-nickel-anode-in-the-oxygen-evolution-reaction-by-simple-electrochemical-activation
#3
Tatsuya Shinagawa, Marcus Tze-Kiat Ng, Kazuhiro Takanabe
The development of cost-effective and active water-splitting electrocatalysts that work at mild pH is an essential step towards the realization of sustainable energy and material circulation in our society. Its success requires a drastic improvement in the kinetics of the anodic half-reaction of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which determines the overall system efficiency to a large extent. A simple electrochemical protocol has been developed to activate Ni electrodes, by which a stable NiOOH phase was formed, which could weakly bind to alkali-metal cations...
March 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344608/a-brief-look-at-model-based-dose-calculation-principles-practicalities-and-promise
#4
REVIEW
Ron S Sloboda, Hali Morrison, Brie Cawston-Grant, Geetha V Menon
Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) have recently emerged as potential successors to the highly practical, but sometimes inaccurate TG-43 formalism for brachytherapy treatment planning. So named for their capacity to more accurately calculate dose deposition in a patient using information from medical images, these approaches to solve the linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation include point kernel superposition, the discrete ordinates method, and Monte Carlo simulation. In this overview, we describe three MBDCAs that are commercially available at the present time, and identify guidance from professional societies and the broader peer-reviewed literature intended to facilitate their safe and appropriate use...
February 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343561/locomotor-and-energetic-consequences-of-behavioral-thermoregulation-in-the-sanguivorous-leech-hirudo-verbana
#5
Amanda C Hitchcock, Erin M Connolly, Karin Darakananda, Janet W Jeong, Arbor J L Quist, Allison B Robbins, David J Ellerby
Medicinal leeches (Hirudo verbana) thermoregulate with respect to their sanguivorous feeding behavior. Immediate postprandial preferences are for warmer than their initial acclimation temperature (Ta, 21°C, Petersen et al. 2011), while unfed leeches have a lower preferred temperature (Tpref, 12.5°C). This may reduce energy expenditure and defer starvation if feeding opportunities are limited. Energetic benefits may have an associated cost if low temperatures reduce mobility and the ability to locate further hosts...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343390/high-performance-rh2p-electrocatalyst-for-efficient-water-splitting
#6
Haohong Duan, Dongguo Li, Yan Tang, Yang He, Ji Shu Fang, Rongyue Wang, Haifeng Lv, Pietro P Lopes, Arvydas P Paulikas, Haoyi Li, Scott X Mao, Chong-Min Wang, Nenad M Markovic, Jun Li, Vojislav R Stamenkovic, Yadong Li
Search for active, stable and cost-efficient electrocataltysts for hydrogen production via water splitting could make substantial impact to the energy technologies that do not rely on fossil fuels. Here we report the synthesis of rhodium phosphide electrocatalyst with low metal loading in the form of nanocubes (NCs) dispersed in high surface area carbon (Rh2P/C) by a facile solvo-thermal approach. The Rh2P/C exhibit remarkable performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) compared to Rh/C and Pt/C catalysts...
March 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342612/can-by-products-replace-conventional-ingredients-in-concentrate-of-dairy-goat-diet
#7
M Romero-Huelva, M A Ramírez-Fenosa, R Planelles-González, P García-Casado, E Molina-Alcaide
Intensive dairy goat production in the Mediterranean basin is based on imported conventional ingredients to be included in concentrates. Fourteen Murciano-Granadina goats in the middle of the third lactation were allocated into 2 groups of 7 animals each fed, respectively, a control diet based on alfalfa hay and concentrate in a 40:60 ratio, and a diet in which the concentrate included tomato fruits, citrus pulp, brewer's grain and brewer's yeast (T100CBY) to study the effect of diet on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, purine derivatives excretion in urine, milk yield and composition, and methane emissions...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342575/performance-of-a-novel-baffled-osmotic-membrane-bioreactor-microfiltration-hybrid-system-under-continuous-operation-for-simultaneous-nutrient-removal-and-mitigation-of-brine-discharge
#8
Nirenkumar Pathak, Laura Chekli, Jin Wang, Youngjin Kim, Sherub Phuntsho, Sheng Li, Noreddine Ghaffour, TorOve Leiknes, Hokyong Shon
The present study investigated the performance of an integrated osmotic and microfiltration membrane bioreactor system for wastewater treatment employing baffles in the reactor. Thus, this reactor design enables both aerobic and anoxic processes in an attempt to reduce the process footprint and energy costs associated with continuous aeration. The process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, salinity build up in the bioreactor, organic and nutrient removal and microbial activity using synthetic reverse osmosis (RO) brine as draw solution (DS)...
March 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342027/a-comparative-evaluation-of-ac225-vs-bi213-as-therapeutic-radioisotopes-for-targeted-alpha-therapy-for-cancer
#9
Barry J Allen
The Ac225:Bi213 generator is the mainstay for preclinical and clinical studies of targeted alpha therapy for cancer. Both Ac225 (four alpha decays) and Bi213 (one alpha decay) are being used to label targeting vectors to form the alpha immunoconjugate for cancer therapy. This paper considers the radiobiological and economic aspects of Ac225 vs Bi213 as the preferred radioisotope for preclinical and clinical TAT. The in vitro and in vivo evidence and the role of DNA repair processes is examined. The maximum tolerance dose and therapeutic gain are endpoints for comparison...
March 24, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340700/highly-photosensitive-colorimetric-immunoassay-for-tumor-marker-detection-based-on-cu-2-doped-ag-agi-nanocomposite
#10
Bing Zhang, Xue Wang, Yanling Zhao, Jia Lv, Hongyun Meng, Honghong Chang, Hui Zhang, Wenlong Wei
Visual detection of tumor markers with accuracy and selectivity exhibits significant advantages for cancer early diagnosis due to its low-cost and simple analytical instruments. Herein, a highly photosensitive colorimetric immunoassay for carcino embryonie antigen (CEA, as a model) detection based on Cu(2+) doped Ag-AgI nanocomposite was constructed. First, Cu(2+) doped Ag-AgI nanocomposite (Cu(2+)/Ag-AgI) owned the ability of oxidization of TMB was synthesized by impregnation method, which was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340326/effects-of-coupling-a-uf-membrane-with-a-mesh-screen-and-elevating-temperature-in-the-methanogenic-digester-of-a-two-phased-anaerobic-system
#11
Min Ho Kim, Chul-Hwi Park, Gee-Bong Han
This study was conducted to investigate coupling of UF with a mesh screen under thermophilic temperatures and compare the effectiveness of membrane filtration and temperature change in the methanogenic digester. A two-phased anaerobic digester coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system was used for anaerobic sludge digestion. The overall average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency achieved in the two-phased anaerobic digester coupled with the UF membrane system was 97.9 ± 0.8%. In the methanogenic digester, 10...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339180/a-study-of-oxygen-evolution-reaction-catalytic-behavior-of-coxni1-xfe2o4-in-alkaline-medium
#12
Viruthasalam Maruthapandian, Mahendran Mathankumar, Velu Saraswathy, Balasubramanian Subramanian, Srinivasan Muralidharan
Catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play an important role in the conversion of solar energy to fuel of earth abundant water into H2 and O2 through splitting/electrolyzer. The heterogeneous electrocatalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) exhibit catalytic activity that depends on the electronic properties, oxidation states and local surface structure. Spinel ferrites (MFe2O4; M = Ni and Co) based materials have been attractive for the catalytic water oxidation due to their well-known stability in alkaline medium, easy synthesis, existence of metal cations with various oxidation states, low cost and tunable properties by the desired metal substitution...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338632/a-polynomial-subset-based-efficient-multi-party-key-management-system-for-lightweight-device-networks
#13
Zahid Mahmood, Huansheng Ning, AtaUllah Ghafoor
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices to measure sensitive data that are highly vulnerable to security attacks due to their constrained resources. In a similar manner, the internet-based lightweight devices used in the Internet of Things (IoT) are facing severe security and privacy issues because of the direct accessibility of devices due to their connection to the internet. Complex and resource-intensive security schemes are infeasible and reduce the network lifetime. In this regard, we have explored the polynomial distribution-based key establishment schemes and identified an issue that the resultant polynomial value is either storage intensive or infeasible when large values are multiplied...
March 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338382/does-foot-anthropometry-predict-metabolic-cost-during-running
#14
Herman van Werkhoven, Stephen J Piazza
Several recent investigations have linked running economy to heel length, with shorter heels being associated with less metabolic energy consumption. It has been hypothesized that shorter heels require larger plantarflexor muscle forces, thus increasing tendon energy storage and reducing metabolic cost. The goal of this study was to investigate this possible mechanism for metabolic cost reduction. Fifteen male subjects ran at 16 km·h(-1) on a treadmill and subsequently on a force-plate instrumented runway...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338067/ultrathin-nickel-hydroxide-nanosheet-arrays-grafted-biomass-derived-honeycomb-like-porous-carbon-with-improved-electrochemical-performance-as-a-supercapacitive-material
#15
Goli Nagaraju, Sung Min Cha, Jae Su Yu
Three-dimensional hierarchical honeycomb-like activated porous carbon pillared ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanosheets (Ni(OH)2 NSs@HAPC) for use as supercapacitor materials were facilely synthesized. With an aid of pine cone flowers as a biomass source, HAPC conducting scaffolds were prepared by the alkali treatment and pyrolysis methods under an inert gas atmosphere. Subsequently, the Ni(OH)2 NSs were synthesized evenly on the surface of HAPC via a solvothermal method. The resulting HAPC and Ni(OH)2 NSs@HAPC composite materials offered free pathways for effective diffusion of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of electrons when employed as an electrode material...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336885/preparation-and-characterization-of-cellulose-nanocrystals-from-the-bio-ethanol-residuals
#16
Lanxing Du, Jinwu Wang, Yang Zhang, Chusheng Qi, Michael P Wolcott, Zhiming Yu
This study was to explore the conversion of low-cost bio-residuals into high value-added cellulose nanocrystals. Two enzymatic hydrolyzed residuals (i.e., HRMMW and HRSPW) were collected from two different bio-ethanol producing processes-hydrolyzing medium-milled wood (MMW) and hydrolyzing acid sulfite pretreated wood (SPW), respectively. The results showed that both residuals contained over 20 wt % glucan with a crystallinity of about 30%, confirming the existence of cellulose in a well-organized structure in two bio-residuals...
February 23, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336875/nico%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-based-supercapacitor-nanomaterials
#17
REVIEW
Chenggang Wang, E Zhou, Weidong He, Xiaolong Deng, Jinzhao Huang, Meng Ding, Xianqi Wei, Xiaojing Liu, Xijin Xu
In recent years, the research on supercapacitors has ushered in an explosive growth, which mainly focuses on seeking nano-/micro-materials with high energy and power densities. Herein, this review will be arranged from three aspects. We will summarize the controllable architectures of spinel NiCo₂O₄ fabricated by various approaches. Then, we introduce their performances as supercapacitors due to their excellent electrochemical performance, including superior electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity, together with the low cost and environmental friendliness...
February 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335534/a-networked-sensor-system-for-the-analysis-of-plot-scale-hydrology
#18
German Villalba, Fernando Plaza, Xiaoyang Zhong, Tyler W Davis, Miguel Navarro, Yimei Li, Thomas A Slater, Yao Liang, Xu Liang
This study presents the latest updates to the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP) testbed, a $50,000 USD, 104-node outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN). The network collects environmental data from over 240 sensors, including the EC-5, MPS-1 and MPS-2 soil moisture and soil water potential sensors and self-made sap flow sensors, across a heterogeneous deployment comprised of MICAz, IRIS and TelosB wireless motes. A low-cost sensor board and software driver was developed for communicating with the analog and digital sensors...
March 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335338/green-synthesis-of-iron-nanoparticles-and-their-environmental-applications-and-implications
#19
REVIEW
Sadia Saif, Arifa Tahir, Yongsheng Chen
Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have also led to the development of novel nanomaterials, which ultimately increase potential health and environmental hazards. Interest in developing environmentally benign procedures for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been increased. The purpose is to minimize the negative impacts of synthetic procedures, their accompanying chemicals and derivative compounds. The exploitation of different biomaterials for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered a valuable approach in green nanotechnology...
November 12, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334646/defluoridation-of-drinking-water-using-a-new-flow-column-electrocoagulation-reactor-fcer-experimental-statistical-and-economic-approach
#20
Khalid S Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola, David Phipps
A new batch, flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) that utilises a perforated plate flow column as a mixer has been used to remove fluoride from drinking water. A comprehensive study has been carried out to assess its performance. The efficiency of fluoride removal (R%) as a function of key operational parameters such as initial pH, detention time (t), current density (CD), inter-electrode distance (ID) and initial concentration (C0) has been examined and an empirical model has been developed. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the influence of the EC process on morphology of the surface of the aluminium electrodes, showed the erosion caused by aluminium loss...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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