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bilingualism aging neuroimaging

Jonathan A Berken, Vincent L Gracco, Denise Klein
The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed...
September 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Hengshuang Liu, Fan Cao
Neuroimaging studies investigating bilingual processes have produced controversial results in determining similarities versus differences between L1 and L2 neural networks. The current meta-analytic study was conducted to examine what factors play a role in the similarities and differences between L1 and L2 networks with a focus on age of acquisition (AOA) and whether the orthographic transparency of L2 is more or less transparent than that of L1. Using activation likelihood estimation (ALE), we found L2 processing involved more additional regions than L1 for late bilinguals in comparison to early bilinguals, suggesting L2 processing is more demanding in late bilinguals...
August 2016: Brain and Language
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the effects of bilingualism on vocabulary, executive functions, age of dementia onset, and regional brain structure. METHOD: PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched (from January 1999 to present) for relevant original research and review articles on bilingualism (but not multilingualism) paired with each target neuropsychological variable published in English. A qualitative review of these articles was conducted...
May 12, 2016: Neuropsychology
Elvira Khachatryan, Gertie Vanhoof, Hilde Beyens, Ann Goeleven, Vincent Thijs, Marc M Van Hulle
There is increasing evidence that a bilingual person should not be considered as two monolinguals in a single body, a view that has gradually been adopted in the diagnosis and treatment of bilingual aphasia. However, its investigation is complicated due to the large variety in possible language combinations, pre- and postmorbid language proficiencies, and age of second language acquisition. Furthermore, the tests and tasks used to assess linguistic capabilities differ in almost every study, hindering a direct comparison of their outcomes...
May 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Becky Wong, Bin Yin, Beth O'Brien
Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism...
2016: BioMed Research International
Mónica Rosselli, Alfredo Ardila, Esmeralda Matute, Idaly Vélez-Uribe
Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge) and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability)...
2014: Neuroscience Journal
Angela Grant, Nancy A Dennis, Ping Li
In recent years bilingualism has been linked to both advantages in executive control and positive impacts on aging. Such positive cognitive effects of bilingualism have been attributed to the increased need for language control during bilingual processing and increased cognitive reserve, respectively. However, a mechanistic explanation of how bilingual experience contributes to cognitive reserve is still lacking. The current paper proposes a new focus on bilingual memory as an avenue to explore the relationship between executive control and cognitive reserve...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Maria Centeno, Matthias J Koepp, Christian Vollmar, Jason Stretton, Meneka Sidhu, Caroline Michallef, Mark R Symms, Pamela J Thompson, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of language dominance using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a standard tool to estimate the risk of language function decline after epilepsy surgery. Although there has been considerable research in the characterization of language networks in bilingual individuals; little is known about the clinical usefulness of language mapping in a secondary language in patients with epilepsy, and how language lateralization assessed by fMRI may differ by the use of native or a secondary language paradigms...
October 2014: Epilepsia
K K Jasińska, L A Petitto
What neural changes underlie reading development in monolingual and bilingual children? We examined neural activation patterns of younger (ages 6-8) and older (ages 8-10) children and adults to see whether early-life language experience influences the development of neural systems for reading. Using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy, we observed an age-related shift in neural recruitment of language areas (left inferior frontal gyrus [LIFG], superior temporal gyrus [STG]). Bilinguals showed a greater extent and variability of neural activation in bilateral IFG and STG, and higher cognitive areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostrolateral prefrontal cortex)...
2014: Developmental Neuropsychology
Micah R Bregman, Sarah C Creel
Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect...
January 2014: Cognition
Brian T Gold, Nathan F Johnson, David K Powell
Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N=20) and monolinguals (N=20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence...
November 2013: Neuropsychologia
Joanna Sierpowska, Andreu Gabarrós, Pablo Ripollés, Montserrat Juncadella, Sara Castañer, Ángels Camins, Gerard Plans, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
BACKGROUND: Language switching (LS) is an important phenomena usually observed in some bilingual communities. The ability to switch languages is a very fast, efficient and flexible process, being a fundamental aspect of bilingual efficient language communication. The aim of the present study was to characterize the specific role of non-language specific prefrontal regions in the neural network involved in LS in bilingual patients, during awake brain surgery and using electrical stimulation mapping (ESM)...
November 2013: Neuropsychologia
Ellen Bialystok, Fergus I M Craik, Gigi Luk
Building on earlier evidence showing a beneficial effect of bilingualism on children's cognitive development, we review recent studies using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine the effects of bilingualism on cognition in adulthood and explore possible mechanisms for these effects. This research shows that bilingualism has a somewhat muted effect in adulthood but a larger role in older age, protecting against cognitive decline, a concept known as 'cognitive reserve'. We discuss recent evidence that bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of symptoms of dementia...
April 2012: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
L A Petitto, M S Berens, I Kovelman, M H Dubins, K Jasinska, M Shalinsky
In a neuroimaging study focusing on young bilinguals, we explored the brains of bilingual and monolingual babies across two age groups (younger 4-6 months, older 10-12 months), using fNIRS in a new event-related design, as babies processed linguistic phonetic (Native English, Non-Native Hindi) and non-linguistic Tone stimuli. We found that phonetic processing in bilingual and monolingual babies is accomplished with the same language-specific brain areas classically observed in adults, including the left superior temporal gyrus (associated with phonetic processing) and the left inferior frontal cortex (associated with the search and retrieval of information about meanings, and syntactic and phonological patterning), with intriguing developmental timing differences: left superior temporal gyrus activation was observed early and remained stably active over time, while left inferior frontal cortex showed greater increase in neural activation in older babies notably at the precise age when babies' enter the universal first-word milestone, thus revealing a first-time focal brain correlate that may mediate a universal behavioral milestone in early human language acquisition...
May 2012: Brain and Language
Raffaele Nardone, Pierpaolo De Blasi, Jürgen Bergmann, Francesca Caleri, Frediano Tezzon, Gunther Ladurner, Stefan Golaszewski, Eugen Trinka
Although different lesion and neuroimaging studies had highlighted the importance of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in language switching, the nature of this higher cortical disorder of communication and its neural correlates have not been clearly established. To further investigate the functional involvement of the DLPFC, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) in a bilingual patient showing pathologic language switching after an ischemic stroke involving the left frontal lobe...
January 10, 2011: Neuroscience Letters
Barbro B Johansson
Current neuroimaging and neurophysiologic techniques have substantially increased our possibilities to study processes related to various language functions in the intact human brain. Learning to read and write influences the functional organization of the brain. What is universal and what is specific in the languages of the world are important issues. Most studies on healthy bilinguals indicate that essentially the same neural mechanisms are used for first and second languages, albeit with some linguistic and cultural influences related to speech and writing systems, particularly between alphabetical and nonalphabetical languages...
June 2006: Annals of Dyslexia
Kuan H Kho, Hugues Duffau, Peggy Gatignol, Frans S S Leijten, Nick F Ramsey, Peter C van Rijen, Geert-Jan M Rutten
We present two bilingual patients without language disorders in whom involuntary language switching was induced. The first patient switched from Dutch to English during a left-sided amobarbital (Wada) test. Functional magnetic resonance imaging yielded a predominantly left-sided language distribution similar for both languages. The second patient switched from French to Chinese during intraoperative electrocortical stimulation of the left inferior frontal gyrus. We conclude that the observed language switching in both cases was not likely the result of a selective inhibition of one language, but the result of a temporary disruption of brain areas that are involved in language switching...
April 2007: Brain and Language
Christopher M Filley, Gail Ramsberger, Lise Menn, Jiang Wu, Bessie Y Reid, Allan L Reid
Multilingual aphasias are common because most people in the world know more than one language, but little is known of these syndromes except in patients who have had a stroke. We present a 76-year-old right-handed woman, fluent in English and Chinese, who developed anomia at age 70 and then progressed to aphasia. Functional neuroimaging disclosed mild left temporoparietal hypometabolism. Neurolinguistic testing was performed in both English and Chinese, representing a unique contribution to the literature. Results revealed conduction-like aphasia that was comparable in the two languages, although English was slightly better preserved...
October 2006: Neurocase
Alice Mado Proverbio, Giuliana Leoni, Alberto Zani
Recent event-related potential (ERP) and neuroimaging studies suggest that bilingual individuals are able to inhibit the processing of a non-target language while speaking or reading in another language. The neural mechanisms subserving code switching still remain matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to shed some light on the neurofunctional bases of such mechanisms. ERPs were recorded in native Italian simultaneous interpreters and monolingual controls during a semantic processing task in which the subjects had to evaluate the sensibleness of final words of incomplete sentences...
2004: Neuropsychologia
Barry Horwitz, Katrin Amunts, Rajan Bhattacharyya, Debra Patkin, Keith Jeffries, Karl Zilles, Allen R Braun
Broca's area in the inferior frontal gyrus consists of two cytoarchitectonically defined regions-Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45. Combining probabilistic maps of these two areas with functional neuroimaging data obtained using PET, it is shown that BA45, not BA44, is activated by both speech and signing during the production of language narratives in bilingual subjects fluent from early childhood in both American Sign Language (ASL) and English when the generation of complex movements and sounds is taken into account...
2003: Neuropsychologia
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