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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724369/acculturation-and-other-risk-factors-of-depressive-disorders-in-individuals-with-turkish-migration-backgrounds
#1
Hanna Janssen-Kallenberg, Holger Schulz, Ulrike Kluge, Jens Strehle, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Uwe Wolfradt, Uwe Koch-Gromus, Andreas Heinz, Mike Mösko, Demet Dingoyan
BACKGROUND: Acculturation is a long-term, multi-dimensional process occurring when subjects of different cultures stay in continuous contact. Previous studies have suggested that elevated rates of depression among different migrant groups might be due to patterns of acculturation and migration related risk factors. This paper focused on prevalence rates of depressive disorders and related risk factors among individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds. METHODS: A population-based sample of 662 individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds were interviewed by bilingual interviewers using a standardised diagnostic interview for DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 diagnoses (CIDI DIA-X Version 2...
July 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712988/the-spanish-adaptation-of-the-palliative-performance-scale-version-2-among-cancer-patients-at-the-end-of-life-psychometric-properties
#2
Eva Barallat, Maria Nabal, Jaume Canal, Javier Trujillano, Montse Gea-Sánchez, Philip J Larkin, Michael G Downing
BACKGROUND: Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) is a reliable tool to assess performance status in cancer patients receiving palliative care. Spanish validated and culturally adapted tools are needed. OBJECTIVES: To develop PPS translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Spanish. To assess its psychometric properties. DESIGN: Translation process with cross-cultural adaptation to produce Spanish Palliative Performance Scale (PPS-SPANISH)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711720/onset-age-of-l2-acquisition-influences-language-network-in-early-and-late-cantonese-mandarin-bilinguals
#3
Xiaojin Liu, Liu Tu, Junjing Wang, Bo Jiang, Wei Gao, Ximin Pan, Meng Li, Miao Zhong, Zhenzhen Zhu, Meiqi Niu, Yanyan Li, Ling Zhao, Xiaoxi Chen, Chang Liu, Zhi Lu, Ruiwang Huang
Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state...
July 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706990/distinct-distributed-patterns-of-neural-activity-are-associated-with-two-languages-in-the-bilingual-brain
#4
Min Xu, Daniel Baldauf, Chun Qi Chang, Robert Desimone, Li Hai Tan
A large body of previous neuroimaging studies suggests that multiple languages are processed and organized in a single neuroanatomical system in the bilingual brain, although differential activation may be seen in some studies because of different proficiency levels and/or age of acquisition of the two languages. However, one important possibility is that the two languages may involve interleaved but functionally independent neural populations within a given cortical region, and thus, distinct patterns of neural computations may be pivotal for the processing of the two languages...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702836/sequential-language-learning-and-language-immersion-in-bilingualism-diffusion-mri-connectometry-reveals-microstructural-evidence
#5
Farzaneh Rahmani, Soheila Sobhani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Study of bilingual brain has provided evidence for probable advantageous outcomes of early second language learning and brain structural correlates to these outcomes. DMRI connectometry is a novel approach that tracts fibers based on correlation of the adjacent voxels with a variable of interest or group differences. Using the data deposited by Pliatsikas et al., we investigated through diffusion MRI connectometry and correlation analysis, the structural differences in white matter tracts of 20 healthy sequential bilingual adults who used English as a second language on a daily basis, compared to 25 age matched in fiber differentiation analyses...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701981/language-mediated-concept-activation-in-bilingual-memory-facilitates-cognitive-flexibility
#6
Anatoliy V Kharkhurin
This is the first attempt of empirical investigation of language mediated concept activation (LMCA) in bilingual memory as a cognitive mechanism facilitating divergent thinking. Russian-English bilingual and Russian monolingual college students were tested on a battery of tests including among others Abbreviated Torrance Tests for Adults assessing divergent thinking traits and translingual priming (TLP) test assessing the LMCA. The latter was designed as a lexical decision priming test, in which a prime and a target were not related in Russian (language of testing), but were related through their translation equivalents in English (spoken only by bilinguals)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700267/the-mismeasurement-of-mind-life-span-changes-in-paired-associate-learning-scores-reflect-the-cost-of-learning-not-cognitive-decline
#7
Michael Ramscar, Ching Chu Sun, Peter Hendrix, Harald Baayen
The age-related declines observed in scores on paired-associate-learning (PAL) tests are widely taken as support for the idea that human cognitive capacities decline across the life span. In a computational simulation, we showed that the patterns of change in PAL scores are actually predicted by the models that formalize the associative learning process in other areas of behavioral and neuroscientific research. These models also predict that manipulating language exposure can reproduce the experience-related performance differences erroneously attributed to age-related decline in age-matched adults...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676254/patient-navigation-for-colonoscopy-completion-results-of-an-rct
#8
Amy DeGroff, Paul C Schroy, Kerry Grace Morrissey, Beth Slotman, Elizabeth A Rohan, James Bethel, Jennifer Murillo, Weijia Ren, Shelley Niwa, Steven Leadbetter, Djenaba Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. Although screening reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, screening rates among U.S. adults remain less than optimal, especially among disadvantaged populations. This study examined the efficacy of patient navigation to increase colonoscopy screening. STUDY DESIGN: RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 843 low-income adults, primarily Hispanic and non-Hispanic blacks, aged 50-75 years referred for colonoscopy at Boston Medical Center were randomized into the intervention (n=429) or control (n=427) groups...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656790/the-dot-counting-test-adds-up-validation-and-response-pattern-analysis-in-a-mixed-clinical-veteran-sample
#9
Jason R Soble, Octavio A Santos, Kathleen M Bain, Joshua W Kirton, K Chase Bailey, Edan A Critchfield, Justin J F O'Rourke, Jonathan M Highsmith, David Andrés González
OBJECTIVE: This study cross-validated the Dot Counting Test (DCT) as a performance validity test (PVT) among a mixed clinical veteran sample. Completion time and error patterns also were examined by validity group and cognitive impairment status. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 77 veterans who completed the DCT during clinical evaluation. Seventy-four percent (N = 57) were classified as valid and 26% as noncredible (N = 20) via the Word Memory Test (WMT) and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM)...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648285/simultaneous-learning-of-two-languages-from-birth-positively-impacts-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-control
#10
Shanna Kousaie, Xiaoqian J Chai, Kaija M Sander, Denise Klein
This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals...
June 22, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638330/flat-vs-expressive-storytelling-young-children-s-learning-and-retention-of-a-social-robot-s-narrative
#11
Jacqueline M Kory Westlund, Sooyeon Jeong, Hae W Park, Samuel Ronfard, Aradhana Adhikari, Paul L Harris, David DeSteno, Cynthia L Breazeal
Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children's vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot's active reading was expressive; the robot's voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617919/the-persistence-and-functional-impact-of-english-language-difficulties-experienced-by-children-learning-english-as-an-additional-language-and-monolingual-peers
#12
Katie E Whiteside, Courtenay Frazier Norbury
Purpose: This study explored whether a monolingual-normed English language battery could identify children with English as an additional language (EAL) who have persistent English language learning difficulties that affect functional academic attainment. Method: Children with EAL (n = 43) and monolingual English-speaking children (n = 46) completed a comprehensive monolingual-normed English language battery in Year 1 (ages 5-6 years) and Year 3 (ages 7-8 years)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608324/translation-and-validation-of-chronic-liver-disease-questionnaire-cldq-in-tamil-language
#13
Amit Goel, Karunanithi Arivazhagan, Avani Sasi, Vanathy Shanmugam, Seleena Koshi, Biju Pottakkat, C P Lakshmi, Ashish Awasthi
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ), a self-administered quality-of-life (QOL) instrument for chronic liver disease (CLD) patients, was originally developed in English language. We aimed to translate and validate CLDQ in Tamil language (CLDQ-T). METHODS: CLDQ-T, prepared by two forward and two backward independent translations by four bilingual (Tamil and English) persons, and repeated iterative modifications, was validated in adult, native-Tamil patients with CLD...
June 13, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586425/mothers-of-deaf-children-in-the-21st-century-dynamic-positioning-between-the-medical-and-cultural-linguistic-discourses
#14
Liesbeth Matthijs, Stefan Hardonk, Jasmina Sermijn, Martine Van Puyvelde, Greg Leigh, Mieke Van Herreweghe, Gerrit Loots
Traditional research examining the communicational choices made by families with deaf children tends to emanate from the premise that families engage with either of the two grand discourses on deafness (i.e., the medical or cultural-linguistic perspective). This study investigated hearing mother's engagement with the educational options for their child from a dynamic, poststructural perspective. Three Flemish mothers were interviewed in-depth at the child's ages of 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. The data were analyzed within a theoretical model that describes the positioning process of the mothers...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579694/bilingualism-influences-structural-indices-of-interhemispheric-organization
#15
Adam Felton, David Vazquez, Aurora I Ramos-Nunez, Maya R Greene, Alessandra McDowell, Arturo E Hernandez, Christine Chiarello
Bilingualism represents an interesting model of possible experience-dependent alterations in brain structure. The current study examines whether interhemispheric adaptations in brain structure are associated with bilingualism. Corpus callosum volume and cortical thickness asymmetry across 13 regions of interest (selected to include critical language and bilingual cognitive control areas) were measured in a sample of Spanish-English bilinguals and age- and gender-matched monolingual individuals (N = 39 per group)...
May 2017: Journal of Neurolinguistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572785/age-of-acquisition-effects-on-word-processing-for-chinese-native-learners-english-erp-evidence-for-the-arbitrary-mapping-hypothesis
#16
Jin Xue, Tongtong Liu, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos, Xuna Pei
The present study aimed at distinguishing processing of early learned L2 words from late ones for Chinese natives who learn English as a foreign language. Specifically, we examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) effect arose during the arbitrary mapping from conceptual knowledge onto linguistic units. The behavior and ERP data were collected when 28 Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to perform semantic relatedness judgment on word pairs, which represented three stages of word learning (i.e., primary school, junior and senior high schools)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554334/he-said-she-said-effects-of-bilingualism-on-cross-talker-word-recognition-in-infancy
#17
Leher Singh
The purpose of the current study was to examine effects of bilingual language input on infant word segmentation and on talker generalization. In the present study, monolingually and bilingually exposed infants were compared on their abilities to recognize familiarized words in speech and to maintain generalizable representations of familiarized words. Words were first presented in the context of sentences to infants and then presented to infants in isolation during a test phase. During test, words were produced by a talker of the same gender and by a talker of the opposite gender...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538518/fetal-rhythm-based-language-discrimination-a-biomagnetometry-study
#18
Utako Minai, Kathleen Gustafson, Robert Fiorentino, Allard Jongman, Joan Sereno
Using fetal biomagnetometry, this study measured changes in fetal heart rate to assess discrimination of two rhythmically different languages (English and Japanese). Two-minute passages in English and Japanese were read by the same female bilingual speaker. Twenty-four mother-fetus pairs (mean gestational age=35.5 weeks) participated. Fetal magnetocardiography was recorded while the participants were presented first with passage 1, a passage in English, and then, following an 18 min interval, with passage 2, either a different passage in English (English-English condition: N=12) or in Japanese (English-Japanese condition: N=12)...
July 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535193/typicality-effect-and-category-structure-in-spanish-english-bilingual-children-and-adults
#19
Prarthana Shivabasappa, Elizabeth D Peña, Lisa M Bedore
Purpose: The study examines the typicality effect in Spanish-English bilingual children and adults in their 2 languages. Method: Two studies were conducted using a category-generation task to compare the typical items generated by children with those generated by adults. Children in the 1st study differed orthogonally with respect to age (older, younger) and language use (higher Spanish use, higher English use). In the 2nd study, the older and younger children were matched with adults on their current Spanish use to delineate the influence of test language and age...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534731/speech-recognition-in-nonnative-versus-native-english-speaking-college-students-in-a-virtual-classroom
#20
Dorothy Neave-DiToro, Adrienne Rubinstein, Arlene C Neuman
BACKGROUND: Limited attention has been given to the effects of classroom acoustics at the college level. Many studies have reported that nonnative speakers of English are more likely to be affected by poor room acoustics than native speakers. An important question is how classroom acoustics affect speech perception of nonnative college students. PURPOSE: The combined effect of noise and reverberation on the speech recognition performance of college students who differ in age of English acquisition was evaluated under conditions simulating classrooms with reverberation times (RTs) close to ANSI recommended RTs...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
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