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bilingualism aging

Kate Rossouw, Michelle Pascoe
 Bilingualism is common in South Africa, with many children acquiring isiXhosa as a home language and learning English from a young age in nursery or crèche. IsiXhosa is a local language, part of the Bantu language family, widely spoken in the country. Aims: To describe changes in a bilingual child's speech following intervention based on a theoretically motivated and tailored intervention plan. Methods and procedures: This study describes a female isiXhosa-English bilingual child, named Gcobisa (pseudonym) (chronological age 4 years and 2 months) with a speech sound disorder...
March 19, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
Giang Pham, Kerry Danahy Ebert, Kristine Thuy Dinh, Quynh Dam
Nonword repetition (NWR) has been a widely used measure of language-learning ability in children with and without language disorders. Although NWR tasks have been created for a variety of languages, minimal attention has been given to Asian tonal languages. This study introduces a new set of NWR stimuli for Vietnamese. The stimuli include 20 items ranging in length from one to four syllables. The items consist of dialect-neutral phonemes in consonant-vowel (CV) and CVC sequences that follow the phonotactic constraints of the language...
May 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Danielle Thomas-Sunesson, Kenji Hakuta, Ellen Bialystok
Past studies examining the cognitive function of bilingual school-aged children have pointed to enhancements in areas of executive control relative to age-matched monolingual children. The majority of these studies has tested children from a middle-class background and compared performance of bilinguals as a discrete group against monolinguals. The objective of the present study was to determine if cognitive enhancement from bilingualism is sensitive to the child's degree of bilingualism in a sample of eight- and nine-year old Spanish-English bilingual children of low socioeconomic status...
2018: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
Susannahv Levi
A bilingual advantage has been found in both cognitive and social tasks. In the current study, we examine whether there is a bilingual advantage in how children process information about who is talking (talker-voice information). Younger and older groups of monolingual and bilingual children completed the following talker-voice tasks with bilingual speakers: a discrimination task in English and German (an unfamiliar language), and a talker-voice learning task in which they learned to identify the voices of three unfamiliar speakers in English...
May 2018: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
Martha P Montgomery, Elizabeth D Allen, Olivia Thomas, Byron F Robinson, Donnie Clark, Ann Connelly, Joshua A Mott, Elizabeth Conrey
OBJECTIVE: Limited English proficiency can be a barrier to asthma care and is associated with poor outcomes. This study examines whether pediatric patients in Ohio with limited English proficiency experience lower asthma care quality or higher morbidity. METHODS: We used electronic health records for asthma patients aged 2-17 years from a regional, urban, children's hospital in Ohio during 2011-2015. Community-level demographics were included from U.S. Census data...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Zed Sevcikova Sehyr, Marcel R Giezen, Karen Emmorey
This study investigated the impact of language modality and age of acquisition on semantic fluency in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Experiment 1 compared semantic fluency performance (e.g., name as many animals as possible in 1 min) for deaf native and early ASL signers and hearing monolingual English speakers. The results showed similar fluency scores in both modalities when fingerspelled responses were included for ASL. Experiment 2 compared ASL and English fluency scores in hearing native and late ASL-English bilinguals...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Stephanie DeAnda, Kristi Hendrickson, Pascal Zesiger, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Margaret Friend
It is well established that vocabulary size is related to efficiency in auditory processing, such that children with larger vocabularies recognize words faster than children with smaller vocabularies. The present study evaluates whether this relation is specific to the language being assessed, or related to general language or cognitive processes. Speed of word processing was measured longitudinally in Spanish- and English-learning monolinguals and bilinguals at 16 and 22 months of age. Speed of processing in bilinguals was similar to monolinguals, suggesting that the number of languages to which children are exposed does not influence word recognition...
March 2018: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
Claire Goriot, Mirjam Broersma, James M McQueen, Sharon Unsworth, Roeland van Hout
This study investigated whether relative lexical proficiency in Dutch and English in child second language (L2) learners is related to executive functioning. Participants were Dutch primary school pupils of three different age groups (4-5, 8-9, and 11-12 years) who either were enrolled in an early-English schooling program or were age-matched controls not on that early-English program. Participants performed tasks that measured switching, inhibition, and working memory. Early-English program pupils had greater knowledge of English vocabulary and more balanced Dutch-English lexicons...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jason W Gullifer, Xiaoqian J Chai, Veronica Whitford, Irina Pivneva, Shari Baum, Denise Klein, Debra Titone
We investigated the independent contributions of second language (L2) age of acquisition (AoA) and social diversity of language use on intrinsic brain organization using seed-based resting-state functional connectivity among highly proficient French-English bilinguals. There were two key findings. First, earlier L2 AoA related to greater interhemispheric functional connectivity between homologous frontal brain regions, and to decreased reliance on proactive vs. reactive executive control in an AX-Continuous Performance Task completed outside the scanner...
May 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Marina Kalashnikova, Paola Escudero, Evan Kidd
The mutual exclusivity (ME) assumption is proposed to facilitate early word learning by guiding infants to map novel words to novel referents. This study assessed the emergence and use of ME to both disambiguate and retain the meanings of novel words across development in 18-month-old monolingual and bilingual children (Experiment 1; N = 58), and in a sub-group of these children again at 24 months of age (Experiment 2: N = 32). Both monolinguals and bilinguals employed ME to select the referent of a novel label to a similar extent at 18 and 24 months...
April 30, 2018: Developmental Science
David O Garcia, Luis A Valdez, Melanie L Bell, Kyle Humphrey, Melanie Hingle, Marylyn McEwen, Steven P Hooker
Hispanic men have the highest rates of overweight and obesity when compared to men of other racial/ethnic groups, placing them at increased risk for obesity-related disease. Yet, Hispanic men are grossly underrepresented in weight loss research. Tailored intervention strategies to improve obesity treatment programs for this vulnerable racial/ethnic subgroup are needed. This manuscript describes recruitment strategies, methodology, and participant characteristics of the ANIMO study, a 24-week randomized controlled pilot trial testing the effects of a gender- and culturally-sensitive weight loss intervention (GCSWLI) on body weight in Hispanic men compared to a wait-list control condition...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Zvinka Z Zlatar, Martha C Muniz, Sarah Espinoza, Roberto Gratianne, Tamar H Gollan, Douglas Galasko, David P Salmon
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is common in older adults and may be an early marker of future cognitive decline. Research suggest that SCD is more closely related to concurrent symptoms of depression than to objective cognitive performance in non-Hispanic Whites, but it is unknown whether the associations of SCD, cognition, and depression manifest differently in Hispanic older adults. We examined if SCD is associated with objective cognitive performance or with depression symptoms in 145 Hispanic individuals ages 60 or older referred by community health clinics for screening of cognitive complaints...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Leher Singh, Charlene S L Fu, Xian Hui Seet, Ashley P Y Tong, Joelle L Wang, Catherine T Best
Most languages use lexical tone to discriminate the meanings of words. There has been recent interest in tracking the development of tone categories during infancy. These studies have focused largely on monolingual infants learning either a tone language or a non-tone language. It remains to be seen how bilingual infants learning one tone language (e.g., Mandarin) and one non-tone language (e.g., English) discriminate tones. Here, we examined infants' discrimination of two Mandarin tones pairs: one salient and one subtle...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Alma Veenstra, Kyriakos Antoniou, Napoleon Katsos, Mikhail Kissine
We propose that attraction errors in agreement production (e.g., the key to the cabinets are missing) are related to two components of executive control: working memory and inhibitory control. We tested 138 children aged 10 to 12, an age when children are expected to produce high rates of errors. To increase the potential of individual variation in executive control skills, participants came from monolingual, bilingual, and bidialectal language backgrounds. Attraction errors were elicited with a picture description task in Dutch and executive control was measured with a digit span task, Corsi blocks task, switching task, and attentional networks task...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Tinuke O Olagunju, Yihang Liu, Li-Jung Liang, James M Stomber, Jennifer J Griggs, Patricia A Ganz, Amardeep Thind, Rose C Maly
BACKGROUND: The authors investigated disparities in the survivorship experience among Latinas with breast cancer (BC) in comparison with non-Latinas. METHODS: A cross-sectional bilingual telephone survey was conducted among 212 Latina and non-Latina women within 10 to 24 months after a diagnosis of BC (AJCC TNM staging system stage 0-III) at 2 Los Angeles County public hospitals. Data were collected using the Preparing for Life as a (New) Survivor (PLANS) scale, Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions Questionnaire (PEPPI), Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) Symptom Checklist, Satisfaction with Care and Information Scale, Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) tool, Charlson Comorbidity Index adapted for patient self-report, and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey...
April 6, 2018: Cancer
Lisa M Bedore, Elizabeth D Peña, Jissel B Anaya, Ricardo Nieto, Mirza J Lugo-Neris, Alisa Baron
Purpose: This study examines English performance on a set of 11 grammatical forms in Spanish-English bilingual, school-age children in order to understand how item difficulty of grammatical constructions helps correctly classify language impairment (LI) from expected variability in second language acquisition when taking into account linguistic experience and exposure. Method: Three hundred seventy-eight children's scores on the Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment-Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutiérrez-Clellen, Iglesias, & Goldstein, 2008) morphosyntax cloze task were analyzed by bilingual experience groups (high Spanish experience, balanced English-Spanish experience, high English experience, ability (typically developing [TD] vs...
April 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Irina Potapova, Sophia Kelly, Philip N Combiths, Sonja L Pruitt-Lord
Purpose: This work explores the clinical relevance of three measures of morpheme use for preschool-age Spanish-English bilingual children with varying language skills. The 3 measures reflect accuracy, diversity (the tense marker total), and productivity (the tense and agreement productivity score [TAP score]) of the English tense and agreement system. Method: Measures were generated from language samples collected at the beginning and end of the participants' preschool year...
April 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Margaret Friend, Erin Smolak, Yushuang Liu, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger
Recent studies demonstrate that emerging literacy depends on earlier language achievement. Importantly, most extant work focuses on parent-reported production prior to 30 months of age. Of interest is whether and how directly assessed vocabulary comprehension in the 2nd year of life supports vocabulary and kindergarten readiness in the 4th year. We first contrasted orthogonal indices of parent-reported production and directly assessed vocabulary comprehension and found that comprehension was a stronger predictor of child outcomes...
April 5, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Alfredo Ardila, Alexandra Lopez-Recio, Ariel Sakowitz, Estefania Sanchez, Stephanie Sarmiento
This study was aimed at studying the Verbal IQ in two groups of Spanish/English bilinguals: simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals. 48 Spanish/English bilinguals born in the U.S. or Latin American countries but moving to United States before the age of 10 were selected. The verbal subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (English and Spanish) - Third Edition (WAIS-III) was administered. Overall, performance was significantly better in English for both groups of bilinguals. Verbal IQ difference when tested in Spanish and English was about one standard deviation higher in English for simultaneous bilinguals, and about half standard deviation for early sequential bilinguals...
April 4, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Liquan Liu, René Kager
Previous studies reported a non-native word learning advantage for bilingual infants at around 18 months. We investigated developmental changes in infant interpretation of sounds that aid in object mapping. Dutch monolingual and bilingual (exposed to Dutch and a second non-tone-language) infants' word learning ability was examined on two novel label-object pairings using syllables differing in Mandarin tones as labels (flat vs. falling). Infants aged 14-15 months, regardless of language backgrounds, were sensitive to violations in the label-objects pairings when lexical tones were switched compared to when they were the same as habituated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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