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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803620/language-growth-in-english-monolingual-and-spanish-english-bilingual-children-from-2-5-to-5-years
#1
Erika Hoff, Krystal M Ribot
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. STUDY DESIGN: Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791064/validation-of-farsi-translation-of-the-ocular-surface-disease-index
#2
Farzad Pakdel, Mahmood Reza Gohari, Anis Sadat Jazayeri, Afsaneh Amani, Niloofar Pirmarzdashti, Hossein Aghaee
PURPOSE: To develop and validate a Farsi version of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) for the Iranian population. METHODS: This study was a translation and cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Farsi version of OSDI. Four bilingual (English-Persian) individual including three physicians and one native English teacher were asked to translate the original English OSDI questionnaire in Farsi. Following back and forth translation, integration and pilot check, the translation team came to consensus on translation...
July 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782680/bilinguals-have-more-complex-eeg-brain-signals-in-occipital-regions-than-monolinguals
#3
John G Grundy, John A E Anderson, Ellen Bialystok
Brain signal complexity increases with development and is associated with better cognitive outcomes in older age. Research has also shown that bilinguals are able to stave off cognitive decline for longer periods of time than monolinguals, but no studies to date have examined whether bilinguals have more complex brain signals than monolinguals. Here we explored the hypothesis that bilingualism leads to greater brain signal complexity by examining multiscale entropy (MSE) in monolingual and bilingual young adults while EEG was recorded during a task-switching paradigm...
August 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767094/depressive-symptoms-and-length-of-u-s-residency-are-associated-with-obesity-among-low-income-latina-mothers-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#4
Ana Cristina Lindsay, Mary L Greaney, Sherrie F Wallington, Julie A Wright, Anne T Hunt
Latinos are the largest minority population group in the United States (U.S.), and low-income Latina women are at elevated risk of depression and obesity. Thus, the prevention of these two problems is a pressing public health concern in this population. Both depressive symptoms and obesity are modifiable factors that can be addressed by culturally relevant interventions. However, the association between depressive symptoms and obesity in Latina immigrant women is not well understood. Therefore, this cross-sectional study examined the association between depressive symptoms and obesity among Latina women of childbearing age (15-44)...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763376/effects-of-task-language-and-second-language-proficiency-on-the-neural-correlates-of-phonemic-fluency-in-native-japanese-speakers-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#5
Greggory J Wroblewski, Koji Matsuo, Keiko Hirata, Toshio Matsubara, Kenichiro Harada, Yoshifumi Watanabe, Koh Shinoda
Data collected during a phonemic fluency task (or 'FAS test'), a standard component of neuropsychological batteries for assessment of cognitive deficits, may be language-dependent and may differ depending on second-language proficiency. The unique orthographic/phonological system of the task language, and the reported cognitive advantages inherent to bilinguals, may each influence the task's neural correlates. However, language background is not currently assessed in most studies testing phonemic fluency. Here, we used 52-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy in college-aged native-Japanese subjects to examine functional changes in oxygenated hemoglobin elicited during a phonemic fluency task performed in Japanese and in English...
July 31, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754578/reliability-and-validation-of-the-turkish-version-of-the-pediatric-voice-related-quality-of-life-survey
#6
Ziya Salturk, Erdi Ozdemir, Tolgar Lutfi Kumral, İbrahim Sayin, Kürşat Yelken, Hüseyin Sari, Güler Berkiten, Yavuz Atar, Belgin Tutar, Ahmet Arslanoglu, Yavuz Uyar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dysphonia in children, several methods have been developed, including the Pediatric Voice Outcome Survey, the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index, and the Pediatric Voice-Related Quality of Life (PVRQOL) Survey. The aim of this study was to analyze the validity of the Turkish version of the PVRQOL Survey. METHODS: The PVRQOL Survey consists of 10 questions that evaluate the effects of dysphonia on quality of life. We translated it into Turkish by working with two translators and faculty from the English Grammar and Literature Department...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750415/influences-of-phonological-context-on-tense-marking-in-spanish-english-dual-language-learners
#7
Philip N Combiths, Jessica A Barlow, Irina Potapova, Sonja Pruitt-Lord
Purpose: The emergence of tense-morpheme marking during language acquisition is highly variable, which confounds the use of tense marking as a diagnostic indicator of language impairment in linguistically diverse populations. In this study, we seek to better understand tense-marking patterns in young bilingual children by comparing phonological influences on marking of 2 word-final tense morphemes. Method: In spontaneous connected speech samples from 10 Spanish-English dual language learners aged 56-66 months (M = 61...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737607/a-standardized-arabic-reading-acuity-chart-the-balsam-alabdulkader-leat-chart
#8
Balsam Alabdulkader, Susan J Leat
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate the first standardized Arabic continuous text near-visual-acuity chart, the Balsam Alabdulkader-Leat (BAL) chart. METHODS: Three versions of the BAL chart were created from previously validated sentences. Reading acuity (RA) and reading speed in standard-length words per minute (SLWPM) were measured for three versions of the BAL chart and three English charts (MNREAD, Colenbrander, and Radner) for 86 bilingual adults with normal vision aged 15 to 59 years...
August 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724369/acculturation-and-other-risk-factors-of-depressive-disorders-in-individuals-with-turkish-migration-backgrounds
#9
Hanna Janssen-Kallenberg, Holger Schulz, Ulrike Kluge, Jens Strehle, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Uwe Wolfradt, Uwe Koch-Gromus, Andreas Heinz, Mike Mösko, Demet Dingoyan
BACKGROUND: Acculturation is a long-term, multi-dimensional process occurring when subjects of different cultures stay in continuous contact. Previous studies have suggested that elevated rates of depression among different migrant groups might be due to patterns of acculturation and migration related risk factors. This paper focused on prevalence rates of depressive disorders and related risk factors among individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds. METHODS: A population-based sample of 662 individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds were interviewed by bilingual interviewers using a standardised diagnostic interview for DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 diagnoses (CIDI DIA-X Version 2...
July 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712988/the-spanish-adaptation-of-the-palliative-performance-scale-version-2-among-cancer-patients-at-the-end-of-life-psychometric-properties
#10
Eva Barallat, Maria Nabal, Jaume Canal, Javier Trujillano, Montse Gea-Sánchez, Philip J Larkin, Michael G Downing
BACKGROUND: Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) is a reliable tool to assess performance status in cancer patients receiving palliative care. Spanish validated and culturally adapted tools are needed. OBJECTIVES: To develop PPS translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Spanish. To assess its psychometric properties. DESIGN: Translation process with cross-cultural adaptation to produce Spanish Palliative Performance Scale (PPS-SPANISH)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711720/onset-age-of-l2-acquisition-influences-language-network-in-early-and-late-cantonese-mandarin-bilinguals
#11
Xiaojin Liu, Liu Tu, Junjing Wang, Bo Jiang, Wei Gao, Ximin Pan, Meng Li, Miao Zhong, Zhenzhen Zhu, Meiqi Niu, Yanyan Li, Ling Zhao, Xiaoxi Chen, Chang Liu, Zhi Lu, Ruiwang Huang
Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state...
July 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706990/distinct-distributed-patterns-of-neural-activity-are-associated-with-two-languages-in-the-bilingual-brain
#12
Min Xu, Daniel Baldauf, Chun Qi Chang, Robert Desimone, Li Hai Tan
A large body of previous neuroimaging studies suggests that multiple languages are processed and organized in a single neuroanatomical system in the bilingual brain, although differential activation may be seen in some studies because of different proficiency levels and/or age of acquisition of the two languages. However, one important possibility is that the two languages may involve interleaved but functionally independent neural populations within a given cortical region, and thus, distinct patterns of neural computations may be pivotal for the processing of the two languages...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702836/sequential-language-learning-and-language-immersion-in-bilingualism-diffusion-mri-connectometry-reveals-microstructural-evidence
#13
Farzaneh Rahmani, Soheila Sobhani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Study of bilingual brain has provided evidence for probable advantageous outcomes of early second language learning and brain structural correlates to these outcomes. DMRI connectometry is a novel approach that tracts fibers based on correlation of the adjacent voxels with a variable of interest or group differences. Using the data deposited by Pliatsikas et al., we investigated through diffusion MRI connectometry and correlation analysis, the structural differences in white matter tracts of 20 healthy sequential bilingual adults who used English as a second language on a daily basis, compared to 25 age matched in fiber differentiation analyses...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701981/language-mediated-concept-activation-in-bilingual-memory-facilitates-cognitive-flexibility
#14
Anatoliy V Kharkhurin
This is the first attempt of empirical investigation of language mediated concept activation (LMCA) in bilingual memory as a cognitive mechanism facilitating divergent thinking. Russian-English bilingual and Russian monolingual college students were tested on a battery of tests including among others Abbreviated Torrance Tests for Adults assessing divergent thinking traits and translingual priming (TLP) test assessing the LMCA. The latter was designed as a lexical decision priming test, in which a prime and a target were not related in Russian (language of testing), but were related through their translation equivalents in English (spoken only by bilinguals)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700267/the-mismeasurement-of-mind-life-span-changes-in-paired-associate-learning-scores-reflect-the-cost-of-learning-not-cognitive-decline
#15
Michael Ramscar, Ching Chu Sun, Peter Hendrix, Harald Baayen
The age-related declines observed in scores on paired-associate-learning (PAL) tests are widely taken as support for the idea that human cognitive capacities decline across the life span. In a computational simulation, we showed that the patterns of change in PAL scores are actually predicted by the models that formalize the associative learning process in other areas of behavioral and neuroscientific research. These models also predict that manipulating language exposure can reproduce the experience-related performance differences erroneously attributed to age-related decline in age-matched adults...
August 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676254/patient-navigation-for-colonoscopy-completion-results-of-an-rct
#16
Amy DeGroff, Paul C Schroy, Kerry Grace Morrissey, Beth Slotman, Elizabeth A Rohan, James Bethel, Jennifer Murillo, Weijia Ren, Shelley Niwa, Steven Leadbetter, Djenaba Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. Although screening reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, screening rates among U.S. adults remain less than optimal, especially among disadvantaged populations. This study examined the efficacy of patient navigation to increase colonoscopy screening. STUDY DESIGN: RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 843 low-income adults, primarily Hispanic and non-Hispanic blacks, aged 50-75 years referred for colonoscopy at Boston Medical Center were randomized into the intervention (n=429) or control (n=427) groups...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656790/the-dot-counting-test-adds-up-validation-and-response-pattern-analysis-in-a-mixed-clinical-veteran-sample
#17
Jason R Soble, Octavio A Santos, Kathleen M Bain, Joshua W Kirton, K Chase Bailey, Edan A Critchfield, Justin J F O'Rourke, Jonathan M Highsmith, David Andrés González
OBJECTIVE: This study cross-validated the Dot Counting Test (DCT) as a performance validity test (PVT) among a mixed clinical veteran sample. Completion time and error patterns also were examined by validity group and cognitive impairment status. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 77 veterans who completed the DCT during clinical evaluation. Seventy-four percent (N = 57) were classified as valid and 26% as noncredible (N = 20) via the Word Memory Test (WMT) and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM)...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648285/simultaneous-learning-of-two-languages-from-birth-positively-impacts-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-control
#18
Shanna Kousaie, Xiaoqian J Chai, Kaija M Sander, Denise Klein
This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals...
June 22, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638330/flat-vs-expressive-storytelling-young-children-s-learning-and-retention-of-a-social-robot-s-narrative
#19
Jacqueline M Kory Westlund, Sooyeon Jeong, Hae W Park, Samuel Ronfard, Aradhana Adhikari, Paul L Harris, David DeSteno, Cynthia L Breazeal
Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children's vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot's active reading was expressive; the robot's voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617919/the-persistence-and-functional-impact-of-english-language-difficulties-experienced-by-children-learning-english-as-an-additional-language-and-monolingual-peers
#20
Katie E Whiteside, Courtenay Frazier Norbury
Purpose: This study explored whether a monolingual-normed English language battery could identify children with English as an additional language (EAL) who have persistent English language learning difficulties that affect functional academic attainment. Method: Children with EAL (n = 43) and monolingual English-speaking children (n = 46) completed a comprehensive monolingual-normed English language battery in Year 1 (ages 5-6 years) and Year 3 (ages 7-8 years)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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