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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449567/dose-dependent-course-of-hyperprolactinemic-and-normoprolactinemic-galactorrhea-induced-by-venlafaxine
#1
Mehmet Akif Camkurt, Gizem Gülpamuk, Ebru Fındiklı, Rengin Elve
Venlafaxine is a serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor which is used for the treatment of depression. We report a case of galactorrhea in a patient with major depressive disorder after starting treatment with venlafaxine. In particular, we discuss the course of hyper and normoprolactinemic galactorrhea. We managed this side effect initially by dose reduction and further by switching to essitalopram. Physicians should be aware of endocrinologic side effects such as galactorrhea during the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor treatment...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449186/the-risk-of-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-low-dose-aspirin-users
#2
W-C Chen, K-H Lin, Y-T Huang, T-J Tsai, W-C Sun, S-K Chuah, D-C Wu, P-I Hsu
BACKGROUND: Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. AIM: To investigate the risk of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) in aspirin users. METHODS: Low-dose (75-325 mg daily) aspirin users and controls matched by age, gender and enrollment time in a 1:5 ratio were selected from 1 million randomly sampled subjects in the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Cox proportional hazard regression models were developed to evaluate the predictors of LGIB with adjustments for age, gender, comorbidities including coronary artery disease, ischaemic stroke, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyslipidemia, uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease, history of peptic ulcer bleeding, and concomitant use of clopidogrel, ticlopidine, warfarin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, steroids, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), nitrates, alendronate, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and calcium channel blockers...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448744/plant-signals-during-beetle-scolytus-multistriatus-feeding-in-american-elm-ulmus-americana-planch
#3
Brett M Saremba, Fiona J M Tymm, Kathy Baethke, Mark R Rheault, Sherif M Sherif, Praveen K Saxena, Susan J Murch
American Elms were devastated by an outbreak of Dutch Elm Disease is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier that originated in Asia and arrived in the early 1900s. In spite of decades of study, the specific mechanisms and disease resistance in some trees is not well understood. the fungus is spread by a number of species of bark beetles in the genus Scolytus, during their dispersal and feeding. Our objective was to understand elm responses to beetle feeding in the absence of the fungus to identify potential resistance mechanisms...
April 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447368/optimization-of-aqueous-extraction-and-biological-activity-of-harpagophytum-procumbens-root-on-ex-vivo-rat-colon-inflammatory-model
#4
Marcello Locatelli, Claudio Ferrante, Simone Carradori, Daniela Secci, Lidia Leporini, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Giustino Orlando, Sara Martinotti, Luigi Brunetti, Michele Vacca, Luigi Menghini
Harpagophytum procumbens has a long story of use for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Considering both the antiinflammatory effects of H. procumbens in multiple tissues and the stability of harpagoside in artificial intestinal fluid, the aim of the present study was to explore the possible protective role of a microwave-assisted aqueous Harpagophytum extract (1-1000 μg/mL) on mouse myoblast C2C12 and human colorectal adenocarcinoma HCT116 cell lines, and isolated rat colon specimens challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a validated ex vivo model of acute ulcerative colitis...
April 26, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445860/brephedrone-a-new-psychoactive-substance-seized-in-brazil
#5
Yuri Machado, José Coelho Neto, Paulo Eduardo Nunes Barbosa, Rogério Araújo Lordeiro, Rosemeire Brondi Alves
At the beginning of 2015, sixty-two capsules containing red-brown crystals seized in a historical city in Brazil were sent to this forensic laboratory for drug testing analysis. The material was identified as being Brephedrone, a new psychoactive substance and a bromine synthetic cathinone that is related to serotonin transportation. This substance was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, GC-MS, LC-MS, (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR. Brephedrone apprehensions have been previously reported in Finland, France and Spain. It was the first detection of this substance in the State of Minas Gerais...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444658/comparing-the-immune-genomic-effects-of-vilazodone-and-paroxetine-in-late-life-depression-a-pilot-study
#6
Harris Eyre, Prabha Siddarth, Natalie Cyr, Hongyu Yang, Steve Cole, Malcolm Forbes, Helen Lavretsky
Vilazodone is a novel antidepressant agent that combines selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) activity and 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist activity. A pilot study was conducted to compare vilazodone (novel compound) and paroxetine (gold standard) on antidepressant effects, tolerability, and inflammation and immune modulation. A 12-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 56 nondemented older adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). Between-group differences in mood, tolerability, and safety, as well as genomic markers of inflammation and immune modulation, were examined...
April 25, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444137/effects-of-serotonin-transporter-gene-variation-on-impulsivity-mediated-by-default-mode-network-a-family-study-of-depression
#7
Jiook Cha, Guia Guffanti, Jay Gingrich, Ardesheer Talati, Priya Wickramaratne, Myrna Weissman, Jonathan Posner
Serotonergic neurotransmission, potentially through effects on the brain's default mode network (DMN), may regulate aspects of attention including impulse control. Indeed, genetic variants of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) have been implicated in impulsivity and related psychopathology. Yet it remains unclear the mechanism by which the 5-HTT genetic variants contribute to individual variability in impulse control. Here, we tested whether DMN connectivity mediates an association between the 5-HTT genetic variants and impulsivity...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443016/genetics-of-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#8
Walter J Lukiw, Evgeny I Rogaev
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a terminal, age-related neurological syndrome exhibiting progressive cognitive and memory decline, however AD patients in addition exhibit ancillary neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) and these include aggression. In this communication we provide recent evidence for the mis-regulation of a small family of genes expressed in the human hippocampus that appear to be significantly involved in expression patterns common to both AD and aggression. DNA array- and mRNA transcriptome-based gene expression analysis and candidate gene association and/or genome-wide association studies (CGAS, GWAS) of aggressive attributes in humans have revealed a surprisingly small subset of six brain genes that are also strongly associated with altered gene expression patterns in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442937/simultaneous-administration-of-fluoxetine-and-simvastatin-ameliorates-lipid-profile-improves-brain-level-of-neurotransmitters-and-increases-bioavailability-of-simvastatin
#9
Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari, Zabih Ullah, Aqeel Salman Al Masoudi, Ishtiaque Ahmad
Simvastatin (STT), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, is widely prescribed for dyslipidemia, whereas fluoxetine (FLX) is the first-choice drug for the treatment of depression and anxiety. A recent report suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can interact with the cytochrome P450 3A4 substrate, and another one suggests that STT enhances the antidepressant activity of FLX. However, the data are inconclusive. The present study was designed to explore the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of coadministration of STT and FLX in experimental animals...
2017: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442935/new-developments-in-the-treatment-of-hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder-a-focus-on-flibanserin
#10
REVIEW
Christopher J Jayne, Michael J Heard, Sarah Zubair, Dustie L Johnson
The objective of the authors is to highlight the historical complexities for the diagnosis and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) with a focus on Flibanserin. A systematic review of the medical literature published in PubMed using the search terms HSDD and Flibanserin was conducted. Each author reviewed the results of the systematic review for articles to include in this study. HSDD is defined as a persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty that is not better accounted for by another diagnosis...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442790/serotonergic-dysfunctions-and-abnormal-iron-metabolism-relevant-to-mental-fatigue-of-parkinson-disease
#11
Li-Jun Zuo, Shu-Yang Yu, Yang Hu, Fang Wang, Ying-Shan Piao, Teng-Hong Lian, Qiu-Jin Yu, Rui-Dan Wang, Li-Xia Li, Peng Guo, Yang Du, Rong-Yan Zhu, Zhao Jin, Ya-Jie Wang, Xiao-Min Wang, Piu Chan, Sheng-Di Chen, Yong-Jun Wang, Wei Zhang
Fatigue is a very common non-motor symptom in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. It included physical fatigue and mental fatigue. The potential mechanisms of mental fatigue involving serotonergic dysfunction and abnormal iron metabolism are still unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the fatigue symptoms, classified PD patients into fatigue group and non-fatigue group, and detected the levels of serotonin, iron and related proteins in CSF and serum. In CSF, 5-HT level is significantly decreased and the levels of iron and transferrin are dramatically increased in fatigue group...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442777/serotonin-transporter-deficiency-drives-estrogen-dependent-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance
#12
Weibin Zha, Horace T B Ho, Tao Hu, Mary F Hebert, Joanne Wang
Depression and use of antidepressant medications are both associated with increased risk of obesity, potentially attributed to a reduced serotonin transporter (SERT) function. However, how SERT deficiency promotes obesity is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that SERT (-/-) mice display abnormal fat accumulation in both white and brown adipose tissues, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance while exhibiting suppressed aromatase (Cyp19a1) expression and reduced circulating 17β-estradiol levels. 17β-estradiol replacement in SERT (-/-) mice reversed the obesity and glucose intolerance, supporting a role for estrogen in SERT deficiency-associated obesity and glucose intolerance...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441580/the-computer-aided-discovery-of-novel-family-of-the-5-ht6-serotonin-receptor-ligands-among-derivatives-of-4-benzyl-1-3-5-triazine
#13
Dorota Łażewska, Rafał Kurczab, Małgorzata Więcek, Katarzyna Kamińska, Grzegorz Satała, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Anna Partyka, Andrzej J Bojarski, Anna Wesołowska, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Jadwiga Handzlik
The work describes a discovery of new chemical family of potent ligands for the 5-HT6 serotonin receptors. During the search for new histamine H4 receptor antagonists among 1,3,5-triazine derivatives, compound 2 (4-benzyl-6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine) was found. Compound 2, weakly active for the H4 receptor but fitted in 3/4 of pharmacophore features of the 5-HT6R ligand, occurred to be a moderate 5-HT6R agent, useful as a lead structure for further modifications. A series of new derivatives (3-19) of the lead 2 was synthesized, evaluated in the radioligand binding assay (RBA) and explored in comprehensive molecular modelling, including both pharmacophore- and structure-based approaches with docking to the homology model of 5-HT6R...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440699/effect-of-treatments-for-depression-on-quality-of-life-a-meta-analysis
#14
Stefan G Hofmann, Joshua Curtiss, Joseph K Carpenter, Shelley Kind
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the two first-line treatments for depression, but little is known about their effects on quality of life (QOL). A meta-analysis was conducted to examine changes in QOL in adults with major depressive disorder who received CBT (24 studies examining 1969 patients) or SSRI treatment (13 studies examining 4286 patients) for their depression. Moderate improvements in QOL from pre to post-treatment were observed in both CBT (Hedges' g = ...
April 25, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440594/identification-of-a-hypertrehalosemic-factor-in-spodoptera-exigua
#15
Youngjin Park, Yonggyun Kim
Trehalose is a major blood sugar in insects with a range of physiological functions, including an energy source and a cryoprotectant. Hemolymph trehalose concentrations are tightly regulated according to physiological conditions. An insulin-like peptide, SeILP1, downregulates hemolymph trehalose concentrations in Spodoptera exigua. Here, we identified a factor that upregulates hemolymph trehalose concentration in S. exigua. Hemolymph trehalose concentrations were significantly increased after immune challenge or under starvation in a time-dependent manner...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439683/genistein-modulation-of-seizure-involvement-of-estrogen-and-serotonin-receptors
#16
Saeed Amiri Gheshlaghi, Razieh Mohammad Jafari, Mohammad Algazo, Nastaran Rahimi, Hussein Alshaib, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Genistein, a major source of phytoestrogen exposure for humans and animals, has been shown to mediate neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease and status epilepticus. In the present study, we investigated the effect of genistein on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in ovariectomized mice and the possible involvement of estrogenic and serotonergic pathways in the probable effects of genistein. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of genistein (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the seizure threshold 30 min prior to induction of seizures 14 days after ovariectomy surgery...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439468/a-link-between-central-kynurenine-metabolism-and-bone-strength-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Bartlomiej Kalaska, Krystyna Pawlak, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Tomasz Domaniewski, Beata Znorko, Malgorzata Karbowska, Aleksandra Citkowska, Joanna Rogalska, Alicja Roszczenko, Malgorzata M Brzoska, Dariusz Pawlak
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism represent one of the most complex complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serotonin, a monoamine synthesized from tryptophan, may play a potential role in bone metabolism. Brain-derived serotonin exerts a positive effect on the bone structure by limiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Tryptophan is the precursor not only to the serotonin but also and primarily to kynurenine metabolites. The ultimate aim of the present study was to determine the association between central kynurenine metabolism and biomechanical as well as geometrical properties of bone in the experimental model of the early stage of CKD...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439104/a-novel-5ht3-receptor-igf1-mechanism-distinct-from-ssri-induced-antidepressant-effects
#18
M Kondo, Y Koyama, Y Nakamura, S Shimada
Depression is a common mental disorder affecting around 350 million people worldwide. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely used antidepressants, a significant proportion of depressed patients do not achieve remission with SSRIs. In this study, we show that a serotonin type 3 receptor (5HT3R) agonist induces antidepressant effects as well as hippocampal neurogenesis independent of fluoxetine (a commonly used SSRI). Notably, our histological analysis reveals that 5HT3R and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) are expressed in the same neurons in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438663/acute-effects-of-amitriptyline-on-adult-zebrafish-potential-relevance-to-antidepressant-drug-screening-and-modeling-human-toxidromes
#19
Konstantin A Demin, Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Darya M Meshalkina, Evgeniya V Efimova, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
The need to develop novel antidepressants is an emerging problem in biomedicine. An aquatic vertebrate species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) may serve as a useful in-vivo screen for CNS drugs, and displays high sensitivity to a wide range of antidepressants. Amitriptyline is a commonly used tricyclic antidepressant which acts primarily as a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Here, we characterize drug-induced behavioral and neurochemical responses in adult zebrafish following their acute exposure to amitriptyline...
April 21, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438641/improving-therapeutics-in-anorexia-nervosa-with-tryptophan
#20
REVIEW
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
A growing body of evidence suggests that our diet is an important contributing factor in the development, management and prevention of a number of psychiatric illnesses. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the sole precursor of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin). Administration of tryptophan can boost serotonin neurotransmission to produce therapeutically important effects in serotonin deficiency disorders. Anorexia nervosa (AN) an eating disorder associated with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity including psychosis, hyperactivity, depression and anxiety has highest lethality of all psychiatric illnesses...
April 21, 2017: Life Sciences
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