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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168733/single-shot-detection-of-neurotransmitters-in-whole-blood-samples-by-means-of-the-heat-transfer-method-in-combination-with-synthetic-receptors
#1
Thijs Vandenryt, Bart van Grinsven, Kasper Eersels, Peter Cornelis, Safira Kholwadia, Thomas J Cleij, Ronald Thoelen, Ward De Ceuninck, Marloes Peeters, Patrick Wagner
Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of conditions, including psychiatric disorders. The detection of serotonin typically relies on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), an expensive technique that requires sophisticated equipment and trained personnel, and is not suitable for point-of-care applications. In this contribution, we introduce a novel sensor platform that can measure spiked neurotransmitter concentrations in whole blood samples in a fast and low-cost manner by combining synthetic receptors with a thermal readout technique-the heat-transfer method...
November 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167644/lsd-increases-primary-process-thinking-via-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation
#2
Rainer Kraehenmann, Dan Pokorny, Helena Aicher, Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Oliver G Bosch, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking - an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167116/medullary-raphe-nuclei-activate-the-lumbosacral-defecation-center-through-the-descending-serotonergic-pathway-to-regulate-colorectal-motility-in-rats
#3
Hiroyuki Nakamori, Kiyotada Naitou, Yuuki Horii, Hiroki Shimaoka, Kazuhiro Horii, Hiroki Sakai, Akihiro Yamada, Hidemasa Furue, Takahiko Shiina, Yasutake Shimizu
Colorectal motility is regulated by two defecation centers located in the brain and spinal cord. In previous studies, we have shown that administration of serotonin into the lumbosacral spinal cord causes enhancement of colorectal motility. Since spinal serotonin is derived from neurons of the medullary raphe nuclei including the raphe magnus, raphe obscurus and raphe pallidus, we examined whether stimulation of the medullary raphe nuclei enhances colorectal motility via the lumbosacral defecation center. Colorectal pressure was recorded with a balloon in vivo in anesthetized rats...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167048/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-insomnia-sufferers-a-study-with-1311-individuals
#4
Matthieu Hein, Jean-Pol Lanquart, Gwenolé Loas, Philippe Hubain, Paul Linkowski
BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of excessive daytime sleepiness in the general population. However, few studies have investigated these in the particular subpopulation of insomnia sufferers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of excessive daytime sleepiness in a large sample of insomnia sufferers. METHODS: Data from 1311 insomnia sufferers with age≥18years and recruited from the research database of the sleep laboratory of the Erasme Hospital were analysed...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166705/comprehensive-analysis-of-nine-monoamines-and-metabolites-in-small-amounts-of-peripheral-murine-c57bl-6j-tissues
#5
Joachim Nagler, Sonja C Schriever, Meri De Angelis, Paul T Pfluger, Karl-Werner Schramm
Monoamines, acting as hormones and neurotransmitters, play a critical role in multiple physiological processes ranging from cognitive function and mood to sympathetic nervous system activity, fight-or-flight response, or glucose homeostasis. In addition to brain and blood, monoamines are abundant in several tissues, and dysfunction in their synthesis or signaling is associated with various pathological conditions. It was our goal to develop a method to detect these compounds in peripheral murine tissues. In this study, we employed a high performance liquid chromatography method using electrochemical detection that allows not only detecting the catecholamines but a detailed analysis of nine monoamines and metabolites in murine tissues...
November 22, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164729/identification-and-characterization-of-a-histamine-binding-lipocalin-like-molecule-from-the-relapsing-fever-tick-ornithodoros-turicata
#6
G Neelakanta, H Sultana, D E Sonenshine, J F Andersen
Lipocalins are low molecular weight membrane transporters that are abundantly expressed in the salivary glands and other tissues of ticks. In this study, we identified a lipocalin-like molecule, designated as otlip, from the soft ticks Ornithodoros turicata, the vector for the relapsing fever causing spirochete Borrelia turicatae. We noted that the expression of otlip was developmentally regulated, with adult ticks expressing significantly higher levels in comparison to the larvae or nymphal ticks. Expression of otlip was evident in both fed and unfed O...
November 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164662/laboratory-tests-for-identification-or-exclusion-of-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-hit-or-miss
#7
Emmanuel J Favaloro
Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially fatal condition that arises subsequent to formation of antibodies against complexes containing heparin, usually platelet-factor 4-heparin ('anti-PF4-heparin'). Assessment for HIT involves both clinical evaluation and, if indicated, laboratory testing for confirmation or exclusion, typically using an initial immunological assay ('screening'), and only if positive, a secondary functional assay for confirmation. Many different immunological and functional assays have been developed...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164559/effects-of-carvedilol-on-vascular-reactivity-in-human-left-internal-mammary-artery
#8
M Guzeloglu, E Ertuna, M Z Arun, B Reel
OBJECTIVE: Surgical treatment choice for coronary artery disease is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Left internal mammary artery (LIMA) is frequently used as an arterial graft in CABG operations. Perioperative spasm of LIMA can result in increased morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological interventions are routinely used for prevention and treatment of LIMA spasm. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carvedilol, an alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, on responses to endogenous vasoconstrictors which play a role in graft spasm and the possible interaction between carvedilol and diltiazem/papaverine which are vasodilators commonly used in CABG surgery...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163124/the-search-for-an-effective-therapy-to-treat-fragile-x-syndrome-dream-or-reality
#9
REVIEW
Sara Castagnola, Barbara Bardoni, Thomas Maurin
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of intellectual disability and a primary cause of autism. It originates from the lack of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), which is an RNA-binding protein encoded by the Fragile X Mental Retardation Gene 1 (FMR1) gene. Multiple roles have been attributed to this protein, ranging from RNA transport (from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, but also along neurites) to translational control of mRNAs. Over the last 20 years many studies have found a large number of FMRP mRNA targets, but it is still not clear which are those playing a critical role in the etiology of FXS...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163055/study-of-sex-differences-in-duloxetine-efficacy-for-depression-in-transgenic-mouse-models
#10
Yong Xu, Lei Ma, Wei Jiang, Yuhong Li, Gang Wang, Rena Li
Clinical evidences show sex differences in risk of developing depressive disorders as well as effect of antidepressants in depression treatment. However, whether such a sex-dependent risk of depression and efficacy of antidepressants is dependent on endogenous estrogen level remain elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the molecular mechanisms of sex differences in antidepressant duloxetine. In the present study, we used genetic knockout or overexpression estrogen-synthesizing enzyme aromatase (Ar) gene as models for endogenous estrogen deficiency and elevation endogenous estrogen, respectively, to examine the anti-depressive efficacy of duloxetine in males and females by force swimming test (FST)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163031/microrna-mediated-regulation-of-itgb3-and-chl1-is-implicated-in-ssri-action
#11
Keren Oved, Luba Farberov, Avial Gilam, Ifat Israel, Danielle Haguel, David Gurwitz, Noam Shomron
Background: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs are the first-line of treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) but are effective in <70% of patients. Our earlier genome-wide studies indicated that two genes encoding for cell adhesion proteins, close homolog of L1 (CHL1) and integrin beta-3 (ITGB3), and microRNAs, miR-151a-3p and miR-221/222, are implicated in the variable sensitivity and response of human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) from unrelated individuals to SSRI drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163018/brain-networks-implicated-in-seasonal-affective-disorder-a-neuroimaging-pet-study-of-the-serotonin-transporter
#12
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Patrick M Fisher, Nathan W Churchill, Vincent Beliveau, Cheryl Grady, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Background: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a subtype of Major Depressive Disorder characterized by seasonally occurring depression that often presents with atypical vegetative symptoms such as hypersomnia and carbohydrate craving. It has recently been shown that unlike healthy people, patients with SAD fail to globally downregulate their cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in winter, and that this effect seemed to be particularly pronounced in female S-carriers of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The purpose of this study was to identify a 5-HTT brain network that accounts for the adaption to the environmental stressor of winter in females with the short 5-HTTLPR genotype, a specific subgroup previously reported to be at increased risk for developing SAD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163002/serotonin-coordinates-responses-to-social-stress-what-we-can-learn-from-fish
#13
REVIEW
Tobias Backström, Svante Winberg
Social interaction is stressful and subordinate individuals are often subjected to chronic stress, which greatly affects both their behavior and physiology. In teleost fish the social position of an individual may have long-term effects, such as effects on migration, age of sexual maturation or even sex. The brain serotonergic system plays a key role in coordinating autonomic, behavioral and neuroendocrine stress responses. Social subordination results in a chronic activation of the brain serotonergic system an effect, which seems to be central in the subordinate phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162966/a-qsar-model-of-olanzapine-derivatives-as-potential-inhibitors-for-5-ht2a-receptor
#14
Pooja Mitra, Aishwarya Rastogi, Mayank Rajpoot, Ajay Kumar, Vivek Srivastava
Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic mental disorder, affecting about 21 million people worldwide. It is characterized by symptoms, including distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, disorganized speech, sense of self and behavior. Recently, a numbers of marketed drugs for Schizophrenia are available against dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we docked Olanzapine derivatives (collected from literature) with 5-HT2A Receptor using the program AutoDock 4.2. The docked protein inhibitor complex structure was optimized using molecular dynamics simulation for 5ps with the CHARMM-22 force field using NAMD (NAnoscale Molecular Dynamics program) incorporated in visual molecular dynamics (VMD 1...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162195/assessing-the-interplay-between-multigenic-and-environmental-influences-on-adolescent-to-adult-pathways-of-antisocial-behaviors
#15
James J Li
The current investigation utilized a developmental psychopathology approach to test the hypothesis that multigenic (i.e., dopaminergic and serotonergic genes) and multienvironmental factors interactively contribute to developmental pathways of antisocial behavior (ASB). A sample of 8,834 Caucasian individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used to (a) examine the developmental pathways of ASB from age 13 to 32 using growth mixture modeling, (b) compute weighted multigenic risk scores (Add Health MRS) for ASB from six well-characterized polymorphisms in dopamine and serotonin genes, and (c) test the interaction between the Add Health MRS and a measures of support (incorporating indicators of both positive and negative support from parents and schools)...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162172/cumulative-prenatal-exposure-to-adversity-reveals-associations-with-a-broad-range-of-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-that-are-moderated-by-a-novel-biologically-informed-polygenetic-score-based-on-the-serotonin-transporter-solute-carrier-family-c6-member-4-slc6a4
#16
Patrícia P Silveira, Irina Pokhvisneva, Carine Parent, Shirong Cai, Anu Sathyan Sathyapalan Rema, Birit F P Broekman, Anne Rifkin-Graboi, Michael Pluess, Kieran J O'Donnell, Michael J Meaney
While many studies focus on the association between early life adversity and the later risk for psychopathology, few simultaneously explore diverse forms of environmental adversity. Moreover, those studies that examined the cumulative impact of early life adversity focus uniquely on postnatal influences. The objective of this study was to focus on the fetal period of development to construct and validate a cumulative prenatal adversity score in relation to a wide range of neurodevelopmental outcomes. We also examined the interaction of this adversity score with a biologically informed genetic score based on the serotonin transporter gene...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162169/stress-exposure-and-psychopathology-alter-methylation-of-the-serotonin-receptor-2a-htr2a-gene-in-preschoolers
#17
Stephanie H Parade, Andrew M Novick, Justin Parent, Ronald Seifer, Samantha J Klaver, Carmen J Marsit, Asi Polly Gobin, Bao-Zhu Yang, Audrey R Tyrka
Serotonin signaling pathways play a key role in brain development, stress reactivity, and mental health. Epigenetic alterations in the serotonin system may underlie the effect of early life stress on psychopathology. The current study examined methylation of the serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) gene in a sample of 228 children including 119 with child welfare documentation of moderate to severe maltreatment within the last 6 months. Child protection records, semistructured interviews in the home, and parent reports were used to assess child stress exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and behavior...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162053/duloxetine-induced-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-case-report
#18
Lu Tan, Junying Zhou, Linghui Yang, Rong Ren, Ye Zhang, Taomei Li, Xiangdong Tang
BACKGROUND: Tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been reported to induce the symptoms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) or to exacerbate REM sleep without atonia. With this case report, we found an association between typical RBD and duloxetine, a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 62-year-old woman who experienced enactment behaviors with violent dreams that were associated with increased tonic or phasic chin electromyography activity during REM sleep after treated with duloxetine...
November 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161255/neurogenic-mediators-contribute-to-local-edema-induced-by-micrurus-lemniscatus-venom
#19
Luciana Lyra Casais-E-Silva, Catarina Teixeira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Micrurus is one of the four snake genera of medical importance in Brazil. Coral snakes have a broad geographic distribution from the southern United States to Argentina. Micrurine envenomation is characterized by neurotoxic symptoms leading to dyspnea and death. Moreover, various local manifestations, including edema formation, have been described in patients bitten by different species of Micrurus. Thus, we investigated the ability of Micrurus lemniscatus venom (MLV) to induce local edema...
November 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161023/in-vivo-neurochemical-profile-of-selectively-bred-high-responder-and-low-responder-rats-reveals-baseline-cocaine-and-novelty-evoked-differences-in-monoaminergic-systems
#20
Omar S Mabrouk, John L Han, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Huda Akil, Robert T Kennedy, Shelly B Flagel
Relative to bred low-responder (bLR) rats, bred high-responder (bHR) rats have an exaggerated locomotor response to a novel environment, are more risk-taking, more impulsive, and more likely to exhibit compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. These phenotypic differences in addiction-related behaviors and temperament have previously been associated with differences in neurotransmitter signaling, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. In the current study, we applied advanced in vivo microdialysis sampling in the nucleus accumbens of bHRs/bLRs to assess differences in basal and stimulated neurochemical efflux more broadly...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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