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Henry T Peng, Catherine Tenn, Oshin Vartanian, Shawn G Rhind, Jerzy Jarmasz, Homer Tien, Andrew Beckett
Introduction: Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training imposes psychophysiological stress on medics. It is unclear whether these stress levels vary with the training modalities selected. It is also unclear how stress levels could have an impact on medical performance and skill uptake. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot study to compare the effects of live tissue (LT) with a high-fidelity patient simulator (SIM) on the level of stress elicited, performance, and skill uptake during battlefield trauma training course in an operating room (OR) and in a simulated battlefield scenario (field)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Peyton W Weems, Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert L Goodman
Work over the last 15 years on the control of pulsatile LH secretion has focused largely on a set of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that contains two stimulatory neuropeptides, critical for fertility in humans (kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB)) and the inhibitory endogenous opioid peptide (EOP), dynorphin, and are now known as KNDy (kisspeptin-NKB-dynorphin) neurons. In this review, we consider the role of each of the KNDy peptides in the generation of GnRH pulses and the negative feedback actions of ovarian steroids, with an emphasis on NKB and dynorphin...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Guo-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Yang, Xin-Xin Guan, Wen-Jing Zhong, Yong-Ping Liu, Ming-Yuan Du, Xiao-Qin Luo, Yong Zhou, Cha-Xiang Guan
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the lungs with various biological characters. We have reported that VIP inhibited the expressions of TREM-1 and IL-17A, which are involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the overall effect of VIP on ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of VIP mediated by lentivirus (Lenti-VIP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine ALI. We found that the expression of intrapulmonary VIP peaked at day7 after the intratracheal injection of Lenti-VIP...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Thanh D Do, Joseph F Ellis, Elizabeth K Neumann, Troy J Comi, Emily G Tillmaand, Ashley E Lenhart, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan Sweedler
The mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are located on the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves and contain cell bodies of primary sensory neurons. DRG cells have been classified into subpopulations based on their size, morphology, intracellular markers, response to stimuli, and neuropeptides. To understand the connections between DRG chemical heterogeneity and cellular function, we performed optically guided, high-throughput single cell profiling using sequential matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) to detect lipids, peptides, and several proteins in individual DRG cells...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Guo Zhang, Wang-Ding Yuan, Ferdinand S Vilim, Elena V Romanova, Ke Yu, Si-Yuan Yin, Zi-Wei Le, Ying-Yu Xue, Ting-Ting Chen, Guo-Kai Chen, Song-An Chen, Elizabeth C Cropper, Jonathan V Sweedler, Klaudiusz R Weiss, Jian Jing
When individual neurons in a circuit contain multiple neuropeptides, these peptides can target different sets of follower neurons. This endows the circuit with a certain degree of flexibility. Here we identified a novel family of peptides, the Aplysia SPTR-Gene Family-Derived peptides (apSPTR-GF-DPs). We demonstrated apSPTR-GF-DPs, particularly apSPTR-GF-DP2, are expressed in the Aplysia CNS using immunohistochemistry and MALDI-TOF MS. apSPTR-GF-DP2 is present in single projection neurons, e.g., in the cerebral-buccal interneuron-12 (CBI-12)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
James W Checco, Guo Zhang, Wangding Yuan, Ke Yu, Siyuan Yin, Rachel H Roberts-Galbraith, Peter M Yau, Elena V Romanova, Jian Jing, Jonathan V Sweedler
Neuropeptides in several animals undergo an unusual post-translational modification: the isomerization of an amino acid residue from the L-stereoisomer to the D-stereoisomer. The resulting D-amino acid-containing peptide (DAACP) often displays higher biological activity than its all-L-residue analogue, with the D-residue being critical for function in many cases. However, little is known about the full physiological roles played by DAACPs and few studies have examined the interaction of DAACPs with their cognate receptors...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Laurence Dufourny, Oona Delmas, Ana-Paula Teixeira-Gomes, Caroline Decourt, Joanna H Sliwowska
Somatostatin (SST) a neuropeptide involved in the central modulation of several physiological functions, is co-distributed in the same hypothalamic areas as kisspeptin (KP), the most potent secretagogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion known to date. As SST infused intracerebroventricularly (icv) evoked a potent inhibition of GnRH release, we explored neuroanatomical relationships between KP and SST populations in male and female rats. For that, intact males and ovariectomised oestradiol-replaced females were killed and their brains processed in order to simultaneously detect KP, SST and synapsin, a marker for synapses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Juan Li, Yang Du, Zhenqi Jiang, Yuchen Tian, Nianxiang Qiu, Yinjie Wang, Muhammad Zubair Lqbal, Menying Hu, Ruifen Zou, Lijia Luo, Shiyu Du, Jie Tian, Aiguo Wu
Due to the molecular and cellular heterogeneity of glioma, discovery of novel targeted sites and ligands for glioma imaging and therapy remains challenging. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptors (Y1 Rs) are highly over expressed in various brain tumors including glioma, and can serve as potential targeting sites for glioma imaging and therapy. Here, we show by in vivo fluorescent imaging that a highly selective Y1 R ligand, [Asn6 , Pro34 ] NPY (AP-NPY), facilitated circumvention of the blood brain barrier (BBB) by nanomicelles specifically targeting glioma...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Hui Yu, Xinxin You, Jia Li, Xinhui Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Shoujia Jiang, Xueqiang Lin, Hao-Ran Lin, Zining Meng, Qiong Shi
The orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, is one of the most popular fish in China and Southeast Asian countries because of its important economic value. However, molecular mechanism underlying the growth of orange-spotted grouper has never been fully understood. Herein, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a natural population of 198 individuals aiming to screen the whole genome of orange-spotted grouper for identification of growth-related loci by restrictionsite associated DNA sequencing...
March 12, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Liisa Ailanen, Natalia N Bezborodkina, Laura Virtanen, Suvi T Ruohonen, Anastasia V Malova, Sergey V Okovityi, Elizaveta Y Chistyakova, Eriika Savontaus
Hepatic insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis are known therapeutic targets of metformin, but the role of hepatic glycogen in the pathogenesis of diabetes is less clear. Mouse model of neuropeptide Y (NPY) overexpression in noradrenergic neurons (OE-NPYD βH ) with a phenotype of late onset obesity, hepatosteatosis, and prediabetes was used to study early changes in glycogen structure and metabolism preceding prediabetes. Furthermore, the effect of the anti-hyperglycemic agent, metformin (300 mg/kg/day/4 weeks in drinking water), was assessed on changes in glycogen metabolism, body weight, fat mass, and glucose tolerance...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Antonietta Messina, Ilaria Bitetti, Francesco Precenzano, Diego Iacono, Giovanni Messina, Michele Roccella, Lucia Parisi, Margherita Salerno, Anna Valenzano, Agata Maltese, Monica Salerno, Francesco Sessa, Giuseppe Davide Albano, Rosa Marotta, Ines Villano, Gabriella Marsala, Christian Zammit, Francesco Lavano, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Serena Marianna Lavano, Beatrice Gallai, Roberto Toraldo, Vincenzo Monda, Marco Carotenuto
Introduction: Sleep and migraine share a common pathophysiological substrate, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The serotonergic and orexinergic systems are both involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle, and numerous studies show that both are involved in the migraine etiopathogenesis. These two systems are anatomically and functionally interconnected. Our hypothesis is that in migraine a dysfunction of orexinergic projections on the median raphe (MR) nuclei, interfering with serotonergic regulation, may cause Non-Rapid Eye Movement parasomnias, such as somnambulism...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
James A Waschek, Serapio M Baca, Simon Akerman
The discovery that intravenous (IV) infusions of the neuropeptide PACAP-38 (pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide-38) induced delayed migraine-like headaches in a large majority of migraine patients has resulted in considerable excitement in headache research. In addition to suggesting potential therapeutic targets for migraine, the finding provides an opportunity to better understand the pathological events from early events (aura) to the headache itself. Although PACAP-38 and the closely related peptide VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) are well-known as vasoactive molecules, the dilation of cranial blood vessels per se is no longer felt to underlie migraine headaches...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Margaret B Allison, Warren Pan, Alexander MacKenzie, Christa Patterson, Kimi Shah, Tammy Barnes, Wenwen Cheng, Alan Rupp, David P Olson, Martin G Myers
Leptin acts via its receptor (LepRb) to modulate gene expression in hypothalamic LepRb-expressing neurons, thereby controlling energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of the control of gene expression in hypothalamic LepRb neurons for leptin action, the transcriptional targets of LepRb signaling have remained undefined because LepRb cells contribute a small fraction to the aggregate transcriptome of the brain regions in which they reside. We thus employed Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) followed by RNA-seq to isolate and analyze mRNA from the hypothalamic LepRb neurons of wild-type or leptin-deficient ( Lep ob/ob ) mice treated with vehicle or exogenous leptin...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes
Chan-Hee Kim, Hye-Jin Go, Hye Young Oh, Maurice R Elphick, Nam Gyu Park
Pedal peptides and orcokinins are structurally related neuropeptides that were first discovered in protostomian invertebrates - mollusks and arthropods, respectively. Recently, pedal peptide/ocokinin (PP/OK)-type neuropeptides were discovered in a deuterostomian phylum, the echinoderms, indicating that the evolutionary origin of this neuropeptide family can be traced back to the common ancestor of bilaterian animals. Sequences comparison of PP/OK-type neuropeptides reveals several conserved residues, including N- and C-terminally located hydrophobic residues that are important for the bioactivity of orcokinin...
March 10, 2018: Peptides
Tomoya Nakamachi, Eri Kamata, Ayano Tanigawa, Norifumi Konno, Seiji Shioda, Kouhei Matsuda
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multipotent neuropeptide with an amino acid sequence that is well conserved among vertebrates. In teleosts, including zebrafish, the PACAP gene (adcyap1) has been duplicated to yield adcyap1a (coding PACAP1) and adcyap1b (coding PACAP2). This study aims to determine the distribution of these PACAPs and their mRNAs in zebrafish. We generated a zebrafish PACAP2-specific antibody. Using real-time PCR, we observed that adcyap1b mRNA was primarily localized in the brain, with the highest level in the telencephalon, followed by the diencephalon...
March 10, 2018: Peptides
Hussain N Alhamami, Md Main Uddin, A S M Hasan Mahmood, Karen P Briski
The hypothalamic energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, responds to pharmacological manipulation of hindbrain AMPK activity. Dorsomedial hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons express hypoglycemia-sensitive metabolo-sensory biomarkers, including AMPK. Here, adult male rats were pretreated by intra-caudal fourth ventricular administration of the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to determine if catecholamine signaling from the aforesaid site governs hypothalamic AMPK activation during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Arisa Hirano, Pei-Ken Hsu, Luoying Zhang, Lijuan Xing, Thomas McMahon, Maya Yamazaki, Louis J Ptáček, Ying-Hui Fu
Adequate sleep is essential for physical and mental health. We previously identified a missense mutation in the human DEC2 gene ( BHLHE41 ) leading to the familial natural short sleep behavioral trait. DEC2 is a transcription factor regulating the circadian clock in mammals, although its role in sleep regulation has been unclear. Here we report that prepro-orexin , also known as hypocretin ( Hcrt ), gene expression is increased in the mouse model expressing the mutant h DEC2 transgene (h DEC2-P384R ). Prepro-orexin encodes a precursor protein of a neuropeptide producing orexin A and B (hcrt1 and hcrt2), which is enriched in the hypothalamus and regulates maintenance of arousal...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kharen L Doyle, Carla Cunha, Yvonne Hort, Ramon Tasan, Günther Sperk, John Shine, Herbert Herzog
The mouse olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) is comprised of anatomically distinct populations of cells in separate regions; apical (sustentacular and microvillar), neuronal (olfactory sensory neurons) and basal (horizontal and globose basal cells). The existence of microvillar cells (MVCs) is well documented but their nature and function remains unclear. An important transcription factor for the differentiation of MVCs is Skn-1a, with loss of function of Skn-1a in mice resulting in a complete loss of Trpm-5 expressing MVCs, while olfactory sensory neuron differentiation is normal...
March 1, 2018: Neuropeptides
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