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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229938/participation-of-ghrelin-signalling-in-the-reciprocal-regulation-of-hypothalamic-npy-pomc-mediated-appetite-control-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#1
Ching-Han Yu, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared...
February 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on the organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode C. elegans, a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation, under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C. elegans episodic behavioral states under varied mechanical and nutritional environments...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228560/expression-of-il-22-in-the-skin-causes-th2-biased-immunity-epidermal-barrier-dysfunction-and-pruritus-via-stimulating-epithelial-th2-cytokines-and-the-grp-pathway
#3
Hongfei Lou, Jingning Lu, Eun Byul Choi, Min Hee Oh, Mingeum Jeong, Sara Barmettler, Zhou Zhu, Tao Zheng
Increased expression of Th22 cytokine IL-22 is a characteristic finding in atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the specific role of IL-22 in the pathogenesis of AD in vivo has yet to be elucidated. Consistent with observations in human AD, IL-22 was significantly increased in the AD skin of mice after epicutaneous sensitization to house dust mite allergen. Utilizing a skin-specific inducible transgenic system, we show in the present study that expression of IL-22 in the skin of mice caused an AD-like phenotype characterized by chronic pruritic dermatitis associated with Th2-biased local and systemic immune responses, downregulation of epidermal differentiation complex genes, and enhanced dermatitis upon epicutaneous allergen exposure...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228241/neuropeptide-s-reduces-propofol-or-ketamine-induced-slow-wave-states-through-activation-of-cognate-receptors-in-the-rat
#4
Xiang-Pan Kong, Can Wang, Jun-Fan Xie, Peng Zhao, Li-Rong Dai, Yu-Feng Shao, Jian-Sheng Lin, Yi-Ping Hou
Intracerebroventricular injection of NPS reduces the duration of the ketamine- or thiopental-induced loss of the righting reflex in rats. But the specific EEG activities are unknown. We therefore sought to examine the effects of the NPS-NPSR system on anesthetic-induced characteristics of EEG power spectra and sleep-wake profiles. NPS alone or together with an NPSR antagonist was injected intracerebroventricularly, whereas the propofol (50mg/kg) or ketamine (100mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally. NPS (1 or 2nmol) significantly reduced the amount of propofol-induced EEG delta activity and slow wave states (SWS)...
February 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228069/recent-advances-in-the-gastric-mucosal-protection-against-stress-induced-gastric-lesions-importance-of-renin-angiotensin-vasoactive-metabolites-gaseous-mediators-and-appetite-peptides
#5
Tomasz Brzozowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Marcin Magierowski, Agata Ptak-Belowska, Robert Pajdo, Slawomir Kwiecien, Rafal Olszanecki, Ryszard Korbut
Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in gastric blood flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions...
February 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225068/relish2-mediates-bursicon-homodimer-induced-prophylactic-immunity-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#6
Hongwei Zhang, Shengzhang Dong, Xi Chen, David Stanley, Brenda Beerntsen, Qili Feng, Qisheng Song
Bursicon is a neuropeptide hormone consisting of two cystine-knot proteins (burs α and burs β), responsible for cuticle tanning and other developmental processes in insects. Recent studies show that each bursicon subunit forms homodimers that induce prophylactic immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that bursicon homodimers act in prophylactic immunity in insects, and possibly arthropods, generally, using the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. We found that burs α and burs β are expressed in larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#7
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223844/neuronal-plasticity-of-trigeminal-ganglia-in-mice-following-nerve-injury
#8
Randi Lynds, Chuang Lyu, Gong-Wei Lyu, Xie-Qi Shi, Annika Rosén, Kamal Mustafa, Tie-Jun Sten Shi
BACKGROUND: Nerve injury may induce neuropathic pain. In studying the mechanisms of orofacial neuropathic pain, attention has been paid to the plastic changes that occur in the trigeminal ganglia (TGs) and nucleus in response to an injury of the trigeminal nerve branches. Previous studies have explored the impact of sciatic nerve injury on dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and it has shown dramatic changes in the expression of multiple biomarkers. In large, the changes in biomarker expression in TGs after trigeminal nerve injury are similar to that in DRGs after sciatic nerve injury...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219705/substance-p-represents-a-novel-first-line-defense-mechanism-in-the-nose
#9
Olivia Larsson, Lotta Tengroth, Yuan Xu, Rolf Uddman, Susanna Kumlien Georén, Lars-Olaf Cardell
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides, such as substance P (SP), have long been seen as mediators of widespread, continuous airway inflammation, a process known as neurogenic inflammation. However, this has been difficult to demonstrate clinically, suggesting an alternative role for these signaling molecules. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of SP in nasal infection, by assessing the release of SP in response to viral stimulation and characterizing the effects of SP on innate immunity, the latter reflected in changes in local Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215304/neurotrophins-and-migraine
#10
L B Martins, A L Teixeira, R B Domingues
Neurotrophins (NTs) have been implicated in generation and modulation of nociceptive pathways. Change in NTs levels is associated with painful conditions and neurological diseases such as migraine. Currently, it is generally recognized that migraine headaches result from the activation and sensitization of trigeminal sensory afferent fibers leading to neuropeptides release such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). This triggers an inflammatory cascade causing a neurogenic inflammation...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214580/localization-of-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-prairie-vole-microtus-ochrogaster-neocortex
#11
Auriane Duchemin, Adele M H Seelke, Trenton C Simmons, Sara M Freeman, Karen L Bales
Early experience and social context interact to alter the phenotype of complex social behaviors. These early experiences can also result in alterations to cortical organization and connections. Given the ability of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) to modulate social and reproductive behavior, OT is likely involved in these cortical processes. However, little is known about the distribution of OT and OT receptors (OTR) within the neocortex. Using autoradiographic and neuroanatomical techniques, we characterized the cortical distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) in prairie voles, a socially monogamous rodent species...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213154/density-and-neurochemical-profiles-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressing-interneuron-in-the-mouse-basolateral-amygdala
#12
Xiaona Wang, Chunhua Liu, Xiaochen Wang, Fei Gao, Ren-Zhi Zhan
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing interneurons reside in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) of rodents. In the present study, we immunohistochemically analyzed nNOS-positive cells in the mouse BLA by focusing on their density, γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergicity, and co-localization with calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptides. The density of nNOS-containing neurons was analyzed with unbiased stereology. Experiments were conducted in both adult wild-type C57BL/6 and glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice, in which GFP is expressed in GABAergic neurons under the control of the endogenous GAD67 gene promoter...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212924/ibd-immunopathogenesis-a-comprehensive-review-of-inflammatory-molecules
#13
REVIEW
Jae Hyon Park, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Michael Eisenhut, Jae Il Shin
Inflammatory molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, both of which are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Abnormal expressions of pro-and anti-inflammatory molecules have been described to cause an imbalance to the gut innate and adaptive immunity, and recently a large portion of research in IBD has been geared towards identifying novel molecules that may be used as potential therapeutic targets...
February 14, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212464/oxytocin-reduces-ethanol-self-administration-in-mice
#14
Courtney E King, William C Griffin, Lauryn N Luderman, Malcolm M Kates, Jacqueline F McGinty, Howard C Becker
BACKGROUND: Excessive ethanol consumption remains an important health concern and effective treatments are lacking. The central oxytocin system has emerged as a potentially important therapeutic target for alcohol and drug addiction. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxytocin reduces ethanol consumption. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to ethanol (20% v/v) using a model of binge-like drinking ("drinking-in-the-dark") that also included the use of lickometer circuits to evaluate the temporal pattern of intake as well as 2-bottle choice drinking in the home cage...
February 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209481/botulinum-toxin-type-a-reduces-inflammatory-hypernociception-induced-by-arthritis-in-the-temporomadibular-joint-of-rats
#15
Victor Ricardo Manuel Muñoz Lora, Juliana Trindade Clemente-Napimoga, Henrique Ballassini Abdalla, Cristina Gomes Macedo, Giancarlo de la Torre Canales, Celia Marisa Rizzatti Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) on persistent inflammatory hypernociception induced by arthritis in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar rats were induced to persistent inflammatory hypernociception in the left TMJ. Then, animals were treated with intra-TMJ injections of BoNT-A, using doses of 3.5, 7 and 14 U/kg. Saline was used as control group. Behavioral tests were applied to evaluated the effect of BoNT-A in the inflammatory hypernociception...
February 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209477/characterizing-the-biological-and-biochemical-profile-of-six-different-scorpion-venoms-from-the-buthidae-and-scorpionidae-family
#16
Sebastian Estrada-Gómez, Lyz Gomez-Rave, Leidy Vargas-Muñoz, Arie van der Meijden
The objective of this study was to characterize a selection of six different scorpion venoms using biological and biochemical methods, including a preliminary MS/MS and a post-translational modifications analysis. Despite the diversity of scorpion species of medical importance in Africa and Colombia, the venoms of these arachnids have been poorly studied in these two regions. We report the biochemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic profile, internal peptide sequences with a post-translational modification report, and a preliminary antitumor activity of five different scorpions of the Buthidae family, Androctonus amoreuxi, Babycurus jacksoni, Grosphus grandidieri, Hottentotta gentili and Tityus fuhrmanni, and one of the Scorpionidae family Pandinus imperator...
February 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209155/intranasal-oxytocin-reduces-provoked-symptoms-in-female-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-despite-exerting-sympathomimetic-and-positive-chronotropic-effects-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
M Sack, D Spieler, L Wizelman, G Epple, J Stich, M Zaba, U Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disease accompanied by neuroendocrine changes such as adrenergic overdrive and hence an elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Current pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD are less than suboptimal, necessitating the development of PTSD-specific drugs. Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been repeatedly suggested to be effective in PTSD treatment, there are, to our knowledge, only three studies that have assessed its efficacy on the intensity of PTSD symptoms in PTSD patients - among them one symptom provocation study in male veterans...
February 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209133/house-spider-genome-uncovers-evolutionary-shifts-in-the-diversity-and-expression-of-black-widow-venom-proteins-associated-with-extreme-toxicity
#18
Kerry L Gendreau, Robert A Haney, Evelyn E Schwager, Torsten Wierschin, Mario Stanke, Stephen Richards, Jessica E Garb
BACKGROUND: Black widow spiders are infamous for their neurotoxic venom, which can cause extreme and long-lasting pain. This unusual venom is dominated by latrotoxins and latrodectins, two protein families virtually unknown outside of the black widow genus Latrodectus, that are difficult to study given the paucity of spider genomes. Using tissue-, sex- and stage-specific expression data, we analyzed the recently sequenced genome of the house spider (Parasteatoda tepidariorum), a close relative of black widows, to investigate latrotoxin and latrodectin diversity, expression and evolution...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204809/ketamine-suppresses-the-substance-p-induced-production-of-il-6-and-il-8-by-human-u373mg-glioblastoma-astrocytoma-cells
#19
Keisuke Yamaguchi, Seiichiro Kumakura, Taisuke Murakami, Akimasa Someya, Eiichi Inada, Isao Nagaoka
The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is an important mediator of neurogenic inflammation within the central and peripheral nervous systems. SP has been shown to induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders of the human brain via the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, functions as a competitive antagonist of the excitatory neurotransmission N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and also antagonizes the NK-1R by interfering with the binding of SP...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198198/comparative-evaluation-of-pain-stress-neuropeptide-y-acth-and-cortisol-levels-between-a-conventional-postoperative-care-protocol-and-a-fast-track-recovery-program-in-patients-undergoing-major-abdominal-surgery
#20
Maria Kapritsou, Elizabeth D Papathanassoglou, Evangelos Bozas, Dimitrios P Korkolis, Evangelos A Konstantinou, Ioannis Kaklamanos, Margarita Giannakopoulou
BACKGROUND: Fast-track (FT) postoperative protocol in oncological patients after major abdominal surgery reduces complications and length of postoperative stay compared to the conventional (CON) protocol. However, stress and pain responses have not been compared between the two protocols. OBJECTIVES: To compare stress, pain, and related neuropeptidic responses (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol, and neuropeptide Y [NPY]) between FT and CON protocols. METHOD: A clinical trial with repeated measurements was conducted (May 2012 to May 2014) with a sample of 63 hepatectomized or pancreatectomized patients randomized into two groups: FT ( n = 29) or CON ( n = 34)...
March 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
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