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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102080/n-oleoylglycine-induced-hyperphagia-was-associated-with-the-activation-of-agrp-neuron-by-cb1r
#1
Junguo Wu, Canjun Zhu, Liusong Yang, Zhonggang Wang, Lina Wang, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Yongliang Zhang, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu, Xiaotong Zhu
N-acyl amino acids (NAAAs) are conjugate products of fatty acids and amino acids, which are available in animal-derived food. We compared the effects of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), N-arachidonoyl serine (NASer), and N-Oleoylglycine (OLGly) on in vivo food intake and in vitro [Ca2+]i of AgRP neurons to identify the role of these compounds in energy homeostasis. The hypothalamic neuropeptide expression and anxiety behavior in response to OLGly were also tested. To further identify the underlying mechanism of OLGly on food intake, we first detected the expression level of potential OLGly receptors...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101970/neuropeptide-y-resists-excess-loss-of-fat-by-lipolysis-in-calorie-restricted-mice-a-trait-potential-for-the-life-extending-effect-of-calorie-restriction
#2
Seongjoon Park, Toshimitsu Komatsu, Sang Eun Kim, Katsuya Tanaka, Hiroko Hayashi, Ryoichi Mori, Isao Shimokawa
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic peptide that plays an essential role in caloric restriction (CR)-mediated lifespan extension. However, the mechanisms underlying the NPY-mediated effects in CR are poorly defined. Here, we report that NPY deficiency in male mice during CR increases mortality in association with lipodystrophy. NPY(-/-) mice displayed a rapid decrease in body weight and fat mass, as well as increased lipolysis during CR. These alterations in fat regulation were inhibited by the lipolysis inhibitor, acipimox, a treatment associated with reduced mortality...
January 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101317/corticotropin-releasing-factor-overexpression-in-mice-abrogates-sex-differences-in-body-weight-visceral-fat-and-food-intake-response-to-a-fast-and-alters-levels-of-feeding-regulatory-hormones
#3
Lixin Wang, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Pu-Qing Yuan, Andreas Stengel, Yvette Taché
BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. METHODS: Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100502/rack1-regulates-angiotensin-ii-induced-contractions-of-shr-preglomerular-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Xiao Zhu, Edwin K Jackson
The preglomerular microcirculation of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is hypersensitive to angiotensin II, and studies show that this is likely due to enhanced convergent signaling between G-protein subunits αq (Gαq; released by angiotensin II) and G-protein subunits βγ (Gβγ; released by Gi-coupled receptors) to active phospholipase C (PLC). Here we investigated the molecular basis for the enhanced convergent signaling between Gβγ and Gαq in SHR preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (PGVSMCs)...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100033/relaxin-3-inputs-target-hippocampal-interneurons-and-deletion-of-hilar-relaxin-3-receptors-in-floxed-rxfp3-mice-impairs-spatial-memory
#5
M Haidar, G Guèvremont, C Zhang, Rad Bathgate, E Timofeeva, C M Smith, A L Gundlach
Hippocampus is innervated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 'projection' neurons of the nucleus incertus (NI), including a population expressing the neuropeptide, relaxin-3 (RLN3). In studies aimed at gaining an understanding of the role of RLN3 signaling in hippocampus via its Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, we examined the distribution of RLN3-immunoreactive nerve fibres and RXFP3 mRNA-positive neurons in relation to hippocampal GABA neuron populations. RLN3-positive elements were detected in close-apposition with a substantial population of somatostatin (SST)- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons, and a smaller population of parvalbumin- and calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in different hippocampal areas, consistent with the relative distribution patterns of RXFP3 mRNA and these marker transcripts...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098344/inhibition-of-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-neuron-activity-in-rat-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-by-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling
#6
Alan Kania, Anna Czerw, Agnieszka Grabowiecka, Camila de Ávila, Tomasz Blasiak, Zenon Rajfur, Marian H Lewandowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elena Timofeeva, Andrew L Gundlach, Anna Blasiak
KEY-POINTS: Relaxin-3 is a stress-responsive neuropeptide that acts at its cognate receptor, RXFP3, to alter behaviours including feeding. In this study, we have demonstrated a direct, RXFP3-dependent, inhibitory action of relaxin-3 on oxytocin and vasopressin PVN neuron electrical activity, a putative cellular mechanism of orexinergic actions of relaxin-3. We observed a Gαi/o -protein-dependent inhibitory influence of selective RXFP3 activation on PVN neuronal activity in vitro and demonstrated a direct action of RXFP3 activation on oxytocin and vasopressin PVN neurons, confirmed by their abundant expression of RXFP3 mRNA...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097372/the-role-of-neuropeptides-in-adverse-myocardial-remodeling-and-heart-failure
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Widiapradja, Prasad Chunduri, Scott P Levick
In addition to traditional neurotransmitters of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, the heart also contains numerous neuropeptides. These neuropeptides not only modulate the effects of neurotransmitters, but also have independent effects on cardiac function. While in most cases the physiological actions of these neuropeptides are well defined, their contributions to cardiac pathology are less appreciated. Some neuropeptides are cardioprotective, some promote adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure, and in the case of others their functions are unclear...
January 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#8
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094761/homeodomain-protein-otp-affects-developmental-neuropeptide-switching-in-oxytocin-neurons-associated-with-a-long-term-effect-on-social-behavior
#9
Einav Wircer, Janna Blechman, Nataliya Borodovsky, Michael Tsoory, Ana Rita Nunes, Rui F Oliveira, Gil Levkowitz
Proper response to stress and social stimuli depends on orchestrated development of hypothalamic neuronal circuits. Here we address the effects of the developmental transcription factor orthopedia (Otp) on hypothalamic development and function. We show that developmental mutations in the zebrafish paralogous gene otpa but not otpb affect both stress response and social preference. These behavioral phenotypes were associated with developmental alterations in oxytocinergic (OXT) neurons. Thus, otpa and otpb differentially regulate neuropeptide switching in a newly identified subset of OXT neurons that co-express the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094002/the-rfamide-receptor-dmsr-1-regulates-stress-induced-sleep-in-c-elegans
#10
Michael J Iannacone, Isabel Beets, Lindsey E Lopes, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen, Matthew D Nelson, Liliane Schoofs, David M Raizen
In response to environments that cause cellular stress, animals engage in sleep behavior that facilitates recovery from the stress. In Caenorhabditis elegans, stress-induced sleep(SIS) is regulated by cytokine activation of the ALA neuron, which releases FLP-13 neuropeptides characterized by an amidated arginine-phenylalanine (RFamide) C-terminus motif. By performing an unbiased genetic screen for mutants that impair the somnogenic effects of FLP-13 neuropeptides, we identified the gene dmsr-1, which encodes a G-protein coupled receptor similar to an insect RFamide receptor...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093506/the-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-tyro3-enhances-lifespan-and-neuropeptide-y-npy-neuron-survival-in-the-mouse-anorexia-anx-mutation
#11
Dennis Y Kim, Joanna Yu, Ryan K Mui, Rieko Niibori, Hamza Bin Taufique, Rukhsana Aslam, John W Semple, Sabine P Cordes
Severe appetite and weight loss define the eating disorder anorexia nervosa, and can also accompany the progression of some neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral scelerosis (ALS). While acute loss of hypothalamic neurons that produce appetite-stimulating neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti related peptide (AgRP) in adult mice or in mice homozygous for the anorexia (anx) mutation causes aphagia, our understanding of the factors that help maintain appetite regulatory circuitry is limited. Here we identify a mutation that converts an arginine to a tryptophan (R7W) in the Tyrosine receptor kinase 3 (Tyro3) gene, which resides within the anx critical interval, as contributing to the severity of anx phenotypes...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093335/intracoerulear-microinjection-of-orexin-a-induces-morphine-withdrawal-like-signs-in-rats
#12
Masoumeh Ghaemi-Jandabi, Hossein Azizi, S Mohammad Ahmadi-Soleimani, Saeed Semnanian
Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides play a pivotal role in expression of opioid withdrawal signs. Hypothalamic orexinergic neurons provide dense afferents for the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). Somatic signs of opioid withdrawal are associated with the enhanced activity of LC neurons. In addition, intra-LC administration of orexin-A leads to the hyperactivity of LC neurons. The present study was an attempt to investigate whether intra-LC microinjection of orexin-A induces morphine withdrawal-like signs in both morphine dependent and control rats...
January 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093230/gastrin-releasing-peptide-induces-monocyte-adhesion-to-vascular-endothelium-by-upregulating-endothelial-adhesion-molecules
#13
Mi-Kyoung Kim, Hyun-Joo Park, Yeon Kim, Hyung Joon Kim, Soo-Kyung Bae, Moon-Kyoung Bae
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that plays roles in various pathophysiological conditions including inflammatory diseases in peripheral tissues; however, little is known about whether GRP can directly regulate endothelial inflammatory processes. In this study, we showed that GRP promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the aortic endothelium. GRP increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in endothelial cells...
January 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091775/developmental-and-sex-specific-differences-in-expression-of-neuropeptides-derived-from-allatotropin-gene-in-the-silkmoth-bombyx-mori
#14
Branislav Bednár, Ladislav Roller, Daniel Čižmár, Diana Mitrová, Dušan Žitňan
Allatotropin (AT) and related neuropeptides are widespread bioactive molecules that regulate development, food intake and muscle contractions in insects and other invertebrates. In moths, alternative splicing of the at gene generates three mRNA precursors encoding AT with different combinations of three structurally similar AT-like peptides (ATLI-III). We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the differential expression of these transcripts during the postembryonic development of Bombyx mori...
January 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091349/intranasal-oxytocin-increases-facial-expressivity-but-not-ratings-of-trustworthiness-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#15
J D Woolley, B Chuang, C Fussell, S Scherer, B Biagianti, D Fulford, D H Mathalon, S Vinogradov
BACKGROUND: Blunted facial affect is a common negative symptom of schizophrenia. Additionally, assessing the trustworthiness of faces is a social cognitive ability that is impaired in schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacological agents are ineffective at improving either of these symptoms, despite their clinical significance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally to healthy individuals and shows promise in decreasing negative symptoms and enhancing social cognition in schizophrenia...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090599/mas-related-g-protein-coupled-receptor-x2-a-potential-new-target-for-modulating-mast-cell-mediated-allergic-and-inflammatory-diseases
#16
Hydar Ali
Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident immune cells that are best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases. In addition to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), MCs express numerous G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are the most common targets of drug therapy. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) is expressed on MCs and contributes to IgE and non-IgE-mediated responses in mice. Although NK-1R antagonists are highly effective in modulating experimental allergic and inflammatory responses in mice they lack efficacy in humans...
December 2016: Journal of Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089870/large-dense-core-vesicle-exocytosis-from-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-is-regulated-by-neuropeptide-y
#17
Anneka Bost, Ali H Shaib, Yvonne Schwarz, Barbara A Niemeyer, Ute Becherer
Peptidergic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons transmit sensory and nociceptive information from the periphery to the central nervous system. Their synaptic activity is profoundly affected by neuromodulatory peptides stored and released from large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs). However, the mechanism of peptide secretion from DRG neurons is poorly understood. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), we visualized individual LDCVs loaded with fluorescent neuropeptide Y (NPY) and analyzed their stimulation-dependent release...
January 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089729/urinary-biomarkers-in-women-with-refractory-urgency-urinary-incontinence-randomized-to-sacral-neuromodulation-versus-onabotulinumtoxina-compared-to-controls
#18
Holly E Richter, Pamela Moalli, Cindy L Amundsen, Anna P Malykhina, Dennis Wallace, Rebecca Rogers, Deborah Myers, Maria Paraiso, Michael Albo, Haolin Shi, Tracy Nolen, Susie Meikle, R Ann Word
PURPOSE: To measure urinary biomarker levels in women with refractory urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and controls at baseline and 6 months post treatment from sacral neuromodulation (SNM) or intradetrusor injection onabotulinumtoxinA and to assess association of baseline biomarkers to post treatment UUI episodes (UUIE) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptom bother outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First morning urines were collected from consented trial participants and age-matched women without UUI...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089702/the-visible-burrow-system-a-view-from-across-the-hall
#19
REVIEW
James P Herman, Kellie L Tamashiro
The visible burrow system (VBS) is an ethologically relevant social stress model that creates a distinct dominance hierarchy in rats. Randall Sakai's laboratory performed an impressive series of studies documenting the very different impact of VBS exposure on the brain and behavior of dominants (DOM) and subordinates (SUBs). Hierarchy formation causes pronounced changes in metabolism in SUBs relative to both DOMs and unstressed controls, resulting in marked weight loss and metabolic imbalance. Stress testing revealed multiple phenotypes in the VBS, including DOMs, stress-responsive SUBs and stress-non-responsive SUBs...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089691/orcokinin-neuropeptides-regulate-ecdysis-in-the-hemimetabolous-insect-rhodnius-prolixus
#20
Juan Pedro Wulff, Ivana Sierra, Marcos Sterkel, Michiel Holtof, Pieter Van Wielendaele, Flavio Francini, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Sheila Ons
To grow and develop insects must undergo ecdysis. During this process, the individual sheds the old cuticle to emerge as the following developmental stage. During ecdysis, different programed behaviors are regulated by neuropeptidergic pathways. In general, components of these pathways are better characterized in crustacean and holometabolous insects than in hemimetabola. In insects, the orkoninin gene produces two different neuropeptide precursors by alternative splicing: orcokinin A and orcokinin B. Although orcokinins are well conserved in insect species, their physiological role remains elusive...
January 9, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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