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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329911/mrna-expression-and-metabolic-regulation-of-npy-and-agrp1-2-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#1
Inyoung Jeong, Eunmi Kim, Suhyun Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Jae Young Seong, Hae-Chul Park
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in vertebrates. In mammals, NPY neurons coexpress Agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and NPY/AgRP neurons activate orexigenic signaling to increase food intake. Zebrafish express npy and two agrp genes, agrp1 and agrp2, in the brain. Similar to mammals, NPY and AgRP1 act as orexigenic factors in zebrafish, but the exact distribution of NPY and AgRP neurons in the zebrafish brain and the regulation of these genes by metabolic states remain unclear...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329678/apelin-13-ameliorates-cognitive-impairments-in-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-substantia-nigra-lesion-in-rats
#2
Elham Haghparast, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Vahid Sheibani
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra...
January 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329236/gender-associated-impact-of-early-leucine-supplementation-on-adult-predisposition-to-obesity-in-rats
#3
Nora López, Juana Sánchez, Andreu Palou, Francisca Serra
Early nutrition plays an important role in development and may constitute a relevant contributor to the onset of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of maternal leucine (Leu) supplementation during lactation on progeny in rats. A chow diet, supplemented with 2% Leu, was supplied during lactation (21 days) and, from weaning onwards, was replaced by a standard chow diet. Then, at adulthood (6 months of age), this was replaced with hypercaloric diets (either with high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) content), for two months, to induce obesity...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328505/substance-p-as-a-putative-efferent-transmitter-mediates-gabaergic-inhibition-in-mouse-taste-buds
#4
Anthony Y Huang, Sandy Y Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capsaicin-mediated modulation on taste nerve responses is thought to be produced indirectly by actions of neuropeptides, e.g., calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), onto taste cells implying playing a role in taste sensitivity. During processing gustatory information in taste buds, CGRP shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling. The underlying assumption has been that SP exerts its effects on taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328403/arcuate-nucleus-neurons-are-not-essential-for-the-preprandial-peak-in-plasma-ghrelin-after-neonatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#5
Qing-Chun Li, Qing-Feng Li, Yan-Lin Wang, Hong-Liang Sun, Zheng-Yao Jiang
The aim of the present study was to determine whether arcuate nucleus (ARC) lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and the stomach in monosodium glutamate (MSG)‑treated mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the ARC was destroyed in mice treated neonatally with MSG, and whether the ARC lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and lipid mobilization in MSG‑treated mice. The results revealed that MSG led to a marked reduction in ARC cresyl violet staining, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (IR) neurons and neuropeptide Y‑IR fibers, compared with saline controls...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324852/real-life-helping-behaviours-in-north-america-a-genome-wide-association-approach
#6
Georg Primes, Martin Fieder
In humans, prosocial behaviour is essential for social functioning. Twin studies suggest this distinct human trait to be partly hardwired. In the last decade research on the genetics of prosocial behaviour focused on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as oxytocin, dopamine, and their respective pathways. Recent trends towards large scale medical studies targeting the genetic basis of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia pave the way for new directions also in behavioural genetics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323501/the-pivotal-role-of-copper-in-neurodegeneration-a-new-strategy-for-the-therapy-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
Roberta Giampietro, Francesco Spinelli, Marialessandra Contino, Nicola Antonio Colabufo
Copper is an essential trace element for human body since it is a cofactor of several enzymes and proteins and plays a pivotal role in several biological functions (e.g., respiration, protection from oxidative damage, iron metabolism, etc.), also including the central nervous system development and functioning (e.g. synthesis of neurotransmitters, myelination, activation of neuropeptides, etc.). Therefore, copper dysmetabolism is associated with different toxic effects, mainly represented by oxidative stress, and it has been reported in many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Wilson's disease, Menkes disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#8
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318457/decreased-intracellular-granule-movement-and-glucagon-secretion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-attached-to-superior-cervical-ganglion-neurites
#9
Kiyoto Watabe, Satoru Yokawa, Yoshikazu Inoh, Takahiro Suzuki, Tadahide Furuno
Autonomic neurons innervate pancreatic islets of Langerhans and participate in the maintenance of blood glucose concentrations by controlling hormone levels through attachment with islet cells. We previously found that stimulated superior cervical ganglia (SCG) could induce Ca2+ oscillation in α cells via neuropeptide substance P using an in vitro co-culture model. In this study, we studied the effect of SCG neurite adhesion on intracellular secretory granule movement and glucagon secretion in α cells stimulated by low glucose concentration...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316420/immunology-the-neuronal-pathway-to-mucosal-immunity
#10
Stephan Löser, Rick M Maizels
Type 2 immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be initiated by type 2 innate lymphoid cells. New studies report that these cells are themselves activated by the neuropeptide neuromedin U, produced by cholinergic neurons in the gut and in airways.
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315906/antiobesity-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene
#11
REVIEW
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
Obesity is a current global epidemic that has led to a marked increase in metabolic diseases. However, its treatment remains a challenge. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, which involves the dysfunction of neuropeptides, hormones, and inflammatory adipokines from the brain, gut, and adipose tissue. An understanding of the mechanisms and signal interactions in the crosstalk between organs and tissue in the coordination of whole-body energy metabolism would be helpful to provide therapeutic and putative approaches to the treatment and prevention of obesity and related complications...
January 5, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311610/interneuron-specific-signaling-evokes-distinctive-somatostatin-mediated-responses-in-adult-cortical-astrocytes
#12
Letizia Mariotti, Gabriele Losi, Annamaria Lia, Marcello Melone, Angela Chiavegato, Marta Gómez-Gonzalo, Michele Sessolo, Serena Bovetti, Angelo Forli, Micaela Zonta, Linda Maria Requie, Iacopo Marcon, Arianna Pugliese, Cécile Viollet, Bernhard Bettler, Tommaso Fellin, Fiorenzo Conti, Giorgio Carmignoto
The signaling diversity of GABAergic interneurons to post-synaptic neurons is crucial to generate the functional heterogeneity that characterizes brain circuits. Whether this diversity applies to other brain cells, such as the glial cells astrocytes, remains unexplored. Using optogenetics and two-photon functional imaging in the adult mouse neocortex, we here reveal that parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons, two key interneuron classes in the brain, differentially signal to astrocytes inducing weak and robust GABAB receptor-mediated Ca2+ elevations, respectively...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307079/functional-changes-of-orexinergic-reaction-to-psychoactive-substances
#13
REVIEW
Vincenzo Monda, Monica Salerno, Francesco Sessa, Renato Bernardini, Anna Valenzano, Gabriella Marsala, Christian Zammit, Roberto Avola, Marco Carotenuto, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
It is becoming increasingly apparent the importance of the central nervous system (CNS) as the major contributor to the regulation of systemic metabolism. Antipsychotic drugs are used often to treat several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder However, antipsychotic drugs prescription, particularly the second-generation ones (SGAs), such as clozapine and olanzapine, is related to a considerable weight gain which usually leads to obesity. The aim of this paper is to assess the influence of orexin A on sympathetic and hyperthermic reactions to several neuroleptic drugs...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306400/crosstalk-between-cancer-and-the-neuro-immune-system
#14
REVIEW
Nyanbol Kuol, Lily Stojanovska, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Kulmira Nurgali
In the last decade, understanding of cancer initiation and progression has been given much attention with studies mainly focusing on genetic abnormalities. Importantly, cancer cells can influence their microenvironment and bi-directionally communicate with other systems such as the immune system. The nervous system plays a fundamental role in regulating immune responses to a range of disease states including cancer. Its dysfunction influences the progression of cancer. The role of the immune system in tumor progression is of relevance to the nervous system since they can bi-directionally communicate via neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, common receptors, and, cytokines...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305536/pou6f1-mediates-neuropeptide-dependent-plasticity-in-the-adult-brain
#15
Cynthia K McClard, Mikhail Y Kochukov, Isabella Herman, Zhandong Liu, Aiden Eblimit, Yalda Moayedi, Joshua Ortiz-Guzman, Daniel Colchado, Brandon Pekarek, Sugi Paneerselvam, Graeme Mardon, Benjamin R Arenkiel
The mouse olfactory bulb (OB) features continued, activity-dependent integration of adult-born neurons, providing a robust model to examine mechanisms of plasticity in the adult brain. We previously reported that local OB interneurons secrete the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in an activity-dependent manner onto adult-born granule neurons, and that local CRH signaling promotes expression of synaptic machinery in the bulb. This effect is mediated via activation of the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), which is developmentally regulated during adult-born neuron maturation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304421/oxytocin-biases-men-to-be-more-or-less-tolerant-of-others-dislike-dependent-upon-their-relationship-status
#16
Weihua Zhao, Xiaole Ma, Jiao Le, Aiqing Ling, Fei Xin, Juan Kou, Yingying Zhang, Ruixue Luo, Benjamin Becker, Keith M Kendrick
The experience of being liked or disliked by others strongly influences our liking for and willingness to socialize with them. The neuropeptide oxytocin is involved in social bonding and can modify social preferences for others dependent upon their characteristics. However, it is unclear whether oxytocin affects individuals' reactions to social evaluations made by others (i.e., being liked or disliked) and if this is influenced by already having a secure partner bond (i.e., being single or in a relationship)...
December 22, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303477/a-gonad-expressed-opsin-mediates-light-induced-spawning-in-the-jellyfish-clytia
#17
Gonzalo Quiroga Artigas, Pascal Lapébie, Lucas Leclère, Noriyo Takeda, Ryusaku Deguchi, Gáspár Jékely, Tsuyoshi Momose, Evelyn Houliston
Across the animal kingdom, environmental light cues are widely involved in regulating gamete release, but the molecular and cellular bases of the photoresponsive mechanisms are poorly understood. In hydrozoan jellyfish, spawning is triggered by dark-light or light-dark transitions acting on the gonad, and is mediated by oocyte maturation-inducing neuropeptide hormones (MIHs) released from the ectoderm. We determined in Clytia hemisphaerica that blue-cyan light triggers spawning in isolated gonads. A candidate opsin (Opsin9) was found co-expressed with MIH within specialised ectodermal cells...
January 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303438/prospective-randomized-blinded-and-placebo-controlled-study-of-cerebrolysin-dose-response-effects-on-long-term-functional-outcomes-in-a-rat-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Yanlu Zhang, Michael Chopp, Zheng Gang Zhang, Yi Zhang, Li Zhang, Mei Lu, Talan Zhang, Stefan Winter, Hemma Brandstätter, Asim Mahmood, Ye Xiong
OBJECTIVE Cerebrolysin is a neuropeptide preparation that mimics the properties of neurotrophic factors and has had beneficial effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). To further evaluate treatment schemes, the authors assessed the dose-response of Cerebrolysin on functional improvement in a rat model of mild TBI (mTBI). METHODS This dose-response study was a prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled preclinical experiment. Male Wistar adult rats, subjected to mTBI induced by a closed head impact, were treated randomly with 0 (saline as placebo), 0...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302631/oxytocin-monolayer-based-impedimetric-biosensor-for-zinc-and-copper-ions
#19
Kiran Kumar Tadi, Israel Alshanski, Evgeniy Mervinetsky, Gerard Marx, Panayiota Petrou, Karussis M Dimitrios, Chaim Gilon, Mattan Hurevich, Shlomo Yitzchaik
Zinc and copper are essential metal ions for numerous biological processes. Their levels are tightly maintained in all body organs. Impairment of the Zn2+ to Cu2+ ratio in serum was found to correlate with many disease states, including immunological and inflammatory disorders. Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide, and its activity is modulated by zinc and copper ion binding. Harnessing the intrinsic properties of OT is one of the attractive ways to develop valuable metal ion sensors. Here, we report for the first time an OT-based metal ion sensor prepared by immobilizing the neuropeptide onto a glassy carbon electrode...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301490/molecular-characterization-of-larval-development-from-fertilization-to-metamorphosis-in-a-reef-building-coral
#20
Marie E Strader, Galina V Aglyamova, Mikhail V Matz
BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms underlying coral larval competence, the ability of larvae to respond to settlement cues, determine their dispersal potential and are potential targets of natural selection. Here, we profiled competence, fluorescence and genome-wide gene expression in embryos and larvae of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora daily throughout 12 days post-fertilization. RESULTS: Gene expression associated with competence was positively correlated with transcriptomic response to the natural settlement cue, confirming that mature coral larvae are "primed" for settlement...
January 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
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