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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934787/complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-i-a-debilitating-and-poorly-understood-syndrome-possible-role-for-pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-a-narrative-review
#1
Stefania Pagani, Francesca Veronesi, Nicolo Nicoli Aldini, Milena Fini
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I), also called algodystrophy, is a complex syndrome characterized by limb pain, edema, allodynia, hyperalgesia and functional impairment of bone with a similar clinical picture of osteoporosis, including an increased release of various pro-inflammatory neuropeptides and cytokines. Several treatments have been proposed for CRPS-I, but due to the poor outcome of conventional drugs and the invasiveness of some techniques, expectations are now directed towards new resources that could be more effective and less invasive...
September 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933066/multiple-sclerosis-implications-of-obesity-in-neuroinflammation
#2
Ana Margarida Novo, Sónia Batista
Since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue as a metabolically active organ, several evidences on the possible link between obesity and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been gathered. Obesity in early life, mainly during adolescence, has been proposed as a relevant risk factor for late MS development. Moreover, once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increase disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress. Despite the fact that clinical data are not yet conclusive, many biochemical links have been recently disclosed...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931890/pathogenesis-of-lethal-aspiration-pneumonia-in-mecp2-null-mouse-model-for-rett-syndrome
#3
Hiroshi Kida, Tomoyuki Takahashi, Yuki Nakamura, Takashi Kinoshita, Munetsugu Hara, Masaki Okamoto, Satoko Okayama, Keiichiro Nakamura, Ken-Ichiro Kosai, Takayuki Taniwaki, Yushiro Yamashita, Toyojiro Matsuishi
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), located on the X chromosome. Many RTT patients have breathing abnormalities, such as apnea and breathing irregularity, and respiratory infection is the most common cause of death in these individuals. Previous studies showed that MeCP2 is highly expressed in the lung, but its role in pulmonary function remains unknown. In this study, we found that MeCP2 deficiency affects pulmonary gene expression and structures...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931832/mediating-role-of-trpv1-ion-channels-in-the-co-exposure-to-pm2-5-and-formaldehyde-of-balb-c-mice-asthma-model
#4
Jing Song, Jun Kang, Bencheng Lin, Jinquan Li, Yuqing Zhu, Junting Du, Xu Yang, Zhuge Xi, Rui Li
Asthma is a complex pulmonary inflammatory disease that can be promoted by air pollutants such as PM2.5 and formaldehyde (FA). However, existent experimental evidence principally focuses on the negative influence of a single air pollutant, neglecting the possible synergistic effect in biological responses to mixture of these pollutants, a more common situation in our daily life. In this study, allergic Balb/c mice were exposed to a mixture of PM2.5 and FA, and their toxicological effects and mechanisms were explored...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931721/neuropeptidergic-integration-of-behavior-in-trichoplax-adhaerens-an-animal-without-synapses
#5
Adriano Senatore, Thomas S Reese, Carolyn L Smith
Trichoplax adhaerens is a flat, millimeter-sized marine animal that adheres to surfaces and grazes on algae. Trichoplax displays a repertoire of different feeding behaviors despite the apparent absence of a true nervous system with electrical or chemical synapses. It glides along surfaces to find food, propelled by beating cilia on cells at its ventral surface, and pauses during feeding by arresting ciliary beating. We found that when endomorphin-like peptides are applied to an animal, ciliary beating is arrested, mimicking natural feeding pauses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931410/lentivirus-mediated-interleukin-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-knock-down-in-the-hippocampus-alleviates-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-memory-deficits-and-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-mice
#6
Mengmeng Li, Chenli Li, Hanjie Yu, Xiongxiong Cai, Xinbei Shen, Xin Sun, Jinting Wang, Yanhua Zhang, Chuang Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has suggested that peripheral inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in neuropsychiatric dysfunction in rodents. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been proposed to be a key mediator in a variety of behavioral dysfunction induced by LPS in mice. Thus, inhibition of IL-1β may have a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the precise underlying mechanism of knock-down of IL-1β in repairing behavioral changes by LPS remains unclear...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#7
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930993/confocal-imaging-of-neuropeptide-y-phluorin-a-technique-to-visualize-insulin-granule-exocytosis-in-intact-murine-and-human-islets
#8
Madina Makhmutova, Tao Liang, Herbert Gaisano, Alejandro Caicedo, Joana Almaça
Insulin secretion plays a central role in glucose homeostasis under normal physiological conditions as well as in disease. Current approaches to study insulin granule exocytosis either use electrophysiology or microscopy coupled to the expression of fluorescent reporters. However most of these techniques have been optimized for clonal cell lines or require dissociating pancreatic islets. In contrast, the method presented here allows for real time visualization of insulin granule exocytosis in intact pancreatic islets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930284/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-signal-in-food-motivation-and-cognitive-control-pathways-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#9
Franziska Plessow, Dean A Marengi, Sylvia K Perry, Julia M Felicione, Rachel Franklin, Tara M Holmes, Laura M Holsen, Nikolaos Makris, Thilo Deckersbach, Elizabeth A Lawson
Recent research indicates that the hypothalamic neuropeptide hormone oxytocin is a key central nervous system factor in the regulation of food intake and weight. However, the mechanisms underlying the anorexigenic effects of oxytocin in humans are unknown and critical to study in order to consider oxytocin as a neurohormonal weight loss treatment. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with single-dose intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in ten overweight or obese, otherwise healthy men...
September 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929258/inhibitory-neurotransmitter-serotonin-and-excitatory-neurotransmitter-dopamine-both-decrease-food-intake-in-chinese-perch-siniperca-chuatsi
#10
Yu-Hui He, Ling Li, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Luo Zhao, Yan-Peng Zhang
Aminergic neurotransmitters play important roles in the regulation of food intake. However, their effects on feeding in fish have been less explored and still unclear. In the present study, the effects of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) on food intake were evaluated through intraventricular (ICV) administration in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) and the mRNA expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were detected. At 1 h post-injection, 5-HT significantly decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner...
September 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927333/vulnerability-to-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-is-linked-to-low-neuropeptide-y-levels
#11
Michael Winterdahl, Alessandro Miani, Moana J H Vercoe, Antonia Ciovica, Lori Uber-Zak, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask, Paul J Zak
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is a conversion disorder that reflects underlying psychological distress. Female patients with PNES often present with a history of prolonged stressors, especially sexual abuse. In the current study, we studied the relationship between neuropeptide Y (NPY) and PNES symptoms in women with a history of sexual abuse. NPY has been associated with resilience to stress and we hypothesized that low levels would increase the extent and severity of PNES symptoms in this patient population...
September 19, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926477/monoamine-and-neuropeptide-connections-significantly-alter-the-degree-distributions-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-connectome
#12
Tianxiao Huang, Yan Sun, Zheng Zhang, Shixiong Deng, Rui Peng
To understand the behaviors of an individual, it is crucial to understand the neural connections of the nervous system, that is, the connectome. The hermaphrodite Caenorhabditis elegans connectome has served as a prototype for analytical studies since the chemical synapses and gap junctions among the 302 neurons were completely mapped. Recently, monoamine (MA) and neuropeptide (NP) connections were established, which form a multilayer connectome in conjunction with chemical synapses and gap junctions. In this study, we investigated the difference in the in-degree and out-degree distributions, respectively, among the connectomes with and without MA and NP connections...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925754/plasma-urocortin-1-as-a-preoperative-marker-of-endometriosis-in-symptomatic-women
#13
Laura M Maia, Ana L Rocha, Helen L Del Puerto, Felice Petraglia, Fernando M Reis
Accurate noninvasive diagnostic tests for endometriosis are still missing. This study evaluated the predictive value of the neuropeptide urocortin 1 (Ucn1) to detect pelvic endometriosis in symptomatic women. We enrolled prospectively 97 consecutive women submitted to gynecologic laparoscopy for chronic or acute pelvic pain, infertility or adnexal mass. Preoperative blood samples were assayed for Ucn1 using enzyme immunoassay. Patients with endometriosis had higher plasma Ucn1 levels compared to patients with no lesions (median 59 vs...
September 19, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925503/quantitative-analysis-of-mouse-dural-afferent-neurons-expressing-trpm8-vglut3-and-nf200
#14
Lynn Ren, Michelle Jaehee Chang, Zhiyu Zhang, Ajay Dhaka, Zhaohua Guo, Yu-Qing Cao
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the abundance of dural afferent neurons expressing transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8), vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), and neurofilament 200 (NF200) in adult mice. BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of mice as a model system to study headache mechanisms, it is important to understand the composition of dural afferent neurons in mice. In a previous study, we have measured the abundance of mouse dural afferent neurons that express neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide as well as two TRP channels TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924165/manf-regulates-hypothalamic-control-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#15
Su Yang, Huiming Yang, Renbao Chang, Peng Yin, Yang Yang, Weili Yang, Shanshan Huang, Marta A Gaertig, Shihua Li, Xiao-Jiang Li
The hypothalamus has a vital role in controlling food intake and energy homeostasis; its activity is modulated by neuropeptides and endocrine factors. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a neurotrophic factor that is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in neurons. Here we show that MANF is highly enriched in distinct nuclei of the mouse hypothalamus, and that MANF expression in the hypothalamus is upregulated in response to fasting. Increasing or decreasing hypothalamic MANF protein levels causes hyperphagia or hypophagia, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924050/discovery-of-leucokinin-like-neuropeptides-that-modulate-a-specific-parameter-of-feeding-motor-programs-in-the-molluscan-model-aplysia
#16
Guo Zhang, Ferdinand S Vilim, Dan-Dan Liu, Elena V Romanova, Ke Yu, Wang-Ding Yuan, Hui Xiao, Amanda B Hummon, Ting-Ting Chen, Vera Alexeeva, Si-Yuan Yin, Song-An Chen, Elizabeth C Cropper, Jonathan V Sweedler, Klaudiusz R Weiss, Jian Jing
A better understanding of neuromodulation in a behavioral system requires identifying active modulatory transmitters. Here, we used identifiable neurons in a neurobiological model system, the mollusc Aplysia, to study neuropeptides, a diverse class of neuromodulators. We took advantage of two types of feeding neurons, B48 and B1/B2, in the Aplysia buccal ganglion that might contain different neuropeptides. We performed a representational difference analysis (RDA) by subtraction of mRNAs in B48 versus mRNA in B1/B2...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920040/parasympathetic-cholinergic-and-neuropeptide-mechanisms-of-migraine
#17
REVIEW
Nikita Mikhailov, Oleg V Mamontov, Alexei A Kamshilin, Rashid Giniatullin
CONTEXT: Migraine mechanisms remain largely uncovered for various reasons including a very high complexity of the neurophysiological mechanisms implicated in this disorder and a plethora of endogenous biologically active compounds involved in the pathological process. The functional role of parasympathetic innervation of meninges and cholinergic mechanisms of migraine are among little explored issues despite multiple evidence indirectly indicating the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and its analogues in migraine and other types of headache...
February 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917449/highly-potent-antiobesity-effect-of-a-short-length-peptide-yy-analog-in-mice
#18
Naoki Nishizawa, Ayumu Niida, Yusuke Adachi, Yoko Kanematsu-Yamaki, Yasushi Masuda, Satoshi Kumano, Kotaro Yokoyama, Yoko Noguchi, Tomoko Asakawa, Hideki Hirabayashi, Nobuyuki Amano, Shiro Takekawa, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Taiji Asami
Continuous administration of a 14-amino acid peptide YY (PYY) analog, Ac-[d-Pro(24),Pya(4)(26),Cha(27,36),Aib(28,31),Lys(30)]PYY(23-36) (4), which has a high binding affinity and agonist activity for the neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2R), has previously shown an antiobesity effect in a 2-week diet-induced obesity (DIO) study in mice. However, there remained a possibility to obtain more potent analogs by further improving its pharmacokinetic profile. A combination of the N-terminal 4-imidazolecarbonyl moiety and three amino acid substitutions, trans-4-hydroxy-d-proline (d-Hyp)(24), isovaline (Iva)(25), and γ-methylleucine (γMeLeu)(28), not only improved the binding affinity of the peptide for Y2R but also increased its anorectic activity in lean mice...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917185/ghrelin-and-hypothalamic-npy-agrp-expression-in-mice-are-affected-by-chronic-early-life-stress-exposure-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#19
K Y Yam, S R Ruigrok, I Ziko, S N De Luca, P J Lucassen, S J Spencer, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) is a risk factor for metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity) with a notoriously higher prevalence in women compared to men. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. The development of the hypothalamic feeding and metabolic regulatory circuits occurs mostly in the early sensitive postnatal phase in rodents and is tightly regulated by the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin. We have previously demonstrated that chronic ES reduces circulating leptin and alters adipose tissue metabolism early and later in life similarly in both sexes...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916209/towards-new-strategies-to-manage-livestock-reproduction-using-kisspeptin-analogs
#20
M Beltramo, C Decourt
The discovery of the hypothalamic neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor (KISS1R) have dramatically improved our knowledge about the central mechanisms controlling reproduction. Kisspeptin neurons could be considered the hub where internal and external information controlling reproduction converge. The information is here elaborated and the command dispatched to GnRH neurons, the final output of the brain system controlling reproduction. Several studies have shown that in mammals administration of kisspeptin could finely modulate many aspects of reproduction from puberty to ovulation...
September 12, 2017: Theriogenology
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