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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923312/autophagy-its-mechanisms-and-regulation-implications-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Emad Ghobadi, Marjan Fallah, Shima Rasouli, Mohammad Abdollahi
Autophagy is a major regulatory cellular mechanism which gives the cell an ability to cope with some of the destructive events that normally occur within a metabolically living cell. This is done by maintaining the cellular homeostasis, clearance of damaged organelles and proteins and recycling necessary molecules like amino acids and fatty acids. There is a wide array of factors that influence autophagy in the state of health and disease. Disruption of these mechanisms may not only give rise to several autophagy-related disease, but also it can occur as the result of intracellular changes induced during disease pathogenesis causing exacerbation of the disease...
September 15, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921969/flow-electrolysis-cells-for-the-synthetic-organic-chemistry-laboratory
#2
Derek Pletcher, Robert A Green, Richard C D Brown
Electrosynthesis has much to offer to the synthetic organic chemist. But in order to be widely accepted as a routine procedure in an organic synthesis laboratory, electrosynthesis needs to be presented in a much more user-friendly way. The literature is largely based on electrolysis in a glass beaker or H-cells that often give poor performance for synthesis with a very slow rate of conversion and, often, low selectivity and reproducibility. Flow cells can lead to much improved performance. Electrolysis is participating in the trend toward continuous flow synthesis, and this has led to a number of innovations in flow cell design that make possible selective syntheses with high conversion of reactant to product with a single passage of the reactant solution through the cell...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916886/construction-of-fibrous-bed-bioreactor-for-enhanced-succinic-acid-production-using-wastewater-of-dextran-fermentation
#3
Peng-Cheng Chen, Xin-Hua Zha, Pu Zheng
A new applicability of wastewater of dextran fermentation (WWDF) for biological production of succinic acid with A. succinogenes CCTCC M2012036 was reported in this work for the first time. Notably, K2CO3 was used instead of MgCO3 in the pH regulating process for operational feasibility and a cell immobilization methodology by attaching cells on cotton fibrous matrix was adopted for cell recycle. The initial sugar concentration as well as matrix usage was optimized by investigating the cell growth, succinic acid concentration and yield...
September 15, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906441/bonding-behavior-of-deformed-steel-rebars-in-sustainable-concrete-containing-both-fine-and-coarse-recycled-aggregates
#4
Sun-Woo Kim, Wan-Shin Park, Young-Il Jang, Seok-Joon Jang, Hyun-Do Yun
In order to assess the bond behavior of deformed steel rebars in recycled-aggregate concrete (RAC) incorporating both fine and coarse recycled aggregate, pull-out tests were carried out in this study on 16-mm diameter deformed steel rebars embedded concentrically in RAC. The concrete was designed using equivalently mixed proportions of both recycled coarse aggregate and recycled fine aggregate. The tests employed five types of recycled aggregate replacement combinations and three types of rebar placement orientation (i...
September 14, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902446/proteomics-insights-into-autophagy
#5
REVIEW
Emmanuel K Cudjoe, Tareq Saleh, Adam Hawkridge, David A Gewirtz
Autophagy, a conserved cellular process by which cells recycle their contents either to maintain basal homeostasis or in response to external stimuli, has for the past two decades become one of the most studied physiological processes in cell biology. The 2016 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Biology to Dr. Ohsumi Yoshinori, one of the first scientists to characterize this cellular mechanism, attests to its importance. The induction and consequent completion of the process of autophagy results in wide ranging changes to the cellular proteome as well as the secretome...
September 13, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901243/an-exploration-into-municipal-waste-charges-for-environmental-management-at-local-level-the-case-of-spain
#6
Ignasi Puig-Ventosa, Sergio Sastre Sanz
Municipal waste charges have been widely acknowledged as a crucial tool for waste management at the local level. This is because they contribute to financing the costly provision of waste collection and treatment services and they can be designed to provide an economic stimulus to encourage citizens and local businesses to improve separate collection and recycling. This work presents a methodology to evaluate a sample of 125 municipal waste charges in Spain for the year 2015, covering 33.91% of the Spanish population...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891579/sensitive-and-selective-detection-of-the-p53-gene-based-on-a-triple-helix-magnetic-probe-coupled-to-a-fluorescent-liposome-hybridization-assembly-via-rolling-circle-amplification
#7
Xia Li, Juan Song, Qingwang Xue, Haiyan Zhao, Min Liu, Baoli Chen, Yun Liu, Wei Jiang, Chen-Zhong Li
Developing a sensitive and selective sensing platform for the p53 gene and its mutation analysis is essential and may aid in early cancer screening and assessment of prognosis. Here, we developed a highly sensitive and selective p53 gene assay based on the coupling of a triple-helix magnetic probe (THMP) to a fluorescent liposome hybridization assembly, a process initiated by rolling circle amplification (RCA). In the presence of p53, the THMP unfolds and activates an enzymatic cleavage reaction, thus releasing the RCA primer and initiating the RCA product-assisted fluorescent liposome hybridization assembly...
September 11, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879351/design-and-construction-of-a-bifunctional-magnetically-recyclable-3d-comn2o4-cf-hybrid-as-an-adsorptive-photocatalyst-for-the-effective-removal-of-contaminants
#8
Jianhua Zheng, Yandong Hu, Lei Zhang
Herein, a magnetic microsphere CoMn2O4 (MS-CoMn2O4) with a 3D architecture was constructed directly on cellulose fiber (CF) substrates from wastepaper by a solvothermal synthesis method with further calcination treatment. The designed hybrid shows excellent dual functions including rapid catalytic oxidation of tetracycline (TC)/methylene blue (MB) and a high adsorption capacity. What's more, the hybrid is easily recycled using an external magnetic field. In comparison with that of pure MS-CoMn2O4, the enhanced adsorption ability and photocatalytic activity of MS-CoMn2O4/CFs can mainly be attributed to the introduced cellulose fiber supporter in the hybrid system...
September 7, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875998/large-scale-immuno-magnetic-cell-sorting-of-t-cells-based-on-a-self-designed-high-throughput-system-for-potential-clinical-application
#9
Qian Zhang, Ting Yin, Rongrong Xu, Wenjun Gao, Hui Zhao, Joseph G Shapter, Kan Wang, Yulan Shen, Peng Huang, Guo Gao, Yanfeng Wu, Daxiang Cui
In this contribution, we designed four types of immuno-magnetic nanoparticles for separation of different T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD14(+) T cells), and we established a new large-scale immuno-magnetic cell sorting procedure to achieve an enrichment of particular T cells using our designed auto-IMACS device. This device could achieve recyclable large-scale cell sorting, for which the throughput of the system reached ∼4000 mL and the maximum cell capacity was 4 × 10(10). The collected cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and visual cytology data, and the effective selection rates of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD14(+) T cells were 79...
September 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871632/specific-direct-amplified-microrna-detection-with-microrna-argonaute-2-cleavage-miracle-beacons
#10
Benjamin Luby, Gang Zheng
MicroRNA detection is a valuable method for determining cell identity. Molecular beacons are elegant sensors that can transform intracellular microRNA concentration into a fluorescence intensity. While target binding enhances beacon fluorescence, the degree of enhancement is insufficient for demanding applications. Addition of specialty nucleases can allow target recycling and amplify the signal, but this process complicates the assay. We develop and characterize a novel class of beacons susceptible to the endogenous nuclease Argonaute-2 (Ago2)...
September 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870069/boosting-chemical-stability-catalytic-activity-and-enantioselectivity-of-metal-organic-frameworks-for-batch-and-flow-reactions
#11
Xu Chen, Hong Jiang, Bang Hou, Wei Gong, Yan Liu, Yong Cui
A key challenge in heterogeneous catalysis is the design and synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts featuring high catalytic activity, selectivity and recyclability. Here we demonstrate that high-performance heterogeneous asymmetric catalysts can be engineered from a metal-organic framework (MOF) platform by using a ligand design strategy. Three porous chiral isostructural MOFs with the framework formula [Mn2L(H2O)2] are prepared from enantiopure phosphono-carboxylate ligands of 1,1'-biphenol that are functionalized with 3,5-ditrifluoro-, 3,5-difluoro- and 3,5-dimethyl-phenyl substituents at the 3,3'-position...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869911/nanoporous-ptco-co3o4-composites-with-high-catalytic-activities-toward-hydrolytic-dehydrogenation-of-ammonia-borane
#12
Qiuxia Zhou, Caixia Xu
The design and fabrication of highly active and durable catalysts for the ammonia borane (AB) hydrolysis has been one of significant issues in the application of green and economic hydrogen energy. Nanoporous (NP) PtCo/Co3O4 composites are straightforwardly fabricated by selectively etching Al atoms followed by removing Co atoms from the PtCoAl precursor alloy. By controlling the second-step dealloying, the NP-PtCo/Co3O4 composites evolved into pure nanoporous structure with Co3O4 nanosheets on the surface gradually disappeared as well different Pt/Co ratios resulted...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869690/highly-stretchable-compliant-polymeric-microelectrode-arrays-for-in-vivo-electrophysiological-interfacing
#13
Dianpeng Qi, Zhiyuan Liu, Yan Liu, Ying Jiang, Wan Ru Leow, Mayank Pal, Shaowu Pan, Hui Yang, Yu Wang, Xiaoqian Zhang, Jiancan Yu, Bin Li, Zhe Yu, Wei Wang, Xiaodong Chen
Polymeric microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are emerging as a new generation of biointegrated microelectrodes to transduce original electrochemical signals in living tissues to external electrical circuits, and vice versa. So far, the challenge of stretchable polymeric MEAs lies in the competition between high stretchability and good electrode-substrate adhesion. The larger the stretchability, the easier the delamination of electrodes from the substrate due to the mismatch in their Young's modulus. In this work, polypyrrole (PPy) electrode materials are designed, with PPy nanowires integrated on the high conductive PPy electrode arrays...
September 4, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862845/structural-and-functional-analyses-of-periplasmic-5-methylthioadenosine-s-adenosylhomocysteine-nucleosidase-from-aeromonas-hydrophila
#14
Yongbin Xu, Lulu Wang, Jinli Chen, Jing Zhao, Shengdi Fan, Yuesheng Dong, Nam-Chul Ha, Chunshan Quan
The gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila has two multifunctional 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) enzymes, MtaN-1 and MtaN-2, that differ from those in other bacteria. These proteins are essential for several metabolic pathways, including biological methylation, polyamine biosynthesis, methionine recycling and bacterial quorum sensing. To gain insight into how these two proteins function, we determined four high-resolution crystal structures of MtaN-1 in its apo form and in complex with the substrates S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH), 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), and 5'-deoxyadenosine (5'-DAO)...
September 1, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862294/design-preparation-and-characterization-of-moo3h-functionalized-fe3o4-sio2-magnetic-nanocatalyst-and-application-for-the-one-pot-multicomponent-reactions
#15
Mahtab Kiani, Mehrnoosh Hendijani, Mohammad Mohammadipour, Ali Zamanian
Molybdic acid-functionalized silica-based Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2-MoO3H) are found to be a powerful and magnetically recyclable nanocatalyst. The morphology and structure of this nanocatalyst were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), thermo gravimetric analyses (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques...
September 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858468/real-time-continuous-identification-of-greenhouse-plant-pathogens-based-on-recyclable-microfluidic-bioassay-system
#16
Xiangmeng Qu, Min Li, Hongbo Zhang, Chenglie Lin, Fei Wang, Mingshu Xiao, Yi Zhou, Jiye Shi, Ali Aldalbahi, Hao Pei, Hong Chen, Li Li
The development of a real-time continuous analytical platform for the pathogen detection is of great scientific importance for achieving better disease control and prevention. In this work, we report a rapid and recyclable microfluidic bioassay system constructed from oligonucleotide arrays for selective and sensitive continuous identification of DNA targets of fungal pathogens. We employ the thermal denaturation method to effectively regenerate the oligonucleotide arrays for multiple sample detection, which could considerably reduce the screening effort and costs...
September 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846891/a-multi-technique-phytoremediation-approach-to-purify-metals-contaminated-soil-from-e-waste-recycling-site
#17
Jie Luo, Limei Cai, Shihua Qi, Jian Wu, Xiaowen Sophie Gu
Multiple techniques for soil decontamination were combined to enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulese and alleviate the corresponding environmental risks. The approach constituted of chelating agent using, electrokinetic remediation, plant hormone foliar application and phytoremediation was designed to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils from a notorious e-waste recycling town. The decontamination ability of E. globulese increased from 1.35, 58.47 and 119.18 mg per plant for Cd, Pb and Cu in planting controls to 7...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843924/hydrous-zro2-decorated-polyaniline-nanofibres-synthesis-characterization-and-application-as-an-efficient-adsorbent-for-water-defluoridation
#18
Kamya Parashar, Niladri Ballav, Sushanta Debnath, Kriveshini Pillay, Arjun Maity
A new hybrid material comprising hydrous zirconium oxide (HZrO2) supported onto polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres (HZrO2@PANI NFs) was prepared via the precipitation of HZrO2 onto as-synthesized PANI NFs and tested for its defluoridation capabilities. The developed adsorbent (HZrO2@PANI NFs) was fully characterized by FTIR, BET, XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM-(S)TEM, XPS, and zeta potential measurements. HZrO2@PANI NFs achieved 2-fold BET surface area ∼86.64 m(2)/gas compared to PANI NFs ∼44.72 m(2)/g, implying that the incorporation of HZrO2 onto the PANI nanofibres enhanced the available surface area for effective fluoride adsorption...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833778/two-new-preyssler-type-polyoxometalate-based-coordination-polymers-and-their-application-in-horseradish-peroxidase-immobilization
#19
Jing Du, Mei-Da Cao, Shu-Li Feng, Fang Su, Xiao-Jing Sang, Lan-Cui Zhang, Wan-Sheng You, Mei Yang, Zai-Ming Zhu
Enzyme immobilization is of increasing importance for the biocatalysis, to which the good supports are critical. Here, two new Preyssler-type polyoxometalate (POM)-based coordination polymers, namely {[Cu(H2biim)2][(Cu(H2biim)2(μ-H2O))2Cu(H2biim)(H2O)2]H[((Cu(H2biim)(H2O)2)0.5)2((μ-C3HN2Cl2)(Cu(H2biim))2)(Z(H2O)P5W30O110)]·xH2O}n (Z = Na, x = 9, compound 1; Z = Ag, x = 10, compound 2; H2biim = 2,2-biimidazole) were designedly synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit the same skeletons which contain multiple Cu(II) complex fragments and penta-supported {ZP5W30} ({NaP5W30} and {AgP5W30}) clusters...
August 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832942/kinetics-based-reaction-optimization-of-enzyme-catalyzed-reduction-of-formaldehyde-to-methanol-with-synchronous-cofactor-regeneration
#20
Fauziah Marpani, Zsuzsa Sárossy, Manuel Pinelo, Anne S Meyer
Enzymatic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to methanol (CH3 OH) can be accomplished using a designed set-up of three oxidoreductases utilizing reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADH) as cofactor for the reducing equivalents electron supply. For this enzyme system to function efficiently a balanced regeneration of the reducing equivalents during reaction is required. Herein, we report the optimization of the enzymatic conversion of formaldehyde (CHOH) to CH3 OH by alcohol dehydrogenase, the final step of the enzymatic redox reaction of CO2 to CH3 OH, with kinetically synchronous enzymatic cofactor regeneration using either glucose dehydrogenase (System I) or xylose dehydrogenase (System II)...
August 23, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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