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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731732/observation-of-flat-electron-temperature-profiles-in-the-lithium-tokamak-experiment
#1
D P Boyle, R Majeski, J C Schmitt, C Hansen, R Kaita, S Kubota, M Lucia, T D Rognlien
It has been predicted for over a decade that low-recycling plasma-facing components in fusion devices would allow high edge temperatures and flat or nearly flat temperature profiles. In recent experiments with lithium wall coatings in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX), a hot edge (>200  eV) and flat electron temperature profiles have been measured following the termination of external fueling. Reduced recycling was demonstrated by retention of ∼60% of the injected hydrogen in the walls following the discharge...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726373/ultrasensitive-homogeneous-electrochemical-detection-of-transcription-factor-by-coupled-isothermal-cleavage-reaction-and-cycling-amplification-based-on-exonuclease-iii
#2
Lihua Lu, Huijuan Su, Feng Li
The assay and monitoring of transcription factors (TFs) has attracted extensive attention, due to their important roles in regulation of gene expressions. Herein, a simple, low cost, rapid, and highly sensitive homogeneous electrochemical method utilizing the coupled isothermal cleavage reaction and cycling amplification based on exonuclease III (Exo III) was explored for the analysis of transcription factor NF-κB p50 in aqueous solution. In the assay, a 3-methylene blue (MB)-labeled hairpin probe is designed, which can be opened up by the single stranded DNA (ssDNA) protected by NF-κB p50 from the Exo III cleavage, to trigger the subsequent Exo III-assisted digestion, thus a large amount of MB-labeled mononucleotides are liberated to result in the greatly amplified electrochemical signal...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722430/multi-amplified-sensing-of-microrna-by-a-small-dna-fragment-driven-enzymatic-cascade-reaction
#3
Eunjung Kim, Philip D Howes, Spencer W Crowder, Molly M Stevens
Combining technological developments such as nanomaterials, DNA nanotechnology, and functional enzymes has great potential to facilitate next generation high performance molecular diagnostic systems. In this work, we describe a microRNA (miRNA) detection assay that combines target recycling and isothermal amplification in an elegantly designed enzyme-mediated cascade reaction. Target recycling is driven by the action of duplex-specific nuclease (DSN), resulting in highly amplified translation of input miRNA to short output DNA fragments...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714231/a-highly-versatile-and-adaptable-artificial-leaf-with-floatability-and-planar-compact-design-applicable-in-various-natural-environments
#4
Sangkuk Kim, Taewan Kim, Seunghyup Lee, Seunghyeon Baek, Taiho Park, Kijung Yong
As a promising means of solar energy conversion, photovoltaic (PV) cell-based electrolysis has recently drawn considerable attention for its effective solar fuel generation; especially the generation of hydrogen by solar water splitting. Inspired by remarkable accomplishments in enhancing the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, various efforts have aimed at fostering convenient and practical uses of PV electrolysis to make this technology ubiquitous, manageable, and efficient. Here, the design and function of a monolithic photoelectrolysis system-a so-called artificial leaf-for use in various environments are highlighted...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704029/encapsulation-of-single-nanoparticle-in-fast-evaporating-micro-droplets-prevents-particle-agglomeration-in-nanocomposites
#5
Ming Pan, Xinjian Shi, Fengjiao Lyu, Ben Louis Levy-Wendt, Xiaolin Zheng, Sindy K Y Tang
This work describes the use of fast-evaporating micro-droplets to finely disperse nanoparticles (NPs) in a polymer matrix for the fabrication of nanocomposites. Agglomeration of particles is a key obstacle for broad applications of nanocomposites. The classical approach to ensure the dispersability of NPs is to modify the surface chemistry of NPs with ligands. The surface properties of NPs are inevitably altered, however. To overcome the trade-off between dispersability and surface-functionality of NPs, we develop a new approach by dispersing NPs in a volatile solvent followed by mixing with uncured polymer precursors to form micro-droplet emulsions...
July 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703007/a-chaperonin-nanocaged-hemin-as-an-artificial-metalloenzyme-for-oxidation-catalysis
#6
Xiaoqiang Wang, Chao Wang, Meihong Pan, Junting Wei, Fuping Jiang, Rongsheng Lu, Xuan Liu, Yihui Huang, Fang Huang
Taking inspiration from biology's effectiveness in functionalizing protein-based nanocages for chemical processes, we describe here a rational design of an artificial metalloenzyme for oxidations with the bacterial chaperonin GroEL, a nanocage for protein folding in nature, by supramolecular anchoring of catalytically active hemin in its hydrophobic central cavity. The promiscuity of the chaperonin cavity is an essential element of this design, which can mimic the hydrophobic binding pocket in natural metalloenzymes to accept cofactor and substrate without requiring specific ligand-protein interactions...
July 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701963/hoarding-disorder-a-case-report
#7
Daniela Vilaverde, Jorge Gonçalves, Pedro Morgado
Hoarding disorder is characterized by a persistent difficulty discarding items, the desire to save items to avoid negative feelings associated with discarding them, significant accumulation of possessions that clutter active living areas and significant distress or impairment in areas of functioning. We present a case of a 52-year-old married man who was referred to the psychiatry department for collecting various objects that were deposited unorganized in the patient's house. He reported to get anxious when someone else discarded some of these items...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696368/clinical-applications-of-autophagy-proteins-in-cancer-from-potential-targets-to-biomarkers
#8
REVIEW
Svetlana Bortnik, Sharon M Gorski
Autophagy, a lysosome-mediated intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, plays multiple context-dependent roles in tumorigenesis and treatment resistance. Encouraging results from various preclinical studies have led to the initiation of numerous clinical trials with the intention of targeting autophagy in various cancers. Accumulating knowledge of the particular mechanisms and players involved in different steps of autophagy regulation led to the ongoing discovery of small molecule inhibitors designed to disrupt this highly orchestrated process...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693674/the-imperative-for-regenerative-agriculture
#9
Christopher J Rhodes
A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded...
March 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692918/valorization-of-waste-glycerol-for-the-production-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-and-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-copolymer-by-cupriavidus-necator-and-extraction-in-a-sustainable-manner
#10
Geeta Gahlawat, Sanjeev Kumar Soni
Glycerol is a by-product of many industrial processes and huge amounts of it are generated in the form of waste, thereby necessitating a search for the method of its disposal. An interesting solution is the valorization of crude glycerol into value added product such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The feasibility of producing PHAs by Cupriavidus necator was evaluated using crude glycerol (WG). Various cultivation strategies were designed for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by adding different organic acids as precursors at different concentrations levels...
June 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691347/design-and-operation-of-a-continuous-integrated-monoclonal-antibody-production-process
#11
Fabian Steinebach, Nicole Ulmer, Moritz Wolf, Lara Decker, Veronika Schneider, Ruben Wälchli, Daniel Karst, Jonathan Souquet, Massimo Morbidelli
The realization of an end-to-end integrated continuous lab-scale process for monoclonal antibody manufacturing is described. For this, a continuous cultivation with filter-based cell-retention, a continuous two column capture process, a virus inactivation step, a semi-continuous polishing step (twin-column MCSGP) and a batch-wise flow-through polishing step were integrated and operated together. In each unit the implementation of internal recycle loops allows to improve the performance: a) in the bioreactor, to simultaneously increase the cell density and volumetric productivity, b) in the capture process, to achieve improved capacity utilization at high productivity and yield and c) in the MCSGP process, to overcome the purity-yield trade-off of classical batch-wise bind-elute polishing steps...
July 10, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679520/prevalence-and-injury-patterns-among-electronic-waste-workers-in-the-informal-sector-in-nigeria
#12
Chimere May Ohajinwa, Peter M van Bodegom, Martina G Vijver, Adesola O Olumide, Oladele Osibanjo, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
BACKGROUND: Despite the large volume of e-waste recycled informally, the prevalence of work-related injuries among e-waste workers is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with occupational injuries among e-waste workers in the informal sector in Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study adopted a multistage sampling method to select 279 respondents from three cities (Ibadan, Lagos and Aba) in Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographics, work practices and injury occurrences from the respondents in 2015...
July 5, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676893/immobilization-of-rhizomucor-miehei-lipase-on-a-polymeric-film-for-synthesis-of-important-fatty-acid-esters-kinetics-and-application-studies
#13
Vivek C Badgujar, Kirtikumar C Badgujar, Pravin M Yeole, Bhalchandra M Bhanage
The present work deals with the designing of biocompatible hybrid blend of cellulosic copolymers made of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HMC) and chitosan (CHI) for immobilization of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML), in order to construct the robust biocatalytic system to synthesize industrially important dodecanoate compounds (fatty acid esters). The present biocatalyst HMC:CHI:RML was characterized in detail by various physical and biochemical methods and subsequently applied for the synthesis of fatty acid esters...
July 4, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657293/high-crystallinity-covalent-organic-framework-with-dual-fluorescence-emissions-and-its-ratiometric-sensing-application
#14
Hai-Long Qian, Cong Dai, Cheng-Xiong Yang, Xiu-Ping Yan
High crystallinity of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with dual fluorescence emissions has not been reported so far. Here, we show the rational design and preparation of high-crystallinity COF TzDa via the synergetic interaction of docking sites and hydrogen bonds: 4,4',4″-(1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyl)trianiline (Tz) with the docking site and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalaldehyde (Da) with the OH group are employed to synthesize the imine-linked two-dimensional high-crystallinity layered structure TzDa. The prepared mesoporous TzDa (ca...
July 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655940/evaluating-the-effects-of-air-pollution-from-a-plastic-recycling-facility-on-the-health-of-nearby-residents
#15
Zhao Xin, Toshihide Tsuda, Hiroyuki Doi
We evaluated how exposure to airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from a plastic recycling facility affected nearby residents, in a cross-sectional study. Individuals>10 years old were randomly sampled from 50 households at five sites and given questionnaires to complete. We categorized the subjects by distance from the recycling facility and used this as a proxy measure for pollutant exposure. We sought to improve on a preceding study by generating new findings, improving methods for questionnaire distribution and collection, and refining site selection...
June 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655820/e-biologics-fabrication-of-sustainable-electronics-with-green-biological-materials
#16
Derek R Lovley
The growing ubiquity of electronic devices is increasingly consuming substantial energy and rare resources for materials fabrication, as well as creating expansive volumes of toxic waste. This is not sustainable. Electronic biological materials (e-biologics) that are produced with microbes, or designed with microbial components as the guide for synthesis, are a potential green solution. Some e-biologics can be fabricated from renewable feedstocks with relatively low energy inputs, often while avoiding the harsh chemicals used for synthesizing more traditional electronic materials...
June 27, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654268/electroactive-and-high-dielectric-folic-acid-pvdf-composite-film-rooted-simplistic-organic-photovoltaic-self-charging-energy-storage-cell-with-superior-energy-density-and-storage-capability
#17
Swagata Roy, Pradip Thakur, Nur Amin Hoque, Biswajoy Bagchi, Nayim Sepay, Farha Khatun, Arpan Kool, Sukhen Das
Herein we report a simplistic prototype approach to develop an organic photovoltaic self-charging energy storage cell (OPSESC) rooted with biopolymer folic acid (FA) modified high dielectric and electroactive β crystal enriched poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite (PFA) thin film. Comprehensive and exhaustive characterizations of the synthesized PFA composite films validate the proper formation of β-polymorphs in PVDF. Significant improvements of both β-phase crystallization (F(β) ≈ 71.4%) and dielectric constant (ε ≈ 218 at 20 Hz for PFA of 7...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647333/effects-of-bedding-with-recycled-sand-on-lying-behaviors-udder-hygiene-and-preference-of-lactating-holstein-dairy-cows
#18
J A Kull, H D Ingle, R A Black, N L Eberhart, P D Krawczel
Effects of bedding with recycled sand and season on lying behaviors, hygiene, and preferences of late-lactation Holstein cows were studied. It was hypothesized that recycled sand will decrease lying time and increase hygiene scores due to increased moisture content and organic matter, and thus a preference for the control sand will be evident. Cows (n = 64) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 per group) per season. In summer (August to September), cows were balanced by days in milk (268.1 ± 11.9 d) and parity (2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639437/ultrasound-assisted-green-economic-synthesis-of-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticles-using-eggshell-bio-waste-and-study-of-mechanical-and-biological-properties-for-orthopaedic-applications
#19
Vijay H Ingole, Kamal Hany Hussein, Anil A Kashale, Kalyani Ghule, Tomaž Vuherer, Vanja Kokol, Jia-Yaw Chang, Yong-Chien Ling, Aruna Vinchurkar, Hom N Dhakal, Anil V Ghule
Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HAp) is most favorable candidate biomaterial for bone tissue engineering because of its bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Herein, we report for the first time ultrasound assisted facile and economic approach for the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4 )6 (OH)2 ) using recycled eggshell bio-waste referred as EHAp. The process involves the reaction of eggshell bio-waste as a source of calcium and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate as a phosphate source...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636365/sustainable-elastomers-from-renewable-biomass
#20
Zhongkai Wang, Liang Yuan, Chuanbing Tang
Sustainable elastomers have undergone explosive growth in recent years, partly due to the resurgence of biobased materials prepared from renewable natural resources. However, mounting challenges still prevail: How can the chemical compositions and macromolecular architectures of sustainable polymers be controlled and broadened? How can their processability and recyclability be enabled? How can they compete with petroleum-based counterparts in both cost and performance? Molecular-biomass-derived polymers, such as polymyrcene, polymenthide, and poly(ε-decalactone), have been employed for constructing thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs)...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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