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design for recycling

Rita Langasco, Barbara Cadeddu, Marilena Formato, Antonio Junior Lepedda, Massimo Cossu, Paolo Giunchedi, Roberto Pronzato, Giovanna Rassu, Renata Manconi, Elisabetta Gavini
The growing interest in the use of recyclable and biodegradable natural materials has become a relevant topic in pharmaceutics. In this work, we suggest the use and valorization of natural horny skeleton of marine sponges (Porifera, Dictyoceratida) as bio-based dressing for topical drug delivery. Biomaterial characterization focusing on morpho-functional traits, swelling behavior, fluid uptake performances, glycosaminoglycans content and composition and microbiological quality assessment was carried out to investigate the collagenic skeleton properties...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Piotr Nowakowski
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), also known as e-waste, is one of the most important waste streams with high recycling potential. Materials used in these products are valuable, but some of them are hazardous. The urban mining approach attempts to recycle as many materials as possible, so efficiency in collection is vital. There are two main methods used to collect WEEE: stationary and mobile, each with different variants. The responsibility of WEEE organizations and waste collection companies is to assure all resources required for these activities - bins, containers, collection vehicles and staff - are available, taking into account cost minimization...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
Xiang Chen, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Chao-Ping Lin, Yu-Guo Zheng
BACKGROUND: Ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate ((R)-CHBE) is a versatile chiral precursor for many pharmaceuticals. Although several biosynthesis strategies have been documented to convert ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) to (R)-CHBE, the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity are still too low to be scaled up for industrial applications. Due to the increasing demand of (R)-CHBE, it is essential to explore more robust biocatalyst capable of preparing (R)-CHBE efficiently. RESULTS: A stereoselective carbonyl reductase toolbox was constructed and employed into the asymmetric reduction of COBE to (R)-CHBE...
October 18, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
Tingting Wu, James D Englehardt
An urban net-zero water treatment system, designed for energy-positive water management, 100% recycle of comingled black/grey water to drinking water standards, and mineralization of hormones and other organics, without production of concentrate, was constructed and operated for two years, serving an occupied four-bedroom, four-bath university residence hall apartment. The system comprised septic tank, denitrifying membrane bioreactor (MBR), iron-mediated aeration (IMA) reactor, vacuum ultrafilter, and peroxone or UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation, with 14% rainwater make-up and concomitant discharge of 14% of treated water (ultimately for reuse in irrigation)...
October 5, 2016: Water Research
Zahed Shami, Seyed Mojtaba Amininasab, Pegah Shakeri
A straightforward approach was successfully developed to fabricate a well-designed three-dimensional rough sheetlike MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) array to stand vertically on poly(acrylonitrile) porous nanofibrous membranes based on an electrospun-nanofiber-templated in situ hydrothermal strategy, and then the surface was modified with cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. The as-spun highly dense ordered sheetlike LDH porous nanofabric exhibited a superior durability in superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, which has achieved high oil-removing capability including both oil harvesting and oil separation to harvest/separate a wide range of organic solvents and oils from an oil-water mixture and, especially, exhibited a very good recycling and reusing performance...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jinhyeok Choi, Hyeonjin Kim
To improve the efficacy of undersampled MRI, a method of designing adaptive sampling functions is proposed that is simple to implement on an MR scanner and yet effectively improves the performance of the sampling functions. An approximation of the energy distribution of an image (E-map) is estimated from highly undersampled k-space data acquired in a prescan and efficiently recycled in the main scan. An adaptive probability density function (PDF) is generated by combining the E-map with a modeled PDF. A set of candidate sampling functions are then prepared from the adaptive PDF, among which the one with maximum energy is selected as the final sampling function...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Yuanwei Wang, Yihua Zhu, Jianfei Huang, Jin Cai, Jingrun Zhu, Xiaoling Yang, Jianhua Shen, Hao Jiang, Chunzhong Li
Perovskite quantum dots with superior optical performances are supposed to be desirable for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based fluorescence detection, which is popular for its accuracy and simplicity. In this work, a monolithic superhydrophobic polystyrene fiber membrane encapsulated with CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (CPBQDs/PS FM) was prepared via electrospinning. Combining the outstanding optical properties of CPBQDs and stability of PS, this CPBQDs/PS FM exhibits high quantum yields (~91%) and narrow half-peak width (~16 nm), nearly 100% fluorescence retention after being immersed in water for 10 days, 79...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Berrin Tansel
Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities...
October 8, 2016: Environment International
Samson Afewerki, Armando Córdova
The cooperation and interplay between organic and metal catalyst systems is of utmost importance in nature and chemical synthesis. Here innovative and selective cooperative catalyst systems can be designed by combining two catalysts that complement rather than inhibit one another. This refined strategy can permit chemical transformations unmanageable by either of the catalysts alone. This review summarizes innovations and developments in selective organic synthesis that have used cooperative dual catalysis by combining simple aminocatalysts with metal catalysts...
October 10, 2016: Chemical Reviews
J Bachér, T Kaartinen
Complex electronic devices entering our recycling systems often generate losses in the whole treatment chain. For better liberation, crucial for the mechanical separation process, the devices are crushed which also generates dusts that are not recovered. This study investigated the relation between the liberation of Printed Circuit Assembly (PCA) and dust generation in the crushing process of two different types of mobile phone samples. The results revealed that the overall PCA grade in both samples was approximately 70% with around 3...
October 3, 2016: Waste Management
Jiawei Liu, Yue Zheng, Zilan Hong, Kai Cai, Feng Zhao, Heyou Han
Biosynthesis based on the reducing capacity of electrochemically active bacteria is frequently used in the reduction of metal ions into nanoparticles as an eco-friendly way to recycle metal resources. However, those bionanoparticles cannot be used directly as electrocatalysts because of the poor conductivity of cell substrates. This problem was solved by a hydrothermal reaction, which also contributes to the heteroatom doping and alloying between Pd and Au. With the protection of graphene, the aggregation of nanoparticles was successfully avoided, and the porous structure was maintained, resulting in better electrocatalytic activity and durability than commercial Pd/C under both alkaline (CH3CH2OH, 6...
September 2016: Science Advances
Analia Alvarez, Juliana Maria Saez, José Sebastian Davila Costa, Veronica Leticia Colin, María Soledad Fuentes, Sergio Antonio Cuozzo, Claudia Susana Benimeli, Marta Alejandra Polti, María Julia Amoroso
Actinobacteria exhibit cosmopolitan distribution since their members are widely distributed in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In the environment they play relevant ecological roles including recycling of substances, degradation of complex polymers, and production of bioactive molecules. Biotechnological potential of actinobacteria in the environment was demonstrated by their ability to remove organic and inorganic pollutants. This ability is the reason why actinobacteria have received special attention as candidates for bioremediation, which has gained importance because of the widespread release of contaminants into the environment...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Yue Huang, Hao Li, Lei Wang, Xiaoxia Mao, Genxi Li
In this work, we have successfully designed a smart and flexible signal amplification method based on a newly synthesized hybrid nanocomposite with switchable enzyme activity for specific and sensitive protein detection. The smart hybrid nanocomposite synthesized here is initially loaded with quenched fluorophore and a unique aptamer-inhibited DNA polymerase. It then undergoes target protein-triggered release of the fluorophore and activation of the DNA polymerase, which can thereby promote multiple catalytic reactions and recycled use of the target protein, resulting in the generation of highly amplified signals...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
William J Smiles, Evelyn B Parr, Vernon G Coffey, Orly Lacham-Kaplan, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
Alcohol ingestion decreases post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, but the mechanism(s) (e.g., increased protein breakdown) underlying this observation are unknown. Autophagy is an intracellular "recycling" system required for homeostatic substrate and organelle turnover; its dysregulation may provoke apoptosis and lead to muscle atrophy. We investigated the acute effects of alcohol ingestion on autophagic cell signaling responses to a bout of concurrent (combined resistance- and endurance-based) exercise...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lucien W Gassie, James D Englehardt, Jian Wang, Nichole Brinkman, Jay Garland, Piero Gardinali, Tianjiao Guo
Net-zero water (NZW) systems, or water management systems achieving high recycling rates and low residuals generation so as to avoid water import and export, can also conserve energy used to heat and convey water, while economically restoring local eco-hydrology. However, design and operating experience are extremely limited. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the second phase of operation of an advanced oxidation-based NZW pilot system designed, constructed, and operated for a period of two years, serving an occupied four-person apartment...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Caili Fu, Chang Liu, Ying Li, Yajing Guo, Fang Luo, Peilong Wang, Longhua Guo, Bin Qiu, Zhenyu Lin
Abasic site (AP site) in the triplex structure can recognize specific target with high selectivity. In this study, this character was first applied to develop a simple, sensitive, and selective homogeneous electrochemical biosensor for melamine determination. The assay combines the advantage of the high selectivity of the DNA triplex structure containing an AP site to melamine and high efficiency of exonuclease (Exo) III-assisted recycling amplification. DNA-1 (T1), DNA-2 (T2), poly[dA] probe containing an AP site (8A) and methylene blue-labeled DNA probe (dMB probe) were carefully designed...
October 3, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Sathish Paulraj Gundupalli, Subrata Hait, Atul Thakur
A crucial prerequisite for recycling forming an integral part of municipal solid waste (MSW) management is sorting of useful materials from source-separated MSW. Researchers have been exploring automated sorting techniques to improve the overall efficiency of recycling process. This paper reviews recent advances in physical processes, sensors, and actuators used as well as control and autonomy related issues in the area of automated sorting and recycling of source-separated MSW. We believe that this paper will provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art and will help future system designers in the area...
September 20, 2016: Waste Management
Hao Zhu, Jiangli Fan, Jianjun Du, Xiaojun Peng
Fluorescent probes have become powerful tools in biosensing and bioimaging because of their high sensitivity, specificity, fast response, and technical simplicity. In the last decades, researchers have made remarkable progress in developing fluorescent probes that respond to changes in microenvironments (e.g., pH, viscosity, and polarity) or quantities of biomolecules of interest (e.g., ions, reactive oxygen species, and enzymes). All of these analytes are specialized to carry out vital functions and are linked to serious disorders in distinct subcellular organelles...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
José Faria, André Sousa, Arsénio Reis, Vitor Filipe, João Barroso
The wide spread of food outlets has become an environmental and sanitation infrastructure problem, due to Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG). A grease box is used at the industrials facilities to collect the FOG, in a specific time window, while its quality is good for recycling (e.g., biodiesel) and it is economically valuable. After this period, it will be disposed at a cost. For the proper management of the grease boxes, it is necessary to know the quantity of FOG inside the boxes, which is a major problem, as the boxes are sealed and permanently filled with water...
2016: Sensors
Jinju Guk, Hankil Son, Dong Woo Chae, Kyungsoo Park
Megestrol acetate, an appetite stimulant with low bioavailability, shows increased bioavailability when taken together with food. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of megestrol acetate and its relation with food are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the food effect on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the recently developed nano-crystallized megestrol acetate (NCMA), using a model-based approach. Data were obtained from an NCMA PK study consisting of a single dose in fasting (39 individuals) and fed conditions (40 individuals)...
September 17, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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