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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425464/metabolic-labelling-of-the-carbohydrate-core-in-bacterial-peptidoglycan-and-its-applications
#1
Hai Liang, Kristen E DeMeester, Ching-Wen Hou, Michelle A Parent, Jeffrey L Caplan, Catherine L Grimes
Bacterial cells are surrounded by a polymer known as peptidoglycan (PG), which protects the cell from changes in osmotic pressure and small molecule insults. A component of this material, N-acetyl-muramic acid (NAM), serves as a core structural element for innate immune recognition of PG fragments. We report the synthesis of modifiable NAM carbohydrate derivatives and the installation of these building blocks into the backbone of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial PG utilizing metabolic cell wall recycling and biosynthetic machineries...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424958/effectiveness-of-waste-prevention-program-in-primary-students-schools
#2
Antonis A Zorpas, Irene Voukkali, Pantelitsa Loizia
Even though reducing waste is at the top of the waste hierarchy, no real decoupling between waste generation and consumption has been demonstrated. Several waste directives had been published from EU, but they have only brought minor changes within the key objective of reducing waste generation. Most efforts have been targeted towards greater amounts of recycling and better management of waste disposal. While these are necessary and socially beneficial goals, they are not adequate for the achievement of long-term sustainability goals...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424856/homogenous-assay-for-protein-detection-based-on-proximity-dna-hybridization-and-isothermal-circular-strand-displacement-amplification-reaction
#3
Manjun Zhang, Ruimin Li, Liansheng Ling
This work proposed a homogenous fluorescence assay for proteins, based on the target-triggered proximity DNA hybridization in combination with strand displacement amplification (SDA). It benefited from target-triggered proximity DNA hybridization to specifically recognize the target and SDA making recycling signal amplification. The system included a molecular beacon (MB), an extended probe (EP), and an assistant probe (AP), which were not self-assembly in the absence of target proteins, due to the short length of the designed complementary sequence among MB, EP, and AP...
April 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421525/the-electrochemical-selective-reduction-of-no-using-cose2-cnts-hybrid
#4
Hui Liu, Kaisong Xiang, Bentao Yang, Xiaofeng Xie, Dongli Wang, Cong Zhang, Zhilou Liu, Shu Yang, Cao Liu, Jianping Zou, Liyuan Chai
Converting the NO from gaseous pollutant into NH4(+) through electrocatalytical reduction using cost-effective materials holds great promise for pollutant purifying and resources recycling. In this work, we developed a highly selective and stable catalyst CoSe2 nanoparticle hybridized with carbon nanotubes (CoSe2@CNTs). The CoSe2@CNTs hybrid catalysts performed an extraordinary high selectivity for NH4(+) formation in NO electroreduction with minimal N2O production and H2 evolution. The specific spatial structure of CoSe2 is conductive to the predominant formation of N-H bond between the N from adsorbed NO and H and inhibition of N-N formation from adjacent adsorbed NO...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421387/pharmacokinetics-of-monoclonal-antibodies-and-fc-fusion-proteins
#5
REVIEW
Liming Liu
There are many factors that can influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a mAb or Fc-fusion molecule with the primary determinant being FcRn-mediated recycling. Through Fab or Fc engineering, IgG-FcRn interaction can be used to generate a variety of therapeutic antibodies with significantly enhanced half-life or ability to remove unwanted antigen from circulation. Glycosylation of a mAb or Fc-fusion protein can have a significant impact on the PK of these molecules. mAb charge can be important and variants with pI values of 1-2 unit difference are likely to impact PK with lower pI values being favorable for a longer half-life...
April 19, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411642/semisynthetic-enzymes-by-protein-peptide-site-directed-covalent-conjugation-methods-and-applications
#6
Jose M Palomo
This chapter describes the rational design and synthesis of semisynthetic lipases by site-directed incorporation of tailor-made peptides on the lipase-lid site to improve its activity, specificity, and enantioselectivity in specific biotransformations. Cysteine was genetically introduced at a particular point of the oligopeptide lid of the enzyme, and cysteine-containing peptides, complementary to the amino acid sequence on the lid site of Geobacillus thermocatenulatus lipase (BTL), were covalently attached on the lid of two different cysteine-BTL variants based on a fast thiol-disulfide exchange ligation followed by desulfurization...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401475/mitochondrial-quality-control-and-disease-insights-into-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#7
REVIEW
Anthony R Anzell, Rita Maizy, Karin Przyklenk, Thomas H Sanderson
Mitochondria are key regulators of cell fate during disease. They control cell survival via the production of ATP that fuels cellular processes and, conversely, cell death via the induction of apoptosis through release of pro-apoptotic factors such as cytochrome C. Therefore, it is essential to have stringent quality control mechanisms to ensure a healthy mitochondrial network. Quality control mechanisms are largely regulated by mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. The processes of mitochondrial fission (division) and fusion allow for damaged mitochondria to be segregated and facilitate the equilibration of mitochondrial components such as DNA, proteins, and metabolites...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395227/colorimetric-and-fluorescent-chemosensor-for-highly-selective-and-sensitive-relay-detection-of-cu-2-and-h2po4-in-aqueous-media
#8
Jun-Xia Su, Xiao-Ting Wang, Jing Chang, Gui-Yuan Wu, Hai-Ming Wang, Hong Yao, Qi Lin, You-Ming Zhang, Tai-Bao Wei
In this manuscript, a new colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensor (T) was designed and synthesized, it could successively detect Cu(2+) and H2PO4(-) in DMSO/H2O (v/v=9:1, pH=7.2) buffer solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. When added Cu(2+) ions into the solution of T, it showed a color changes from yellow to colorless, meanwhile, the green fluorescence of sensor T quenched. This recognition behavior was not affected in the presence of other cations, including Hg(2+), Ag(+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cr(3+), and Mg(2+) ions...
March 31, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394501/renewable-wood-pulp-paper-reactor-with-hierarchical-micro-nanopores-for-efficient-continuous-flow-nanocatalysis
#9
Hirotaka Koga, Naoko Namba, Tsukasa Takahashi, Masaya Nogi, Yuta Nishina
Continuous-flow nanocatalysis by metal nanoparticle (NP) catalyst-anchored flow reactors has recently provided an excellent platform for effective chemical manufacturing. However, there has been limited progress in porous structure design and recycling systems for metal NP-anchored flow reactors to create more efficient and sustainable catalytic processes. Here, we renovated traditional paper as an efficient, recyclable, and renewable flow reactor by tailoring the ultra-structures of wood pulp. The 'paper reactor' offers hierarchically interconnected micro/nanoscale pores for efficient access of reactants to catalysts...
April 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388636/characterization-and-mutational-analysis-of-a-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-deamidase-from-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-showing-high-thermal-stability-and-catalytic-efficiency
#10
Ana Belén Martínez-Moñino, Rubén Zapata-Pérez, Antonio Ginés García-Saura, Fernando Gil-Ortiz, Manuela Pérez-Gilabert, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferrer
NAD+ has emerged as a crucial element in both bioenergetic and signaling pathways since it acts as a key regulator of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Among the enzymes involved in its recycling, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) deamidase is one of the key players in the bacterial pyridine nucleotide cycle, where it catalyzes the conversion of NMN into nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), which is later converted to NAD+ in the Preiss-Handler pathway. The biochemical characteristics of bacterial NMN deamidases have been poorly studied, although they have been investigated in some firmicutes, gamma-proteobacteria and actinobacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384288/modified-flowcam-procedure-for-quantifying-size-distribution-of-zooplankton-with-sample-recycling-capacity
#11
Esther Wong, Akash R Sastri, Fan-Sian Lin, Chih-Hao Hsieh
We have developed a modified FlowCAM procedure for efficiently quantifying the size distribution of zooplankton. The modified method offers the following new features: 1) prevents animals from settling and clogging with constant bubbling in the sample container; 2) prevents damage to sample animals and facilitates recycling by replacing the built-in peristaltic pump with an external syringe pump, in order to generate negative pressure, creates a steady flow by drawing air from the receiving conical flask (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379006/gadolinium-complex-for-the-catch-and-release-of-phosphate-from-water
#12
Sarah M Harris, Jamie T Nguyen, Sylvie L Pailloux, Jarrett P Mansergh, Mark J Dresel, Tran B Swanholm, Tuo Gao, Valérie C Pierre
The ability of complexes of hard and labile metal ions with one or more open coordination sites to capture phosphates with high affinity and selectivity directly in water at neutral pH and release them under acidic conditions is evaluated with Gadolinium- 2,2',2''-(((nitrilotris(ethane-2,1-diyl))tris(azanediyl))tris(carbonyl))tris(4-oxo-4H-pyran-3-olate) (Gd-TREN-MAM). This model lanthanide complex has two open coordination sites that, at neutral pH, are filled with water molecules. In water at neutral pH, Gd-TREN-MAM binds phosphate with high affinity (Ka = 1...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373488/popping-out-mx-cassettes-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
John H McCusker
MX cassettes are frequently used to generate knockout (KO) mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recycling or "popping out" of an MX cassette flanked by direct repeats allows the same cassette to be reused in a strain to generate additional KO mutations. Popping out MX cassettes also eliminates MX homology in a strain, which facilitates the subsequent generation of additional KO mutations with other MX cassettes. MX cassettes can be recycled or "popped out" of the genome by spontaneous recombination between large, cassette-borne MX3 or PR direct repeats and by Cre-mediated, site-specific recombination between small, cassette-borne loxP direct repeats...
April 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368055/coordination-chemistry-in-the-design-of-heterogeneous-photocatalysts
#14
REVIEW
Chao Gao, Jin Wang, Hangxun Xu, Yujie Xiong
Heterogeneous catalysts have been widely used for photocatalysis, which is a highly important process for energy conversion, owing to their merits such as easy separation of catalysts from the reaction products and applicability to continuous chemical industry and recyclability. Yet, homogenous photocatalysis receives tremendous attention as it can offer a higher activity and selectivity with atomically dispersed catalytic sites and tunable light absorption. For this reason, there is a major trend to combine the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysts, in which coordination chemistry plays a role as the bridge...
April 3, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358486/separation-of-semiconducting-carbon-nanotubes-for-flexible-and-stretchable-electronics-using-polymer-removable-method
#15
Ting Lei, Igor Pochorovski, Zhenan Bao
Electronics that are soft, conformal, and stretchable are highly desirable for wearable electronics, prosthetics, and robotics. Among the various available electronic materials, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their network have exhibited high mechanical flexibility and stretchability, along with comparable electrical performance to traditional rigid materials, e.g. polysilicon and metal oxides. Unfortunately, SWNTs produced en masse contain a mixture of semiconducting (s-) and metallic (m-) SWNTs, rendering them unsuitable for electronic applications...
March 30, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351917/rna-sequencing-identifies-new-rnase-iii-cleavage-sites-in-escherichia-coli-and-reveals-increased-regulation-of-mrna
#16
Gina C Gordon, Jeffrey C Cameron, Brian F Pfleger
Ribonucleases facilitate rapid turnover of RNA, providing cells with another mechanism to adjust transcript and protein levels in response to environmental conditions. While many examples have been documented, a comprehensive list of RNase targets is not available. To address this knowledge gap, we compared levels of RNA sequencing coverage of Escherichia coli and a corresponding RNase III mutant to expand the list of known RNase III targets. RNase III is a widespread endoribonuclease that binds and cleaves double-stranded RNA in many critical transcripts...
March 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330236/xylanase-production-from-penicillium-citrinum-isolate-hzn13-using-response-surface-methodology-and-characterization-of-immobilized-xylanase-on-glutaraldehyde-activated-calcium-alginate-beads
#17
Zabin K Bagewadi, Sikandar I Mulla, Yogesh Shouche, Harichandra Z Ninnekar
The present study reports the production of high-level cellulase-free xylanase from Penicillium citrinum isolate HZN13. The variability in xylanase titers was assessed under both solid-state (SSF) and submerged (SmF) fermentation. SSF was initially optimized with different agro-waste residues, among them sweet sorghum bagasse was found to be the best substrate that favored maximum xylanase production (9643 U/g). Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology employing central composite design were used to optimize the process parameters for the production of xylanase under SSF...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326626/preparation-and-evaluation-of-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-selective-recognition-and-adsorption-of-gossypol
#18
Keke Zhi, Lulu Wang, Yagang Zhang, Xuemin Zhang, Letao Zhang, Li Liu, Jun Yao, Wei Xiang
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were designed and prepared via bulk thermal polymerization with gossypol as the template molecule and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate as the functional monomer. The morphology and microstructures of MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas. Static adsorption tests were performed to evaluate adsorption behavior of gossypol by the MIPs. It was found that adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms data of MIPs for gossypol were fit well with the pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich model, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320621/global-reverse-supply-chain-design-for-solid-waste-recycling-under-uncertainties-and-carbon-emission-constraint
#19
Zhitao Xu, Adel Elomri, Shaligram Pokharel, Qin Zhang, X G Ming, Wenjie Liu
The emergence of concerns over environmental protection, resource conservation as well as the development of logistics operations and manufacturing technology has led several countries to implement formal collection and recycling systems of solid waste. Such recycling system has the benefits of reducing environmental pollution, boosting the economy by creating new jobs, and generating income from trading the recyclable materials. This leads to the formation of a global reverse supply chain (GRSC) of solid waste...
March 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319019/recycling-of-metals-from-pretreated-waste-printed-circuit-boards-effectively-in-stirred-tank-reactor-by-a-moderately-thermophilic-culture
#20
Ming-Chen Xia, Ya-Ping Wang, Tang-Jian Peng, Li Shen, Run-Lan Yu, Yuan-Dong Liu, Miao Chen, Jiao-Kun Li, Xue-Ling Wu, Wei-Min Zeng
To seek a feasible technique for processing waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), pretreatment of PCBs by table separation and further bioleached by moderate thermophiles in a stirred tank reactor were investigated. The shaking table separation, conducted after grinding and sieving of PCBs, produced two fractions: metal-rich parts (RPCBs), which is more suitable for pyrometallurgy process than untreated PCBs, and metal-poor parts (PPCBs) with only 8.83% metals was then bioleached by a mixed culture of moderate thermophiles effectively...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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