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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412098/supply-and-demand-of-some-critical-metals-and-present-status-of-their-recycling-in-weee
#1
REVIEW
Shengen Zhang, Yunji Ding, Bo Liu, Chein-Chi Chang
New development and technological innovations make electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) more functional by using an increasing number of metals, particularly the critical metals (e.g. rare and precious metals) with specialized properties. As millions of people in emerging economies adopt a modern lifestyle, the demand for critical metals is soaring. However, the increasing demand causes the crisis of their supply because of their simple deficiency in the Earth's crust or geopolitical constraints which might create political issues for their supply...
April 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392121/development-of-new-materials-from-waste-electrical-and-electronic-equipment-characterization-and-catalytic-application
#2
J P Souza, P E Freitas, L D Almeida, M G Rosmaninho
Wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represent an important environmental problem, since its composition includes heavy metals and organic compounds used as flame-retardants. Thermal treatments have been considered efficient processes on removal of these compounds, producing carbonaceous structures, which, together with the ceramic components of the WEEE (i.e. silica and alumina), works as support material for the metals. This mixture, associated with the metals present in WEEE, represents promising systems with potential for catalytic application...
April 6, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353257/waste-printed-circuit-board-pcb-recycling-techniques
#3
REVIEW
Chao Ning, Carol Sze Ki Lin, David Chi Wai Hui, Gordon McKay
With the development of technologies and the change of consumer attitudes, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is increasing annually. As the core part of WEEE, the waste printed circuit board (WPCB) is a dangerous waste but at the same time a rich resource for various kinds of materials. In this work, various WPCB treatment methods as well as WPCB recycling techniques divided into direct treatment (landfill and incineration), primitive recycling technology (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and primitive full recovery of NMF-non metallic fraction), and advanced recycling technology (mechanical separation, direct use and modification of NMF) are reviewed and analyzed based on their advantages and disadvantages...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347586/recycling-of-indium-from-waste-lcd-a-promising-non-crushing-leaching-with-the-aid-of-ultrasonic-wave
#4
Kaihua Zhang, Bin Li, Yufeng Wu, Wei Wang, Rubing Li, Yi-Nan Zhang, Tieyong Zuo
The tremendous amount of end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCDs) has become one of the prominent sources of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in recent years. Despite the necessity of safe treatment, recycling indium is also a focus of waste LCD treatment because of the scarcity of indium. Based on the analyses of the structure of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass, crushing is demonstrated to be not required. In the present research, a complete non-crushing leaching method was firstly adopted to recycle indium from waste LCDs, and the ultrasonic waves was applied in the leaching process...
March 25, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318965/the-social-benefits-of-weee-re-use-schemes-a-cost-benefit-analysis-for-pcs-in-spain
#5
Xose Manuel González, Miguel Rodríguez, Yolanda Pena-Boquete
One goal of the new European legislation set out in WEEE Directive 2012/19/UE is the promotion of WEEE re-use schemes. However, some authors are rather sceptical about the contribution of WEEE re-use schemes to improve resource efficiency. In order to evaluate and to design adequate policy instruments, some authors recommend the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a compulsory first step. In this context, the main contribution of this paper is to enlarge the empirical literature by providing a CBA of re-use schemes versus recycling processes of PCs...
March 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284143/attitude-of-the-stakeholders-involved-in-the-repair-and-second-hand-sale-of-small-household-electrical-and-electronic-equipment-case-study-in-spain
#6
María D Bovea, Victoria Pérez-Belis, Pilar Quemades-Beltrán
The European legal framework for Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) (Directive 2012/19/EU) prioritises reuse strategies against other valorisation options. Along these lines, this paper examines the awareness and perceptions of reusing small household EEE from the viewpoint of the different stakeholders involved in its end-of-life: repair centres, second-hand shops and consumers. Direct interviews were conducted in which an intended survey, designed specifically for each stakeholder, was answered by a representative sample of each one...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215971/characterization-and-inventory-of-pbdd-f-emissions-from-deca-bde-polyethylene-pe-and-metal-blends-during-the-pyrolysis-process
#7
Jun Mei, Xiuji Wang, Xiao Xiao, Ying Cai, Yuhui Tang, Pei Chen
The thermal treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is regarded as the largest potential contributor to the environmental release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Herein, the pyrolysis of decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE), polyethylene (PE) and metal blends was conducted to investigate the emission characteristics of PBDD/Fs at different thermal treatment conditions. The total yield of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) was less than that of polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) during the pyrolysis of the PE matrix and metal blends...
February 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126573/selective-separation-of-abs-pc-containing-bfrs-from-abss-mixture-of-weee-by-developing-hydrophilicity-with-zno-coating-under-microwave-treatment
#8
Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee
This study reports a simple and facile method to separate plastic wastes of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS-based plastics (blends of ABS) in waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) by froth flotation after inducing hydrophilization by ZnO coating under microwave treatment. ABS-based plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can release hazardous substances, such as hydrogen bromide and brominated dioxins, during disposal or recycling activities. ABS and ABS-based plastics are typical styrene plastics with similar properties and it is, therefore, difficult to separate them selectively for recycling...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091997/comparative-assessment-of-metallurgical-recovery-of-metals-from-electronic-waste-with-special-emphasis-on-bioleaching
#9
Anshu Priya, Subrata Hait
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the urban environment worldwide. The core component of printed circuit board (PCB) in e-waste contains a complex array of metals in rich quantity, some of which are toxic to the environment and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, the recycling of e-waste is an important aspect not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of metals for economic growth...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089397/challenges-for-critical-raw-material-recovery-from-weee-the-case-study-of-gallium
#10
Maximilian Ueberschaar, Sarah Julie Otto, Vera Susanne Rotter
Gallium and gallium compounds are more frequently used in future oriented technologies such as photovoltaics, light diodes and semiconductor technology. In the long term the supply risk is estimated to be critical. Germany is one of the major primary gallium producer, recycler of gallium from new scrap and GaAs wafer producer. Therefore, new concepts for a resource saving handling of gallium and appropriate recycling strategies have to be designed. This study focus on options for a possible recycling of gallium from waste electric and electronic equipment...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034614/system-dynamics-applied-to-closed-loop-supply-chains-of-desktops-and-laptops-in-brazil-a-perspective-for-social-inclusion-of-waste-pickers
#11
Verônica Ghisolfi, Gisele de Lorena Diniz Chaves, Renato Ribeiro Siman, Lúcia Helena Xavier
The structure of reverse logistics for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is essential to minimize the impacts of their improper disposal. In this context, the Brazilian Solid Waste Policy (BSWP) was a regulatory milestone in Brazil, submitting WEEE to the mandatory implementation of reverse logistics systems, involving the integration of waste pickers on the shared responsibility for the life cycle of products. This article aims to measure the impact of such legal incentives and the bargaining power obtained by the volume of collected waste on the effective formalization of waste pickers...
December 26, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890594/an-investigation-of-trends-in-precious-metal-and-copper-content-of-ram-modules-in-weee-implications-for-long-term-recycling-potential
#12
Rhys Gareth Charles, Peter Douglas, Ingrid Liv Hallin, Ian Matthews, Gareth Liversage
Precious metal (PM) and copper content of dynamic-RAM modules placed on the market during 1991-2008 has been analysed by AAS following comminution and acid digestion. Linear regression analysis of compositional data ordered according to sample chronology was used to identify historic temporal trends in module composition resulting from changes in manufacturing practices, and to project future trends for use in more accurate assessment of future recycling potential. DRAM was found to be 'high grade' waste with: stable levels of gold and silver over time; 80% reduction in palladium content during 1991-2008; and 0...
November 24, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836519/extended-producer-responsibility-the-impact-of-organizational-dimensions-on-weee-collection-from-households
#13
Filippo Corsini, Francesco Rizzi, Marco Frey
Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) has been the backbone of product life cycle management in Europe since the 2000s. Unfortunately, EPR implementation has multiple impacts on the supply chain and, thus, its consequences are not always easily manageable. Although several studies have explored various examples within the EU, the determinants of the effectiveness of EPR management are still not fully understood. This research seeks to bridge this gap by making use of quantitative analyses to investigate how key issues related to: WEEE Directive transposition and organizational settings adopted by each Member State, influenced the results achieved in those Member States in terms of collection from households...
January 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793304/weee-booming-for-sustainable-recycling
#14
EDITORIAL
Ata Akcil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769652/a-proposal-to-improve-e-waste-collection-efficiency-in-urban-mining-container-loading-and-vehicle-routing-problems-a-case-study-of-poland
#15
Piotr Nowakowski
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), also known as e-waste, is one of the most important waste streams with high recycling potential. Materials used in these products are valuable, but some of them are hazardous. The urban mining approach attempts to recycle as many materials as possible, so efficiency in collection is vital. There are two main methods used to collect WEEE: stationary and mobile, each with different variants. The responsibility of WEEE organizations and waste collection companies is to assure all resources required for these activities - bins, containers, collection vehicles and staff - are available, taking into account cost minimization...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769650/process-window-for-direct-recycling-of-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene-and-high-impact-polystyrene-from-electrical-and-electronic-equipment-waste
#16
Yamila V Vazquez, Silvia E Barbosa
The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves...
January 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744159/estimation-of-obsolete-cellular-phones-generation-a-case-study-of-china
#17
Xueyi Guo, Kang Yan
Rapid development of electronic technique has led to decreasing lifespan of electronic products. Meanwhile, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is rapidly growing in recent years especially in China. The generation amount of WEEE is one of the basic information for waste management. In our study, the generation of obsolete cellular phones and metals containing of cellular phones were estimated from 1997 to 2025. The future average possession in per 100 inhabitants of cellular phones was predicted using logistic model...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723459/innovating-e-waste-management-from-macroscopic-to-microscopic-scales
#18
REVIEW
Xianlai Zeng, Congren Yang, Joseph F Chiang, Jinhui Li
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) has become a global problem, due to its potential environmental pollution and human health risk, and its containing valuable resources (e.g., metals, plastics). Recycling for e-waste will be a necessity, not only to address the shortage of mineral resources for electronics industry, but also to decline environmental pollution and human health risk. To systematically solve the e-waste problem, more attention of e-waste management should transfer from macroscopic to microscopic scales...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687078/where-next-on-e-waste-in-australia
#19
Artem Golev, Diego R Schmeda-Lopez, Simon K Smart, Glen D Corder, Eric W McFarland
For almost two decades waste electrical and electronic equipment, WEEE or e-waste, has been considered a growing problem that has global consequences. The value of recovered materials, primarily in precious and base metals, has prompted some parts of the world to informally and inappropriately process e-waste causing serious environmental and human health issues. Efforts in tackling this issue have been limited and in many ways unsuccessful. The global rates for formal e-waste treatment are estimated to be below the 20% mark, with the majority of end-of-life (EoL) electronic devices still ending up in the landfills or processed through rudimentary means...
December 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679968/environmental-impact-assessment-of-different-end-of-life-lcd-management-strategies
#20
Alessia Amato, Laura Rocchetti, Francesca Beolchini
The strong growth of the electrical and electronic equipment production combined with its short lifespan are causing the production of a significant amount of waste to treat. In particular, the present paper focuses on end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCDs) for their significant content of valuable materials, like plastic, glass and metals that could be recovered after dismantling. In the recent literature, traditional LCD recycling processes are combined with innovative treatments, which allow to recover critical raw materials, such as indium...
January 2017: Waste Management
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