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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898811/modelling-the-correlations-of-e-waste-quantity-with-economic-increase
#1
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Federica Cucchiella, Idiano D'Adamo, Jinhui Li, Paolo Rosa, Sergio Terzi, Guoyin Wei, Xianlai Zeng
Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste) is regarded as one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world and is becoming an emerging issue owing to adverse consequences on the natural environment and the human health. This research article reveals the presence of a strong linear correlation among global e-waste generation and Gross Domestic Product. The obtained results indicate that the best fit for data can be reached by comparing e-waste collected volumes and GDP PPS. More in detail, an increase of 1000 GDP PPS means an additional 0...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803340/emission-characteristics-of-pbdes-during-flame-retardant-plastics-extruding-process-field-investigation-and-laboratorial-simulation
#2
Chao Deng, Ying Li, Jinhui Li, Yuan Chen, Huafen Li
Though mechanical recycling of WEEE plastics is supposed to be a promising method, PBDEs release and the resulting contamination during its processing remain unclear yet. The distribution of PBDEs pollution in production lines was investigated from two flame-retardant plastic modification plants in Southern China. This was followed by laboratory simulation experiments to characterize the emission processes. PBDEs concentrations ranged from 37 to 31,305 ng/L in cooling water and from 40,043 to 216,653 ng/g dry wt in solid samples taken during the field investigation...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757222/internet-of-things-and-big-data-as-potential-solutions-to-the-problems-in-waste-electrical-and-electronic-equipment-management-an-exploratory-study
#3
Fu Gu, Buqing Ma, Jianfeng Guo, Peter A Summers, Philip Hall
Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a vital part in solid waste management, there are still some difficult issues require attentionss. This paper investigates the potential of applying Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data as the solutions to the WEEE management problems. The massive data generated during the production, consumption and disposal of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) fits the characteristics of Big Data. Through using the state-of-the-art communication technologies, the IoT derives the WEEE "Big Data" from the life cycle of EEE, and the Big Data technologies process the WEEE "Big Data" for supporting decision making in WEEE management...
July 27, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751173/identification-and-recovery-of-rare-earth-permanent-magnets-from-waste-electrical-and-electronic-equipment
#4
A Lixandru, P Venkatesan, C Jönsson, I Poenaru, B Hall, Y Yang, A Walton, K Güth, R Gauß, O Gutfleisch
Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are a strategic material for a number of emerging technologies. They are a key component in the most energy efficient electric motors and generators, thus, they are vital for energy technologies, industrial applications and automation, and future forms of mobility. Rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, dysprosium and praseodymium are also found in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in volumes that grow with the technological evolution, and are marked as critical elements by the European Commission due to their high economic importance combined with significant supply risks...
July 24, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739025/soldering-mask-laser-removal-from-printed-circuit-boards-aiming-copper-recycling
#5
Marcus Paulo Raele, Lucas Ramos De Pretto, Denise Maria Zezell
Management of waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a key issue for modern societies; furthermore, it contains valuable materials that can be recycled, especially in printed circuit boards (PCB), which have approximately one-third of their weight in copper. In this study we demonstrated the use of laser to strip the covering soldering mask on PCB's, thus exposing the copper underneath so that extraction techniques may take place. Using a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064nm and 532nm we tested the procedure under different energy conditions...
July 21, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685328/generation-of-domestic-waste-electrical-and-electronic-equipment-on-fernando-de-noronha-island-qualitative-and-quantitative-aspects
#6
Dhiego Raphael Rodrigues Araujo, José Diego de Oliveira, Vanice Fragoso Selva, Maisa Mendonça Silva, Simone Machado Santos
The accelerated growth trajectory of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a matter of concern for governments worldwide. In developing countries, the problem is more complex because municipal waste management is still a challenge for municipalities. Fernando de Noronha Island, an environmentally protected area, has a transfer station for solid waste before it is sent to the final destination abroad, which is different waste management model to most urban areas. In order to check the specifics of management of WEEE, this study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the generation of this type of waste on the main island of Fernando de Noronha, taking into consideration aspects related to consumption habits and handling of waste...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669496/using-choice-architecture-to-exploit-a-university-distinct-urban-mine
#7
REVIEW
Xavier Pierron, Ian D Williams, Peter J Shaw, Victoria Cleaver
There are widespread concerns regarding the potential future scarcity of ferrous and non-ferrous materials. However, there are already potentially rich reserves of secondary materials via high ownership of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) in economically-developed nations. Young people are particularly high consumers of EEE, thus university students and campuses may present an opportunity to harness this potential. University Distinct Urban Mines (DUM) may be used to exemplify how potential reserves of secondary metals may be exploited, and could contribute to the transition from a linear to a circular economy...
June 29, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636053/evidence-of-bad-recycling-practices-bfrs-in-children-s-toys-and-food-contact-articles
#8
A Guzzonato, F Puype, S J Harrad
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used intentionally in a wide range of plastics, but are now found in an even wider range of such materials (including children's toys and food contact articles) as a result of recycling practices that mix BFR-containing waste plastics with "virgin" materials. In this study Br was quantified in toy and food contact samples on the assumption that its concentration can be used as a metric for BFR contamination. Subsequently, compound specific determination of BFRs was performed to evaluate the validity of the aforementioned assumption, crucial to render rapid, inexpensive, in situ Br determination in non-laboratory environments (such as waste handling facilities) a viable option for sorting wastes according to their BFR content...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587804/extraction-of-lead-from-waste-crt-funnel-glass-by-generating-lead-sulfide-an-approach-for-electronic-waste-management
#9
Biao Hu, Wenlong Hui
Waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is the key and difficult points in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) disposal. In this paper, a novel and effective process for the detoxification and reutilization of waste CRT funnel glass was developed by generating lead sulfide precipitate via a high-temperature melting process. The central function in this process was the generation of lead sulfide, which gathered at the bottom of the crucible and was then separated from the slag. Sodium carbonate was used as a flux and reaction agent, and sodium sulfide was used as a precipitating agent...
June 3, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579144/e-waste-collection-in-italy-results-from-an-exploratory-analysis
#10
Marinella Favot, Luca Grassetti
This study looks at the performance of household electrical and electronic waste (WEEE) collection in 20 Italian regions from 2008 to 2015. The impact of several explicative variables on the results of e-waste collection is evaluated. The independent variables are socio-economic and demographic ones (age, gender, household size, education level, migration and income) along with technical-organisational variables (population density, presence of metropoles, macro regions, characteristics of the territory, percentage of household waste collected separately and number of e-waste collection points)...
May 31, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521663/towards-a-generic-procedure-for-the-detection-of-relevant-contaminants-from-waste-electric-and-electronic-equipment-weee-in-plastic-food-contact-materials-a-review-and-selection-of-key-parameters
#11
Franky Puype, Jiří Samsonek, Věra Vilímková, Šárka Kopečková, Andrea Ratiborská, Jan Knoop, Marion Egelkraut-Holtus, Markus Ortlieb, Uwe Oppermann
Recently, traces of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been detected in black plastic food-contact materials (FCMs), indicating the presence of recycled plastics, mainly coming from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) as BFRs are one of the main additives in electric applications. In order to evaluate efficiently and preliminary in situ the presence of WEEE in plastic FCMs, a generic procedure for the evaluation of WEEE presence in plastic FCMs by using defined parameters having each an associated importance level has been proposed...
June 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505070/characterization-of-fine-metal-particles-derived-from-shredded-weee-using-a-hyperspectral-image-system-preliminary-results
#12
Gabriele Candiani, Nicoletta Picone, Loredana Pompilio, Monica Pepe, Marcello Colledani
Waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is the fastest-growing waste stream in Europe. The large amount of electric and electronic products introduced every year in the market makes WEEE disposal a relevant problem. On the other hand, the high abundance of key metals included in WEEE has increased the industrial interest in WEEE recycling. However, the high variability of materials used to produce electric and electronic equipment makes key metals' recovery a complex task: the separation process requires flexible systems, which are not currently implemented in recycling plants...
May 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483368/microwave-assisted-pyrolysis-of-halogenated-plastics-recovered-from-waste-computers
#13
Luca Rosi, Mattia Bartoli, Marco Frediani
Microwave Assisted Pyrolysis (MAP) of the plastic fraction of Waste from Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) from end-life computers was run with different absorbers and set-ups in a multimode batch reactor. A large amount of various different liquid fractions (up to 76.6wt%) were formed together with a remarkable reduction of the solid residue (up to 14.2wt%). The liquid fractions were characterized using the following different techniques: FT-IR ATR, (1)H NMR and a quantitative GC-MS analysis. The liquid fractions showed low density and viscosity, together with a high concentration of useful chemicals such as styrene (up to 117...
May 5, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412098/supply-and-demand-of-some-critical-metals-and-present-status-of-their-recycling-in-weee
#14
REVIEW
Shengen Zhang, Yunji Ding, Bo Liu, Chein-Chi Chang
New development and technological innovations make electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) more functional by using an increasing number of metals, particularly the critical metals (e.g. rare and precious metals) with specialized properties. As millions of people in emerging economies adopt a modern lifestyle, the demand for critical metals is soaring. However, the increasing demand causes the crisis of their supply because of their simple deficiency in the Earth's crust or geopolitical constraints which might create political issues for their supply...
April 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392121/development-of-new-materials-from-waste-electrical-and-electronic-equipment-characterization-and-catalytic-application
#15
J P Souza, P E Freitas, L D Almeida, M G Rosmaninho
Wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represent an important environmental problem, since its composition includes heavy metals and organic compounds used as flame-retardants. Thermal treatments have been considered efficient processes on removal of these compounds, producing carbonaceous structures, which, together with the ceramic components of the WEEE (i.e. silica and alumina), works as support material for the metals. This mixture, associated with the metals present in WEEE, represents promising systems with potential for catalytic application...
April 6, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353257/waste-printed-circuit-board-pcb-recycling-techniques
#16
REVIEW
Chao Ning, Carol Sze Ki Lin, David Chi Wai Hui, Gordon McKay
With the development of technologies and the change of consumer attitudes, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is increasing annually. As the core part of WEEE, the waste printed circuit board (WPCB) is a dangerous waste but at the same time a rich resource for various kinds of materials. In this work, various WPCB treatment methods as well as WPCB recycling techniques divided into direct treatment (landfill and incineration), primitive recycling technology (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and primitive full recovery of NMF-non metallic fraction), and advanced recycling technology (mechanical separation, direct use and modification of NMF) are reviewed and analyzed based on their advantages and disadvantages...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347586/recycling-of-indium-from-waste-lcd-a-promising-non-crushing-leaching-with-the-aid-of-ultrasonic-wave
#17
Kaihua Zhang, Bin Li, Yufeng Wu, Wei Wang, Rubing Li, Yi-Nan Zhang, Tieyong Zuo
The tremendous amount of end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCDs) has become one of the prominent sources of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in recent years. Despite the necessity of safe treatment, recycling indium is also a focus of waste LCD treatment because of the scarcity of indium. Based on the analyses of the structure of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass, crushing is demonstrated to be not required. In the present research, a complete non-crushing leaching method was firstly adopted to recycle indium from waste LCDs, and the ultrasonic waves was applied in the leaching process...
March 25, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318965/the-social-benefits-of-weee-re-use-schemes-a-cost-benefit-analysis-for-pcs-in-spain
#18
Xose Manuel González, Miguel Rodríguez, Yolanda Pena-Boquete
One goal of the new European legislation set out in WEEE Directive 2012/19/UE is the promotion of WEEE re-use schemes. However, some authors are rather sceptical about the contribution of WEEE re-use schemes to improve resource efficiency. In order to evaluate and to design adequate policy instruments, some authors recommend the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a compulsory first step. In this context, the main contribution of this paper is to enlarge the empirical literature by providing a CBA of re-use schemes versus recycling processes of PCs...
March 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284143/attitude-of-the-stakeholders-involved-in-the-repair-and-second-hand-sale-of-small-household-electrical-and-electronic-equipment-case-study-in-spain
#19
María D Bovea, Victoria Pérez-Belis, Pilar Quemades-Beltrán
The European legal framework for Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) (Directive 2012/19/EU) prioritises reuse strategies against other valorisation options. Along these lines, this paper examines the awareness and perceptions of reusing small household EEE from the viewpoint of the different stakeholders involved in its end-of-life: repair centres, second-hand shops and consumers. Direct interviews were conducted in which an intended survey, designed specifically for each stakeholder, was answered by a representative sample of each one...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215971/characterization-and-inventory-of-pbdd-f-emissions-from-deca-bde-polyethylene-pe-and-metal-blends-during-the-pyrolysis-process
#20
Jun Mei, Xiuji Wang, Xiao Xiao, Ying Cai, Yuhui Tang, Pei Chen
The thermal treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is regarded as the largest potential contributor to the environmental release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Herein, the pyrolysis of decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE), polyethylene (PE) and metal blends was conducted to investigate the emission characteristics of PBDD/Fs at different thermal treatment conditions. The total yield of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) was less than that of polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) during the pyrolysis of the PE matrix and metal blends...
April 2017: Waste Management
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