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electronic waste

Nam Yeun Kim, Su Nyung Kim, Ok Bin Kim
Escherichia coli can hardly grow anaerobically on glycerol without exogenous electron acceptor. The formate-consuming methanogen Methanobacterium formicicum plays a role as a living electron acceptor in glycerol fermentation of E. coli. Wild-type and mutant E. coli strains were screened for succinate production using glycerol in a co-culture with M. formicicum. Subsequently, E. coli was adapted to glycerol fermentation over 39 rounds (273 days) by successive co-culture with M. formicicum. The adapted E. coli (19...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Florian A Busch, Rowan F Sage, Graham D Farquhar
Photorespiration is a major bioengineering target for increasing crop yields as it is often considered a wasteful process. Photorespiratory metabolism is integrated into leaf metabolism and thus may have certain benefits. Here, we show that plants can increase their rate of photosynthetic CO2 uptake when assimilating nitrogen de novo via the photorespiratory pathway by fixing carbon as amino acids in addition to carbohydrates. Plants fed NO3- had higher rates of CO2 assimilation under photorespiratory than low-photorespiratory conditions, while plants lacking NO3- nutrition exhibited lower stimulation of CO2 uptake...
December 11, 2017: Nature Plants
Luis A Diaz, Tedd E Lister
As the market of electronic devices continues to evolve, the waste stream generated from antiquated technology is increasingly view as an alternative to substitute primary sources of critical a value metals. Nevertheless, the sustainable recovery of materials can only be achieved by environmentally friendly processes that are economically competitive with the extraction from mineral ores. Hence, This paper presents the techno-economic assessment for a comprehensive process for the recovery of metals and critical materials from e-waste, which is based in an electrochemical recovery (ER) technology...
December 8, 2017: Waste Management
Ralph M Bolanz, Stefan Kiefer, Jörg Göttlicher, Ralph Steininger
Cerium is the most abundant rare earth element (REE) within the waste product of alumina production (red mud), but its speciation in this complex material is still barely understood. Previous studies showed evidence for a correlation between Ce and the main constituent of red mud, iron oxides, which led us to investigate the most abundant iron oxide in red mud, hematite, as possible carrier phase for Ce. Synthetic hematite can incorporate up to 1.70±0.01wt% Ce, which leads to a systematical increase of all unit cell parameters...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ting Wang, Yuening Li, Jing Zhang, Jingbo Zhao, Yan Liu, Luna Sun, Boyang Liu, Hongjun Mao, Yingchao Lin, Weizun Li, Meiting Ju, Fudong Zhu
Four different municipal solid wastes (dog manure, horse manure, apple pomace waste and tea waste) and an industrial by-product (NovoGro) were used to produce solid fuel pellets. The mixtures followed a raw material to NovoGro ratio of 50:1. The pellets diameters varied between 4 and 5 mm, and the average length was 20 mm. The dog manure, horse manure, apple pomace waste and tea waste pellets were denoted as DN, HN, AN and TN, respectively. The combustion characteristics of the pelletized fuels were investigated, such as total moisture, ash content, calorific value and ash fusion point, etc...
December 7, 2017: Waste Management
Paromita Chakraborty, Sakthivel Selvaraj, Masafumi Nakamura, Balasubramanian Prithiviraj, Alessandra Cincinelli, John J Bang
Growth of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sector is an emerging problem for India. The presence of halogenated compounds in e-wastes may result in the formation of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during recycling processes. We therefore investigated PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface soils explicitly from the informal e-waste recycling sites and nearby open dumpsites of major metropolitan cities from four corners of India, viz...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Bai Sun, Shouhui Zhu, Shuangsuo Mao, Pingping Zheng, Yudong Xia, Feng Yang, Ming Lei, Yong Zhao
An environmental-friendly, sustainable, pollution-free, biodegradable, flexible and wearable electronic device hold advanced potential applications. Here, an organic resistive switching memory device with Ag/Leaves/Ti/PET structure on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was fabricated for the first time. We observed an obvious resistive switching memory characteristic with large switching resistance ratio and stable cycle performance at room temperature. This work demonstrates that leaves, a useless waste, can be properly treated to make useful devices...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Xueling Lu, Xijin Xu, Yu Zhang, Yuling Zhang, Chenyang Wang, Xia Huo
Cardiovascular toxicity of lead (Pb) manifests primarily as an effect on blood pressure and eventual increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Therefore, we investigated vascular inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular effects of Pb-exposed children. A total of 590 children (3-7 years old) were recruited from Guiyu (n = 337), an electronic waste (e-waste)-exposed group, and Haojiang (n = 253), a reference group, from November to December 2016. We measured child blood Pb levels (BPbs), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Peter J McGlynn, Andre μΝ Renzaho, Minh D Pham, Mike Toole, Jane Fisher, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Undernutrition remains a significant cause of childhood illness, poor growth, development, and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Studies on child nutritional outcomes in PNG vary by design, measurement protocols and quality. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the prevalence of child undernutrition across different study populations, geographical locations and time periods. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Six electronic databases and additional grey literature were searched for articles describing the nutritional status by wasting, stunting and underweight, of PNG children under five years of age, published between 1990 and April 2015...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hong Yang, Mingguo Ma, Julian R Thompson, Roger J Flower
With rapid population growth, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, the generation of waste is increasing at an unprecedented rate. For example, annual global waste arising from waste electrical and electronic equipment alone will have increased from 33.8 to 49.8 million tonnes between 2010 and 2018. Despite incineration and other waste treatment techniques, landfill still dominates waste disposal in low-income and middle-income countries. There is usually insufficient funding for adequate waste management in these countries and uptake of more advanced waste treatment technologies is poor...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Debbie Benner, Steven M Brunelli, Becky Brosch, Jane Wheeler, Allen R Nissenson
OBJECTIVE: Protein-energy wasting is common in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis and is strongly associated with mortality and adverse outcomes. Intradialytic oral nutritional supplements (ONS) reduce risk of mortality in these patients. Large studies characterizing the impact of ONS on other outcomes are lacking. We assessed the associations between administration of ONS and clinical and nutritional outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of a pilot program providing ONS to patients at a large dialysis organization in the United States...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Joshana K Goga, Antonio Depaolo, Sunil Khushalani, J Ken Walters, Robert Roca, Marc Zisselman, Christopher Borleis
OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate the Effects of Applying Lean Methodology-Improving Quality Increasing Efficiency by Eliminating Waste and Reducing Costs-An Approach To Decrease the Prescribing Frequency of Antipsychotics for The Indication of Agitation. DESIGN: Historically Controlled Study. SETTING: Bheppard Pratt Health System is the Largest Private Provider of Psychiatric Care in Maryland With a Total Bed Capacity of 300. There Were 4 337 Patient Days From November 1 2012 to October 31 2013 on the Dementia Unit...
January 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Reza Farmahin, Doug Crump
Tetradecabromo-1,4-diphenoxybenzene (TeDB-DiPhOBz) and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) are flame retardant chemicals that can undergo photolytic degradation. The present study compared the time-dependent photolyic degradation of TeDB-DiPhOBz and BDE-209, and dioxin-like product formation as a result of (UV) irradiation (I; irradiation time periods of 0, 1, 4, 15 and 40 days). Photo-degraded product fractions of UV-I-TeDB-DiPhOBz (nominal concentration: 1.9 μM) were administered to chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH), and significant induction of CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression was observed for fractions collected at the day 15 and 40 time points (fold change of 7...
November 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Govind D Vyavahare, Ranjit G Gurav, Pooja P Jadhav, Ravishankar R Patil, Chetan B Aware, Jyoti P Jadhav
In the present study, sorption and detoxification of malachite green (MG) dye was executed using biochar resulting after pyrolysis of agro-industrial waste at 400, 600 and 800 °C. Maximum sorption of MG dye (3000 mg/L) was observed on the sugarcane bagasse biochar (SCB) prepared at 800 °C. The interactive effects of different factors like dye concentration, time, pH and temperature on sorption of MG dye were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Optimum MG dye concentration, contact time, temperature and pH predicted through Box-Behnken based RSM model were 3000 mg/L MG dye, 51...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Reid A Peterson, Edgar C Buck, Jaehun Chun, Richard C Daniel, Daniel L Herting, Eugene S Ilton, Gregg J Lumetta, Sue B Clark
This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Margaret L Compton, Penny C Szklarski, Garrett S Booth
CONTEXT: - In the United States, approximately 65 billion dollars is spent per year on clinical laboratory testing, of which 20% to 30% of all testing is deemed inappropriate. There have been multiple studies in the field of transfusion medicine regarding evidence-based transfusion practices, but limited data exist regarding inappropriate pretransfusion testing and its financial and clinical implications. OBJECTIVE: - To assess duplicative testing practices in the transfusion medicine service...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Francois Renard, Christine V Putnis, German Montes-Hernandez, Helen E King, Gijs D Breedveld, Gudny Okkenhaug
Antimony, which has damaging effects on the human body and the ecosystem, can be released into soils, ground- and surface waters either from ore minerals that weather in near surface environments, or due to anthropogenic releases from waste rich in antimony, a component used in batteries, electronics, ammunitions, plastics and many other industrial applications. Here, we show that dissolved Sb can interact with calcite, a widespread carbonate mineral, through a coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. The process is imaged in-situ, at room temperature, at the nanometer scale by using an atomic force microscope equipped with a flow-through cell...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yueqiang Yu, Yanling Guo, Ting Jiang, Jian Li, Kaiyi Jiang, Hui Zhang
To alleviate resource shortage, reduce the cost of materials consumption and the pollution of agricultural and forestry waste, walnut shell composites (WSPC) consisting of walnut shell as additive and copolyester hot melt adhesive (Co-PES) as binder was developed as the feedstock of selective laser sintering (SLS). WSPC parts with different ingredient proportions were fabricated by SLS and processed through after-treatment technology. The density, mechanical properties and surface quality of WSPC parts before and after post processing were analyzed via formula method, mechanical test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively...
December 2, 2017: Materials
Paolo Tecchio, Catriona McAlister, Fabrice Mathieux, Fulvio Ardente
The aspiration of a circular economy is to shift material flows toward a zero waste and pollution production system. The process of shifting to a circular economy has been initiated by the European Commission in their action plan for the circular economy. The EU Ecodesign Directive is a key policy in this transition. However, to date the focus of access to market requirements on products has primarily been upon energy efficiency. The absence of adequate metrics and standards has been a key barrier to the inclusion of resource efficiency requirements...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cleaner Production
V Funari, L Mantovani, L Vigliotti, M Tribaudino, E Dinelli, R Braga
During their production, management, and landfilling, bottom (BA) and fly (FA) ashes from municipal solid waste incineration may liberate Fe-bearing, ultrafine particles and easily enter different environmental sinks of the biosphere. We aim to explore a collection of BA and FA samples from Italian incinerators to probe magnetic mineralogy and the fraction of harmful superparamagnetic (SP) nanoparticles (d<30nm). X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy observation, temperature- and frequency-dependent magnetometry, and Mossbauer analysis are performed...
November 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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