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EBV, Cancer

Scott Whitehouse, Pei-Lin Chen, Anna L Greenshields, Mat Nightingale, David W Hoskin, Karen Bedard
BACKGROUND: Many plant-derived chemicals have been studied for their potential benefits in ailments including inflammation, cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease. The health benefits of phytochemicals are often attributed to the targeting of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is not always clear whether these agents act directly as antioxidants to remove ROS, or whether they act indirectly by blocking ROS production by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes, or by influencing the expression of cellular pro- and anti- oxidants...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Jeni Staykova, Tanja Belovska, Ayla Murad, Sevinch Kakid, Aneta Nacheva, Evelina Shikova
AIM: Although sexually transmitted viral infections are significant and increasing public health concern, little is known about their prevalence among Bulgarian women. The aim of this study was to investigate cervical viral infections in asymptomatic women. METHODS: The study group included 52 randomly selected asymptomatic female volunteers from Bulgarian border town Kardzhali. Cervical specimens were tested by real-time PCR for human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Kevin Cheeseman, Gabriela Certad, Jonathan B Weitzman
Over 20 % of cancers have infectious origins, including well-known examples of microbes such as viruses (HPV, EBV) and bacteria (H. pylori). The contribution of intracellular eukaryotic parasites to cancer etiology is largely unexplored. Epidemiological and clinical reports indicate that eukaryotic protozoan, such as intracellular apicomplexan that cause diseases of medical or economic importance, can be linked to various cancers: Theileria and Cryptosporidium induce host cell transformation while Plasmodium was linked epidemiologically to the "African lymphoma belt" over fifty years ago...
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Hoyun Choi, Suk Kyeong Lee
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNA molecules approximately 19 to 25 nucleotides in length that downregulate the expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) generates at least 44 miRNAs, but the functions of most of these miRNAs have not yet been identified. Previously, we reported BRUCE as a target of miR-BART15-3p, a miRNA produced by EBV, but our data suggested that there might be other apoptosis-associated target genes of miR-BART15-3p...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Virology
Antonino Carbone, Chiara C Volpi, Ambra V Gualeni, Annunziata Gloghini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the association of the different histotypes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas with known genetic lesions and/or oncogenic viruses. A more comprehensive understanding of the complex interplay existing between genetic abnormalities of tumor cells and the viral contribution to the development of EBV-associated lymphomas is pivotal for the development of more effective treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that HIV may contribute to lymphomagenesis by acting directly on B lymphocytes as a critical microenvironmental factor...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Zhaohui Jin, Harry H Yoon
Preliminary clinical studies of anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1) therapy in gastro-esophageal cancers have suggested promising single-agent activity. In patients who received prior treatment for advanced disease, pembrolizumab has been associated with a response rate of 20% in programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive tumors, and nivolumab with a response rate of 12% in unselected tumors. Both agents yielded a median duration of response lasting ~6-7 months. PD-L1 expression and microsatellite instability (MSI) have emerged as potential predictive markers for PD-1/PD-L1 blockade...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Ha Young Woo, Yoon Sung Bae, Jie-Hyun Kim, Sang Kil Lee, Yong Chan Lee, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sung Hoon Noh, Hyunki Kim
BACKGROUND: Gastric "crawling-type" adenocarcinoma (CRA) is a tumor histologically characterized by irregularly fused glands with low-grade cellular atypia that tends to spread laterally in the mucosa. To date, the expression characteristics of the key molecules involved in CRA, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), as well as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status, have yet to be uncovered. METHODS: We constructed tissue microarrays of 94 CRAs, 72 conventional-type differentiated adenocarcinomas (CDAs), and 71 intramucosal poorly cohesive adenocarcinomas (PCAs) from early gastric cancers to evaluate and compare the pathological and expression profiles of potential key molecules for molecular classification (EBV; four MMR proteins-MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6; three RTKs-HER2, MET, and EGFR; PTEN; and p53)...
October 12, 2016: Gastric Cancer
Congqi Dai, Ruixuan Geng, Chenchen Wang, Angela Wong, Min Qing, Jianjun Hu, Yu Sun, A W I Lo, Jin Li
Checkpoint blockade therapy has emerged as a novel approach for cancer immunotherapy in several malignancies. However, patient prognosis and disease progression relevant to immune checkpoints in gastric tumor microenvironment are not defined. This study aims to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of immune checkpoints within gastric cancer. In the study, a cohort of 398 cancer tissues from stage I to IV gastric cancer patients were assessed for programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) infiltration using immunohistochemistry to ascertain their survival correlation...
September 24, 2016: Molecular Oncology
Junguo Wang, Fang Mei, Xia Gao, Shoulin Wang
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating from the nasopharynx, and can be induced by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). To study the mechanisms of EBV-associated NPC, a microarray of the GSE12452 dataset was analyzed. GSE12452 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and consisted of 31 NPC samples and 10 normal healthy nasopharyngeal tissue samples. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the linear models for microarray data package in R. Using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software, potential functions of the DEGs were predicted by Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Manuel Albanese, Takanobu Tagawa, Mickaël Bouvet, Liridona Maliqi, Dominik Lutter, Jonathan Hoser, Maximilian Hastreiter, Mitch Hayes, Bill Sugden, Larissa Martin, Andreas Moosmann, Wolfgang Hammerschmidt
Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) affects most humans worldwide and persists life-long in the presence of robust virus-specific T-cell responses. In both immunocompromised and some immunocompetent people, EBV causes several cancers and lymphoproliferative diseases. EBV transforms B cells in vitro and encodes at least 44 microRNAs (miRNAs), most of which are expressed in EBV-transformed B cells, but their functions are largely unknown. Recently, we showed that EBV miRNAs inhibit CD4(+) T-cell responses to infected B cells by targeting IL-12, MHC class II, and lysosomal proteases...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is >90% EBV-associated when this pediatric cancer is diagnosed in regions heavily burden by endemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria and thus has been geographically classified as endemic BL. The incidence of endemic BL is 10-fold higher compared to BL diagnosed in non-malarious regions of the world. The other forms of BL have been classified as sporadic BL which contain EBV in ∼30% of cases and immunodeficiency BL which occurs in HIV-infected adults with ∼40% of tumors containing EBV...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Lawrence S Young, Lee Fah Yap, Paul G Murray
It is more than 50 years since the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the first human tumour virus, was discovered. EBV has subsequently been found to be associated with a diverse range of tumours of both lymphoid and epithelial origin. Progress in the molecular analysis of EBV has revealed fundamental mechanisms of more general relevance to the oncogenic process. This Timeline article highlights key milestones in the 50-year history of EBV and discusses how this virus provides a paradigm for exploiting insights at the molecular level in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cancer...
September 30, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Amber Shatzer, Mir A Ali, Mayra Chavez, Kennichi Dowdell, Min-Jung Lee, Yusuke Tomita, Iman El-Hariry, Jane B Trepel, David A Proia, Jeffrey I Cohen
HSP90 inhibitors have been shown to kill Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells by reducing the level of EBV EBNA-1 and/or LMP1. We treated virus-infected cells with ganetespib, an HSP90 inhibitor currently being evaluated in multiple clinical trials for cancer and found that the drug killed EBV-positive B and T cells and reduced the level of both EBV EBNA-1 and LMP1. Treatment of cells with ganetespib also reduced the level of pAkt. Ganetespib delayed the onset of EBV-positive lymphomas and prolonged survival in SCID mice inoculated with one EBV-transformed B-cell line, but not another B-cell line...
August 11, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Hwan Hee Lee, Seulki Lee, Yu Su Shin, Miyeon Cho, Hyojeung Kang, Hyosun Cho
Licorice extracts have been widely used in herbal and folk medications. Glycyrrhiza contains diverse range of biological compounds including triterpenes (glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, licoricidin, isoliquiritigenin). The flavonoids in licorice are known to have strong anti-cancer activities. Quercetin, the most abundant flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can lead to serious malignancies, such as, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease and gastric carcinoma(GC), and (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) EBVaGC is one of the most common EBV-associated cancers...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá, Abigail Morales-Sánchez
EBV-associated Gastric Cancer (EBVaGC) comprises about 9% of all cases of GC and constitutes a distinct clinicopathological and molecular entity. The pattern of viral expression in EBVaGC cannot be set to any of the previously EBV-associated malignancies. Several lines of evidence support that viral expression in EBVaGC is characterized by high transcription of the BamH1-A rightward transcript (BART), low-levels of EBNA-1 and lack of LMP1. The high transcription activity of the BamH1-A region is importantly directed to express BART miRNAs, supporting a critical role for these miRNAs during epithelial cell infection and carcinogenesis...
September 26, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Hong Zheng, Wei Dai, Arthur Kwok Leung Cheung, Josephine Mun Yee Ko, Rebecca Kan, Bonnie Wing Yan Wong, Merrin Man Long Leong, Mingdan Deng, Tommy Chin Tung Kwok, Jimmy Yu-Wai Chan, Dora Lai-Wan Kwong, Anne Wing-Mui Lee, Wai Tong Ng, Roger Kai Cheong Ngan, Chun Chung Yau, Stewart Tung, Victor Ho-Fun Lee, Ka-On Lam, Chung Kong Kwan, Wing Sum Li, Stephen Yau, Kwok-Wah Chan, Maria Li Lung
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy with a unique geographical distribution. The genomic abnormalities leading to NPC pathogenesis remain unclear. In total, 135 NPC tumors were examined to characterize the mutational landscape using whole-exome sequencing and targeted resequencing. An APOBEC cytidine deaminase mutagenesis signature was revealed in the somatic mutations. Noticeably, multiple loss-of-function mutations were identified in several NF-κB signaling negative regulators NFKBIA, CYLD, and TNFAIP3 Functional studies confirmed that inhibition of NFKBIA had a significant impact on NF-κB activity and NPC cell growth...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hayriye Tatlı Doğan, Aydan Kılıçarslan, Mehmet Doğan, Nuran Süngü, Gaye Güler Tezel, Gülnur Güler
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Human papilloma virus (HPV) has also been detected in NPC cases. In this retrospective study, we analyze the frequency of EBV and HPV infection in 82 Turkish patients with NPC. A total of 82 were evaluated for EBV and HPV. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed for EBV. HPV-ISH and P16 immunohistochemistry used to determine the HPV status. Seventy-two of the 82 (87%) NPC patients were EBV-positive. The highest rate of EBV-positivity was found in undifferentiated NPC patients, which accounted for 65 of 68 (95...
September 3, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
Akihito Kawazoe, Takeshi Kuwata, Yasutoshi Kuboki, Kohei Shitara, Akiko Kawano Nagatsuma, Masaaki Aizawa, Takayuki Yoshino, Toshihiko Doi, Atsushi Ohtsu, Atsushi Ochiai
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have recently demonstrated promising results in gastric cancer (GC). PD-L1 expression, the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency have been proposed as predictive biomarkers for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of PD-L1 expression with TIL, MMR, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status in GC...
September 14, 2016: Gastric Cancer
Ivan V Litvinov, Anna Shtreis, Kenneth Kobayashi, Steven Glassman, Matthew Tsang, Anders Woetmann, Denis Sasseville, Niels Ødum, Madeleine Duvic
Most skin malignancies are caused by external and often preventable environmental agents. Multiple reports demonstrated that cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) can occur in married couples and cluster in families. Furthermore, recent studies document geographic clustering of this malignancy in Texas as well as in other areas of the United States. Multiple infectious, occupational, and medication causes have been proposed as triggers or promoters of this malignancy including hydrochlorothiazide diuretics, Staphylococcus aureus, dermatophytes, Mycobacterium leprae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, human T-Cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV)...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
Anjan Saikia, Vandana Raphael, N-Brian Shunyu, Yookarin Khonglah, Jaya Mishra, Ankit-Kumar Jitani, Jayanta Medhi
INTRODUCTION: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in the North-East region of India. Though the role of environmental contributors of NPC in the North-Eastern part of India is firmly established, EBV as an etiological agent in the region remains unexplored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients, who presented at the department of ENT, NEIGRIHMS and were confirmed as NPC upon histopathological examination, were included in the study. Chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH) was used for the evaluation of EBER (Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA)...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
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