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Fixation disparity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408879/comparison-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-mri-for-the-detection-of-structural-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy
#1
Holly E Holmes, Nick M Powell, Da Ma, Ozama Ismail, Ian F Harrison, Jack A Wells, Niall Colgan, James M O'Callaghan, Ross A Johnson, Tracey K Murray, Zeshan Ahmed, Morten Heggenes, Alice Fisher, M Jorge Cardoso, Marc Modat, Michael J O'Neill, Emily C Collins, Elizabeth M C Fisher, Sébastien Ourselin, Mark F Lythgoe
With increasingly large numbers of mouse models of human disease dedicated to MRI studies, compromises between in vivo and ex vivo MRI must be fully understood in order to inform the choice of imaging methodology. We investigate the application of high resolution in vivo and ex vivo MRI, in combination with tensor-based morphometry (TBM), to uncover morphological differences in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy. The rTg4510 mouse also offers a novel paradigm by which the overexpression of mutant tau can be regulated by the administration of doxycycline, providing us with a platform on which to investigate more subtle alterations in morphology with morphometry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408128/health-disparities-in-the-appropriate-management-of-cryptorchidism
#2
Kate B Savoie, Marielena Bachier-Rodriguez, Elleson Schurtz, Elizabeth A Tolley, Dana Giel, Alexander Feliz
OBJECTIVE: To assess regional practices in management of cryptorchidism with regard to timely fixation by the current recommended age of 18 months. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed. Charts of all patients who underwent surgical correction for cryptorchidism by a pediatric general surgeon or urologist within a tertiary pediatric hospital in an urban setting were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: We identified 1209 patients with cryptorchidism...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350382/a-dataset-of-stereoscopic-images-and-ground-truth-disparity-mimicking-human-fixations-in-peripersonal-space
#3
Andrea Canessa, Agostino Gibaldi, Manuela Chessa, Marco Fato, Fabio Solari, Silvio P Sabatini
Binocular stereopsis is the ability of a visual system, belonging to a live being or a machine, to interpret the different visual information deriving from two eyes/cameras for depth perception. From this perspective, the ground-truth information about three-dimensional visual space, which is hardly available, is an ideal tool both for evaluating human performance and for benchmarking machine vision algorithms. In the present work, we implemented a rendering methodology in which the camera pose mimics realistic eye pose for a fixating observer, thus including convergent eye geometry and cyclotorsion...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317909/the-active-side-of-stereopsis-fixation-strategy-and-adaptation-to-natural-environments
#4
Agostino Gibaldi, Andrea Canessa, Silvio P Sabatini
Depth perception in near viewing strongly relies on the interpretation of binocular retinal disparity to obtain stereopsis. Statistical regularities of retinal disparities have been claimed to greatly impact on the neural mechanisms that underlie binocular vision, both to facilitate perceptual decisions and to reduce computational load. In this paper, we designed a novel and unconventional approach in order to assess the role of fixation strategy in conditioning the statistics of retinal disparity. We integrated accurate realistic three-dimensional models of natural scenes with binocular eye movement recording, to obtain accurate ground-truth statistics of retinal disparity experienced by a subject in near viewing...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245490/gaze-behavior-during-3-d-face-identification-is-depth-cue-invariant
#5
Hassan Akhavein, Reza Farivar
Gaze behavior during scene and object recognition can highlight the relevant information for a task. For example, salience maps-highlighting regions that have heightened luminance, contrast, color, etc. in a scene-can be used to predict gaze targets. Certain tasks, such as face recognition, result in a typical pattern of fixations on high salience features. While local salience of a 2-D feature may contribute to gaze behavior and object recognition, we are perfectly capable of recognizing objects from 3-D depth cues devoid of meaningful 2-D features...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192091/the-influence-of-age-on-adaptation-of-disparity-vergence-and-phoria
#6
Tara L Alvarez, Eun H Kim, Chang Yaramothu, Bérangère Granger-Donetti
A paucity of research exists to investigate whether the normal aging process influences the ability to adapt disparity vergence and phoria. Vergence eye movements and dissociated phoria were recorded from 49 healthy subjects (ages 20-70years) using an objective eye movement tracking system. Four-degree vergence responses were modified using a double-step protocol. Dynamics of vergence were quantified via peak velocity. The phoria adaptation experiment measured the magnitude (net change in phoria level) and rate (magnitude divided by the time constant) of phoria adaption during 5min of sustained fixation on a binocular target (40cm/8...
February 16, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135308/individual-objective-and-subjective-fixation-disparity-in-near-vision
#7
Wolfgang Jaschinski
Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100751/decision-related-activity-in-macaque-v2-for-fine-disparity-discrimination-is-not-compatible-with-optimal-linear-readout
#8
Stephane Clery, Bruce G Cumming, Hendrikje Nienborg
Fine judgments of stereoscopic depth rely mainly on relative judgments of depth (relative binocular disparity) between objects, rather than judgments of the distance to where the eyes are fixating (absolute disparity). In macaques, visual area V2 is the earliest site in the visual processing hierarchy for which neurons selective for relative disparity have been observed (Thomas et al., 2002). Here, we found that, in macaques trained to perform a fine disparity discrimination task, disparity-selective neurons in V2 were highly selective for the task, and their activity correlated with the animals' perceptual decisions (unexplained by the stimulus)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094189/medicaid-payer-status-is-linked-to-increased-rates-of-complications-after-treatment-of-proximal-humerus-fractures
#9
Vani J Sabesan, Graysen Petersen-Fitts, Daniel Lombardo, Daniel Briggs, James Whaley
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status and Medicaid insurance as a primary payer have been associated with major disparities in resource utilization and risk-adjusted outcomes for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. With the expansion of Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act in 2014, examination of these disparities has become increasingly relevant for the treatment of proximal humerus fracture (PHF). METHODS: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to identify patients who were treated for PHF from 2002 to 2012...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002220/postoperative-computed-tomography-for-articular-fractures-a-systematic-review
#10
Samantha Stott, Zsolt J Balogh
OBJECTIVES: To determine the current published patterns of computed tomography (CT) use postoperatively in peri-articular fractures and identify those populations whereby postoperative CT changes management or results in better clinical outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Systematic review of MEDLINE and Cochrane using a combination of key words, including fracture fixation, fracture healing, and computed tomography. The final update search was performed on May 20, 2015. The search was limited to English language publications of human studies from the past 20 years...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943121/the-effects-of-the-binocular-disparity-differences-between-targets-and-maskers-on-visual-search
#11
Ya-Yue Gao, Bruce Schneider, Liang Li
A visual search for targets is facilitated when the target objects are on a different depth plane than other masking objects cluttering the scene. The ability of observers to determine whether one of four letters presented stereoscopically at four symmetrically located positions on the fixation plane differed from the other three was assessed when the target letters were masked by other randomly positioned and oriented letters appearing on the same depth plane as the target letters, or in front, or behind it...
December 9, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927698/decision-related-activity-in-macaque-v2-for-fine-disparity-discrimination-is-not-compatible-with-optimal-linear-read-out
#12
Stephane Clery, Bruce G Cumming, Hendrikje Nienborg
Fine judgments of stereoscopic depth rely mainly on relative judgments of depth (relative binocular disparity) between objects, rather than judgments of the distance to where the eyes are fixating (absolute disparity). In macaques, visual area V2 is the earliest site in the visual processing hierarchy for which neurons selective for relative disparity have been observed (Thomas et al, 2002). Here, we found that in macaques trained to perform a fine disparity discrimination task, disparity selective neurons in V2 were highly selective for the task, and their activity correlated with the animals' perceptual decisions (unexplained by the stimulus)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776360/motion-induced-position-shift-in-stereoscopic-and-dichoptic-viewing
#13
Rumi Hisakata, Daisuke Hayashi, Ikuya Murakami
The static envelope of a Gabor patch with a moving sinusoidal carrier appears shifted in the direction of the carrier motion (De Valois & De Valois, 1991). This phenomenon is called motion-induced position shift. Although several motion-processing stages, ranging from low- to high-level processes, may contribute to position estimation, it is unknown whether a binocular matching stage or an even earlier stage exerts an influence. To elucidate this matter, we investigated the disparity tuning of this illusion by manipulating the binocular disparities of the carrier and the envelope...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761718/gene-migration-for-re-emerging-amebiasis-in-iran-s-northwest-iraq-borders-a-microevolutionary-scale-for-reflecting-epidemiological-drift-of-entamoeba-histolytica-metapopulations
#14
Asad Mohammadzadeh, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Ali Haghighi, Nozhat Zebardast, Kobra Kohansal
In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp...
January 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756738/trials-based-on-specific-fracture-configuration-and-surgical-procedures-likely-to-be-more-relevant-for-decision-making-in-the-management-of-fractures-of-the-proximal-humerus-findings-of-a-meta-analysis
#15
S Sabharwal, N K Patel, D Griffiths, T Athanasiou, C M Gupte, P Reilly
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing surgical and non-surgical management of fractures of the proximal humerus, and to determine whether further analyses based on complexity of fracture, or the type of surgical intervention, produced disparate findings on patient outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all RCTs that compared surgical and non-surgical management of fractures of the proximal humerus...
October 2016: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647120/comparison-between-medial-rectus-pulley-fixation-and-augmented-recession-in-children-with-convergence-excess-and-variable-angle-infantile-esotropia
#16
Heba M Fouad, Mohamad A Abdelhakim, Ahmed Awadein, Hala Elhilali
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of medial rectus (MR) muscle pulley fixation and augmented recession in children with convergence excess esotropia and variable-angle infantile esotropia. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized interventional study in which children with convergence excess esotropia or variable-angle infantile esotropia were randomly allocated to either augmented MR muscle recession (augmented group) or MR muscle pulley posterior fixation (pulley group)...
October 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610465/catalytic-proton-coupled-electron-transfer-from-metal-hydrides-to-titanocene-amides-hydrazides-and-imides-determination-of-thermodynamic-parameters-relevant-to-nitrogen-fixation
#17
Iraklis Pappas, Paul J Chirik
The hydrogenolysis of titanium-nitrogen bonds in a series of bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium amides, hydrazides and imides by proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) is described. Twelve different N-H bond dissociation free energies (BDFEs) among the various nitrogen-containing ligands were measured or calculated, and effects of metal oxidation state and N-ligand substituent were determined. Two metal hydride complexes, (η(5)-C5Me5)(py-Ph)Rh-H (py-Ph = 2-pyridylphenyl, [Rh]-H) and (η(5)-C5R5)(CO)3Cr-H ([Cr](R)-H, R= H, Me) were evaluated for formal H atom transfer reactivity and were selected due to their relatively weak M-H bond strengths yet ability to activate and cleave molecular hydrogen...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559177/neurons-in-striate-cortex-signal-disparity-in-half-matched-random-dot-stereograms
#18
Sid Henriksen, Jenny C A Read, Bruce G Cumming
UNLABELLED: Human stereopsis can operate in dense "cyclopean" images containing no monocular objects. This is believed to depend on the computation of binocular correlation by neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). The observation that humans perceive depth in half-matched random-dot stereograms, although these stimuli have no net correlation, has led to the proposition that human depth perception in these stimuli depends on a distinct "matching" computation possibly performed in extrastriate cortex...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551571/evaluation-of-contemporary-trends-in-femoral-neck-fracture-management-reveals-discrepancies-in-treatment
#19
Julius Bishop, Arthur Yang, Michael Githens, Alex H S Sox
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence supports total hip arthroplasty (THA) as compared to hemiarthroplasty (HA) for the management of displaced femoral neck fractures in a significant subset of elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in femoral neck fracture management over the last 12 years. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified patients treated for femoral neck fractures between 1998 and 2010 with THA, HA, or internal fixation (IF)...
September 2016: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391396/radiographic-feasibility-study-of-cortical-bone-trajectory-and-traditional-pedicle-screw-dual-trajectories
#20
Jeffrey P Mullin, Breanna Perlmutter, Eric Schmidt, Edward Benzel, Michael P Steinmetz
OBJECTIVE In 2009, Santoni and colleagues described a novel technique of posterior instrumentation; the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) was described as a caudocephalad and medial-to-lateral trajectory. Reported indications for CBT fixation include patients with osteoporosis, single-level degenerative disease, or adjacent-segment disease (ASD). In cases of revision surgery, it is technically possible and beneficial to place a traditional pedicle screw and a CBT screw at the same spinal level and side. It remains unclear as to the feasibility of placing both a traditional and a CBT screw at all levels of the lumbar spine and with varying trajectories of the preexisting traditional pedicle screws...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
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