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Fixation disparity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873968/high-precision-registration-between-zebrafish-brain-atlases-using-symmetric-diffeomorphic-normalization
#1
Gregory D Marquart, Kathryn M Tabor, Eric J Horstick, Mary Brown, Alexandra K Geoca, Nicholas F Polys, Damian Dalle Nogare, Harold A Burgess
Atlases provide a framework for spatially mapping information from diverse sources into a common reference space. Specifically, brain atlases allow annotation of gene expression, cell morphology, connectivity, and activity. In larval zebrafish, advances in genetics, imaging, and computational methods now allow the collection of such information brain-wide. However, due to technical considerations, disparate datasets may use different references and may not be aligned to the same coordinate space. Two recent larval zebrafish atlases exemplify this problem: Z-Brain, containing gene expression, neural activity, and neuroanatomical segmentations, was acquired using immunohistochemical stains, while the Zebrafish Brain Browser (ZBB) was constructed from live scans of fluorescent reporters in transgenic larvae...
August 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804647/y-split-recession-of-the-medial-rectus-muscle-as-a-secondary-and-or-unilateral-procedure-in-the-treatment-of-esotropia-with-distance-near-disparity
#2
Monika Wipf, Siegfried Priglinger, Anja Palmowski-Wolfe
INTRODUCTION: In esotropia with larger angles > near than at distance, splitting of the medial rectus muscle has been suggested as a treatment option. Previous reports of bilateral medial rectus Y-splitting as a first intervention showed a reduction of the distance/near disparity with fewer side effects compared to posterior fixation surgery. We address whether a medial rectus Y-splitting as a secondary and/or a unilateral procedure also reduce distance/near disparity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of four patients undergoing Y-split recession as a second and/or unilateral surgery...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759292/an-optimal-measurement-of-fixation-disparity-using-ogle-s-apparatus
#3
L de Meij, M A J Telleman, M R C Luijten, J R Polling, M Gutter
PURPOSE: Fixation disparity (FD) is a small misalignment of the eyes within the normal alignment when viewing under binocular condition. Ogle's apparatus measures FD. Standards of procedures vary, which may lead to different outcomes. METHODS: Students with normal ocular alignment, stereopsis ≤60 seconds of arc and visual acuity <0.1 logMAR, were included in this prospective comparative study. Four procedures (P1-P4) of measuring FD with Ogle's apparatus were performed with divergent placement of the line (P1 and P3), or the line moving from subjective zero (P1 and P2: prisms of ascending strength; P3 and P4: prisms alternating base in base out; combined and P4)...
July 31, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750857/interventions-for-improving-hip-resurfacing-outcomes-in-women-a-high-volume-retrospective-study
#4
Emily B Gaillard, Melissa D Gaillard, Thomas P Gross
BACKGROUND: Women seeking surgical intervention for their hip disorders will often find total hip arthroplasty (THA) presented as their only option. THA, when compared with hip resurfacing arthroplasty, removes substantially more bone-stock, limits range-of-motion, exhibits increased dislocation risk, and presents greater overall 10-year mortality rate. Despite these risks, most surgeons continue to select against women for hip resurfacing because registries notoriously report inferior survivorship when compared with men and THA...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695758/differential-vergence-movements-in-reading-chinese-and-english-greater-fixation-initial-binocular-disparity-is-advantageous-in-reading-the-denser-orthography
#5
Yi-Ting Hsiao, Richard Shillcock, Mateo Obregón, Hamutal Kreiner, Matthew A J Roberts, Scott McDonald
We explore two aspects of exovergence: we test whether smaller binocular fixation disparities accompany the shorter saccades and longer fixations observed in reading Chinese; we test whether potentially advantageous psychophysical effects of exovergence (cf. Arnold & Schindel, 2010; Kersten & Murray, 2010) transfer to text reading. We report differential exovergence in reading Chinese and English: Chinese readers begin fixations with more binocular disparity, but end fixations with a disparity closely similar to that of the English readers...
July 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614148/race-and-ethnicity-has-a-mixed-effect-on-the-treatment-of-tibial-plateau-fractures
#6
Adam Driesman, Siddharth A Mahure, Albit Paoli, Christian A Pean, Sanjit R Konda, Kenneth A Egol
OBJECTIVES: To determine if racial or economic disparities are associated with short term complications and outcomes in tibial plateau fracture care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING:: All New York State hospital admissions from 2000 to 2014, as recorded by the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS:: Thirteen thousand five hundred eighteen inpatients with isolated tibial plateau fractures (AO/OTA 44), stratified in four groups: Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Other...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572596/nutrient-and-herbivore-alterations-cause-uncoupled-changes-in-producer-diversity-biomass-and-ecosystem-function-but-not-in-overall-multifunctionality
#7
J Alberti, J Cebrian, F Alvarez, M Escapa, K S Esquius, E Fanjul, E L Sparks, B Mortazavi, O Iribarne
Altered nutrient cycles and consumer populations are among the top anthropogenic influences on ecosystems. However, studies on the simultaneous impacts of human-driven environmental alterations on ecosystem functions, and the overall change in system multifunctionality are scarce. We used estuarine tidal flats to study the effects of changes in herbivore density and nutrient availability on benthic microalgae (diversity, abundance and biomass) and ecosystem functions (N2-fixation, denitrification, extracellular polymeric substances -EPS- as a proxy for sediment cohesiveness, sediment water content as a proxy of water retention capacity and sediment organic matter)...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566706/adaptation-to-progressive-additive-lenses-potential-factors-to-consider
#8
Tara L Alvarez, Eun H Kim, Bérangère Granger-Donetti
People develop presbyopia as part of the normal aging process. Most presbyopes adapt to progressive additive lens (PALs), while others do not. This investigation sought to determine whether the ability to modify disparity vergence or phoria was correlated to PALs adaptation. In experiment 1, a double-step paradigm quantified the ability to modify convergence responses in sixteen presbyopes. In experiment 2, thirty-one incipient presbyopes participated in a 5-minute sustained fixation task to evoke phoria adaptation where the magnitude and rate of phoria adaptation were measured...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408879/comparison-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-mri-for-the-detection-of-structural-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy
#9
Holly E Holmes, Nick M Powell, Da Ma, Ozama Ismail, Ian F Harrison, Jack A Wells, Niall Colgan, James M O'Callaghan, Ross A Johnson, Tracey K Murray, Zeshan Ahmed, Morten Heggenes, Alice Fisher, M Jorge Cardoso, Marc Modat, Michael J O'Neill, Emily C Collins, Elizabeth M C Fisher, Sébastien Ourselin, Mark F Lythgoe
With increasingly large numbers of mouse models of human disease dedicated to MRI studies, compromises between in vivo and ex vivo MRI must be fully understood in order to inform the choice of imaging methodology. We investigate the application of high resolution in vivo and ex vivo MRI, in combination with tensor-based morphometry (TBM), to uncover morphological differences in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy. The rTg4510 mouse also offers a novel paradigm by which the overexpression of mutant tau can be regulated by the administration of doxycycline, providing us with a platform on which to investigate more subtle alterations in morphology with morphometry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408128/health-disparities-in-the-appropriate-management-of-cryptorchidism
#10
Kate B Savoie, Marielena Bachier-Rodriguez, Elleson Schurtz, Elizabeth A Tolley, Dana Giel, Alexander Feliz
OBJECTIVE: To assess regional practices in management of cryptorchidism with regard to timely fixation by the current recommended age of 18 months. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed. Charts of all patients who underwent surgical correction for cryptorchidism by a pediatric general surgeon or urologist within a tertiary pediatric hospital in an urban setting were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: We identified 1209 patients with cryptorchidism...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350382/a-dataset-of-stereoscopic-images-and-ground-truth-disparity-mimicking-human-fixations-in-peripersonal-space
#11
Andrea Canessa, Agostino Gibaldi, Manuela Chessa, Marco Fato, Fabio Solari, Silvio P Sabatini
Binocular stereopsis is the ability of a visual system, belonging to a live being or a machine, to interpret the different visual information deriving from two eyes/cameras for depth perception. From this perspective, the ground-truth information about three-dimensional visual space, which is hardly available, is an ideal tool both for evaluating human performance and for benchmarking machine vision algorithms. In the present work, we implemented a rendering methodology in which the camera pose mimics realistic eye pose for a fixating observer, thus including convergent eye geometry and cyclotorsion...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317909/the-active-side-of-stereopsis-fixation-strategy-and-adaptation-to-natural-environments
#12
Agostino Gibaldi, Andrea Canessa, Silvio P Sabatini
Depth perception in near viewing strongly relies on the interpretation of binocular retinal disparity to obtain stereopsis. Statistical regularities of retinal disparities have been claimed to greatly impact on the neural mechanisms that underlie binocular vision, both to facilitate perceptual decisions and to reduce computational load. In this paper, we designed a novel and unconventional approach in order to assess the role of fixation strategy in conditioning the statistics of retinal disparity. We integrated accurate realistic three-dimensional models of natural scenes with binocular eye movement recording, to obtain accurate ground-truth statistics of retinal disparity experienced by a subject in near viewing...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245490/gaze-behavior-during-3-d-face-identification-is-depth-cue-invariant
#13
Hassan Akhavein, Reza Farivar
Gaze behavior during scene and object recognition can highlight the relevant information for a task. For example, salience maps-highlighting regions that have heightened luminance, contrast, color, etc. in a scene-can be used to predict gaze targets. Certain tasks, such as face recognition, result in a typical pattern of fixations on high salience features. While local salience of a 2-D feature may contribute to gaze behavior and object recognition, we are perfectly capable of recognizing objects from 3-D depth cues devoid of meaningful 2-D features...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192091/the-influence-of-age-on-adaptation-of-disparity-vergence-and-phoria
#14
Tara L Alvarez, Eun H Kim, Chang Yaramothu, Bérangère Granger-Donetti
A paucity of research exists to investigate whether the normal aging process influences the ability to adapt disparity vergence and phoria. Vergence eye movements and dissociated phoria were recorded from 49 healthy subjects (ages 20-70years) using an objective eye movement tracking system. Four-degree vergence responses were modified using a double-step protocol. Dynamics of vergence were quantified via peak velocity. The phoria adaptation experiment measured the magnitude (net change in phoria level) and rate (magnitude divided by the time constant) of phoria adaption during 5min of sustained fixation on a binocular target (40cm/8...
April 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135308/individual-objective-and-subjective-fixation-disparity-in-near-vision
#15
Wolfgang Jaschinski
Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100751/decision-related-activity-in-macaque-v2-for-fine-disparity-discrimination-is-not-compatible-with-optimal-linear-readout
#16
Stephane Clery, Bruce G Cumming, Hendrikje Nienborg
Fine judgments of stereoscopic depth rely mainly on relative judgments of depth (relative binocular disparity) between objects, rather than judgments of the distance to where the eyes are fixating (absolute disparity). In macaques, visual area V2 is the earliest site in the visual processing hierarchy for which neurons selective for relative disparity have been observed (Thomas et al., 2002). Here, we found that, in macaques trained to perform a fine disparity discrimination task, disparity-selective neurons in V2 were highly selective for the task, and their activity correlated with the animals' perceptual decisions (unexplained by the stimulus)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094189/medicaid-payer-status-is-linked-to-increased-rates-of-complications-after-treatment-of-proximal-humerus-fractures
#17
Vani J Sabesan, Graysen Petersen-Fitts, Daniel Lombardo, Daniel Briggs, James Whaley
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status and Medicaid insurance as a primary payer have been associated with major disparities in resource utilization and risk-adjusted outcomes for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. With the expansion of Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act in 2014, examination of these disparities has become increasingly relevant for the treatment of proximal humerus fracture (PHF). METHODS: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to identify patients who were treated for PHF from 2002 to 2012...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002220/postoperative-computed-tomography-for-articular-fractures-a-systematic-review
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Samantha Stott, Zsolt J Balogh
OBJECTIVES: To determine the current published patterns of computed tomography (CT) use postoperatively in peri-articular fractures and identify those populations whereby postoperative CT changes management or results in better clinical outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Systematic review of MEDLINE and Cochrane using a combination of key words, including fracture fixation, fracture healing, and computed tomography. The final update search was performed on May 20, 2015. The search was limited to English language publications of human studies from the past 20 years...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943121/the-effects-of-the-binocular-disparity-differences-between-targets-and-maskers-on-visual-search
#19
Ya-Yue Gao, Bruce Schneider, Liang Li
A visual search for targets is facilitated when the target objects are on a different depth plane than other masking objects cluttering the scene. The ability of observers to determine whether one of four letters presented stereoscopically at four symmetrically located positions on the fixation plane differed from the other three was assessed when the target letters were masked by other randomly positioned and oriented letters appearing on the same depth plane as the target letters, or in front, or behind it...
December 9, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927698/decision-related-activity-in-macaque-v2-for-fine-disparity-discrimination-is-not-compatible-with-optimal-linear-read-out
#20
Stephane Clery, Bruce G Cumming, Hendrikje Nienborg
Fine judgments of stereoscopic depth rely mainly on relative judgments of depth (relative binocular disparity) between objects, rather than judgments of the distance to where the eyes are fixating (absolute disparity). In macaques, visual area V2 is the earliest site in the visual processing hierarchy for which neurons selective for relative disparity have been observed (Thomas et al, 2002). Here, we found that in macaques trained to perform a fine disparity discrimination task, disparity selective neurons in V2 were highly selective for the task, and their activity correlated with the animals' perceptual decisions (unexplained by the stimulus)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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