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Cardiac inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913553/dual-inhibition-of-cathepsin-g-and-chymase-reduces-myocyte-death-and-improves-cardiac-remodeling-after-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Bahman Hooshdaran, Mikhail A Kolpakov, Xinji Guo, Sonni A Miller, Tao Wang, Douglas G Tilley, Khadija Rafiq, Abdelkarim Sabri
Early reperfusion of ischemic cardiac tissue increases inflammatory cell infiltration which contributes to cardiomyocyte death and loss of cardiac function, referred to as ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Neutrophil- and mast cell-derived proteases, cathepsin G (Cat.G) and chymase, are released early after IR, but their function is complicated by potentially redundant actions and targets. This study investigated whether a dual inhibition of Cat.G and chymase influences cardiomyocyte injury and wound healing after experimental IR in mice...
September 14, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#2
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912259/nod2-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-2-is-a-major-pathogenic-mediator-of-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis
#3
Carsten Tschöpe, Irene Müller, Yu Xia, Konstantinos Savvatis, Kathleen Pappritz, Sandra Pinkert, Dirk Lassner, Markus M Heimesaat, Frank Spillmann, Kapka Miteva, Stefan Bereswill, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Henry Fechner, Burkert Pieske, Uwe Kühl, Sophie Van Linthout
BACKGROUND: The cytoplasmatic pattern recognition receptor, NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2), belongs to the innate immune system and is among others responsible for the recognition of single-stranded RNA. With Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) being a single-stranded RNA virus, and the recent evidence that the NOD2 target, NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) is of importance in the pathogenesis of CVB3-induced myocarditis, we aimed to unravel the role of NOD2 in CVB3-induced myocarditis...
September 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912184/inflammatory-cardiomyopathic-syndromes
#4
REVIEW
Barry H Trachtenberg, Joshua M Hare
Inflammatory activation occurs in nearly all forms of myocardial injury. In contrast, inflammatory cardiomyopathies refer to a diverse group of disorders in which inflammation of the heart (or myocarditis) is the proximate cause of myocardial dysfunction, causing injury that can range from a fully recoverable syndrome to one that leads to chronic remodeling and dilated cardiomyopathy. The most common cause of inflammatory cardiomyopathies in developed countries is lymphocytic myocarditis most commonly caused by a viral pathogenesis...
September 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911177/deoxycorticosterone-salt-mediated-cardiac-inflammation-and-fibrosis-are-dependent-on-functional-clock-signaling-in-male-mice
#5
Elizabeth K Fletcher, James Morgan, David R Kennaway, Laura A Bienvenu, Amanda J Rickard, Lea M D Delbridge, Peter J Fuller, Colin D Clyne, Morag J Young
Activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) promotes inflammation, fibrosis, and hypertension. Clinical and experimental studies show that MR antagonists have significant therapeutic benefit for all-cause heart failure; however, blockade of renal MRs limits their widespread use. Identification of key downstream signaling mechanisms for the MR in the cardiovascular system may enable development of targeted MR antagonists with selectivity for pathological MR signaling and lower impact on physiological renal electrolyte handling...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910790/the-cardiovascular-burden-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#6
Mario Cozzolino, Andrea Galassi, Francesca Pivari, Paola Ciceri, Ferruccio Conte
It is well documented that chronic kidney disease patients have an extremely high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) compared to the general population. Declining renal function itself represents a continuum of CV risk, and in those individuals who survive to reach end-stage renal disease, the risk of suffering a cardiac event is uncomfortably and unacceptably high. Several pathophysiological pathways have been suggested to account for this, including endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia, inflammation, left ventricular hypertrophy, troponins, phosphate, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23, and NT-proBNP...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910144/ask1-inhibition-halts-disease-progression-in-preclinical-models-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Grant R Budas, Mario Boehm, Baktybek Kojonazarov, Gayathri Viswanathan, Xia Tian, Swathi Veeroju, Tatyana Novoyatleva, Friedrich Grimminger, Ford Hinojosa-Kirschenbaum, Hossein A Ghofrani, Norbert Weissmann, Werner Seeger, John T Liles, Ralph T Schermuly
RATIONALE Progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and the right ventricle (RV). Oxidative stress drives the remodeling process through activation of mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKs) which stimulate apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. OBJECTIVES We investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the redoxsensitive apical MAPK Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) can halt the progression of pulmonary vascular and RV remodeling...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903333/effect-of-pkc-inhibitor-on-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis-in-lewis-rats
#8
Chunlian Zhong, Yang Wu, He Chang, Chunxiao Liu, Li Zhou, Jun Zou, Zhi Qi
Myocarditis is a major cause of sudden, unexpected death in young people. However, it is still one of the most challenging diseases to treat in cardiology. In the present study, we showed that both expression level and activity of PKC-α were up-regulated in the rat heart of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Intraperitoneal administration of PKC inhibitor (Ro-32-0432) at the end of the most severe inflammation period of EAM still significantly reduced the EAM induced expression of failure biomarkers...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902285/dipyridamole-potentiated-the-trypanocidal-effect-of-nifurtimox-and-improved-the-cardiac-function-in-nmri-mice-with-acute-chagasic-myocarditis
#9
Sonia Santeliz, Peter Caicedo, Elidiosmar Giraldo, Carmen Alvarez, María-Daniela Yustiz, Claudina Rodríguez-Bonfante, Romina Bonfante-Rodríguez, Rafael Bonfante-Cabarcas
BACKGROUND: As chronic Chagas disease does not have a definitive treatment, the development of alternative therapeutic protocols is a priority. Dipyridamole (DPY) is an alternative to counteract the pathophysiological phenomena involved in Chagas cardiomyopathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of DPY associated with nifurtimox (Nfx) in epimastigote axenic cultures and in mice with acute Chagas disease. METHODS: NMRI adult male mice were divided into nine groups: three healthy and six Trypanosoma cruzi-infected groups...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899512/nepeta-deflersiana-attenuates-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-injuries-in-rats-possible-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-apoptosis-inflammation-through-nuclear-factor-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-downregulation
#10
Areej Mohammad Al-Taweel, Mohammad Raish, Shagufta Perveen, Ghada Ahmed Fawzy, Ajaz Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Shahid Mudassar, Majid Ahmad Ganaie
BACKGROUND: Nepeta deflersiana (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb used in the Saudi and Yemeni folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, carminative, and antirheumatic agent. PURPOSE: This study explores the phytochemistry of the plant and the cardioprotective effect of N. deflersiana ethanolic extract (NDEE) against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial injury in rats. DESIGN/METHODS: Cardiac function, serum cardiac enzymes, myocardial antioxidants, inflammatory, and apoptotic biomarkers, and histopathological parameters were studied in ISP-injured Wistar rat heart tissues...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894062/-fifteen-year-follow-up-of-a-patient-with-aortitis-treated-by-sino-tubular-junction-plication-using-a-prosthetic-tube-graft-for-aortic-regurgitation-report-of-a-case
#11
Shinichi Ashida, Yuichi Hirate, Daisuke Yano, Shinji Yamada, Fumiaki Kuwabara
A 43-year-old woman was diagnosed with aortitis associated with mild aortic regurgitation (AR) at the age of 25, which advanced to a severe grade requiring surgical treatment at age 28. Dilation of the sinotubular junction (STJ) was treated with ascending aortic replacement (Hemashield Gold 24 mm), which reduced AR from severe to mild. The patient conceived 9 years later and delivered a baby by cesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. By appropriate control of inflammation with steroid, neither deterioration of the aortic valve nor cardiac function has been noted during the 15 years of follow-up after surgery...
September 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892792/bamboo-leaf-extract-ameliorates-cardiac-fibrosis-possibly-via-alleviating-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#12
Lili Zhang, Yizhen Mao, Jiajun Pan, Shanshan Wang, Lei Chen, Jie Xiang
Previous studies have shown that inflammatory process contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiac damage induced by diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanisms and strategies to alleviate inflammatory injury in the diabetic heart are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential role and related mechanism of bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozocin (STZ) in rats, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc) were measured...
September 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892130/fgl2-deteriorates-cardiac-function-in-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis-rats-through-regulation-of-pd-1-and-inflammatory-cytokines
#13
Zhenzhong Zheng, Yinghui Yu, Ratnakar Potla, Yujing Wu, Hao Wu
PD-1 plays an important role in protecting against inflammation and myocyte damage in T cell mediated myocarditis. To understand whether FGL2 can affect the role of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM),we investigated the cardiac function in EAM rats overexpressing FGL2. Overexpression of FGL2 significantly decreased PD-1 and deteriorated cardiac function in autoimmune myocarditis rats. Histopathology revealed increased inflammatory cell infiltrate in EAM-FGL2 rats compared to the control groups (EAM, EAM-GFP, and NC)...
September 11, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891814/fibroblast-specific-tgf-%C3%AE-smad2-3-signaling-underlies-cardiac-fibrosis
#14
Hadi Khalil, Onur Kanisicak, Vikram Prasad, Robert N Correll, Xing Fu, Tobias Schips, Ronald J Vagnozzi, Ruijie Liu, Thanh Huynh, Se-Jin Lee, Jason Karch, Jeffery D Molkentin
The master cytokine TGF-β mediates tissue fibrosis associated with inflammation and tissue injury. TGF-β induces fibroblast activation and differentiation into myofibroblasts that secrete extracellular matrix proteins. Canonical TGF-β signaling mobilizes Smad2 and Smad3 transcription factors that control fibrosis by promoting gene expression. However, the importance of TGF-β-Smad2/3 signaling in fibroblast-mediated cardiac fibrosis has not been directly evaluated in vivo. Here, we examined pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis in fibroblast- and myofibroblast-specific inducible Cre-expressing mouse lines with selective deletion of the TGF-β receptors Tgfbr1/2, Smad2, or Smad3...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891154/immune-mechanisms-in-heart-failure
#15
REVIEW
Yingying Zhang, Johann Bauersachs, Harald F Langer
Elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory biomarkers in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure (HF) correlate with disease severity and prognosis. Experimental studies have shown activation of immune response mechanisms in the heart to provoke cardiac adverse remodelling and cause left ventricular dysfunction. Consequently, most of the clinical trials targeting elements of the immune response in HF attempted to modulate the inflammatory response. Surprisingly, clinical studies targeting immune effectors were either neutral or even increased pre-specified clinical endpoints, and some studies resulted in worsening of HF...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890262/-relapsing-polychondritis-what-s-new-in-2017
#16
J Dion, G Leroux, L Mouthon, J-C Piette, N Costedoat-Chalumeau
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare condition characterized by recurrent inflammation of cartilaginous tissue and systemic manifestations. Data on pathophysiology are scarce and suggest an autoimmune mechanism. Recently, the possibility of dividing patients with RP into three distinct clinical phenotypes has been suggested: the hematological form representing less than 10% of patients, essentially older men with associated myelodysplasia and poor prognosis, the respiratory form representing about 25% of patients with predominant tracheobronchial involvement, and the mild and most frequent form, representing 65% of patients, with a good prognosis...
September 7, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889829/neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-reflects-inflammation-and-is-not-a-reliable-renal-biomarker-in-neonates-and-infants-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-prospective-case-control-study
#17
Karl Reiter, Gunter Balling, Vittorio Bonelli, Jelena Pabst von Ohain, Siegmund Lorenz Braun, Peter Ewert, Bettina Ruf
Introduction Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin has been suggested to be a promising early biomarker of impending acute kidney injury. On the other hand, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin has been shown to be elevated in systemic inflammatory diseases without renal impairment. In this secondary analysis of data from our previous study on acute kidney injury after infant cardiac surgery, our hypothesis was that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin may be associated with surgery-related inflammation...
September 11, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888531/post-cardiac-injury-syndrome-an-atypical-case-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#18
Silvia Paiardi, Francesco Cannata, Michele Ciccarelli, Antonio Voza
Post-cardiac injury syndrome (PCIS) is a syndrome characterized by pericardial and/or pleural effusion, triggered by a cardiac injury, usually a myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery, rarely a minor cardiovascular percutaneous procedure. Nowadays, the post-cardiac injury syndrome, is regaining importance and interest as an emerging cause of pericarditis, especially in developed countries, due to a great and continuous increase in the number and complexity of percutaneous cardiologic procedures. The etiopathogenesis seems mediated by the immunitary system producing immune complexes, which deposit in the pericardium and pleura and trigger an inflammatory response...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886988/perinatal-ciclosporin-a-exposure-elicits-sex-related-cardiac-dysfunction-and-inflammation-in-the-rat-progeny
#19
Hany M El-Bassossy, Zuheir Awan, Mahmoud M El-Mas
Ciclosporin A (CSA) has been identified with harmful cardiotoxicity but little, if any, is known about the influence of perinatal exposure upon the cardiac function of the progeny. The present work examines the premise that perinatal contact with CSA undermines the cardiac function of sexually mature rats. Administration of CSA (15mg/kg/day sc) to pregnant rats from day 6 of conception till weaning led to a decrease in gradient of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship by a factor of ten for male progeny and a factor of two for female progeny...
September 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885685/gut-microbiota-derived-endotoxin-enhanced-the-incidence-of-cardia-bifida-during-cardiogenesis
#20
Jing Zhang, Guang Wang, Jia Liu, Lin-Rui Gao, Meng Liu, Chao-Jie Wang, Manli Chuai, Yongping Bao, Ge Li, Rui-Man Li, Yu Zhang, Xuesong Yang
Background Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses could be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vitro and in vivo respectively. However, the mechanism involved in LPS-induced cardiac malformation in prenatal fetus is still unknown. Methods and results In this study, we demonstrated that LPS was induced in gut microbiota imbalance mice, and next, LPS exposure during gastrulation in the chick embryo increased the incidence of cardia bifida. Gene transfection and tissue transplantation trajectory indicated that LPS exposure restricted the cell migration of cardiac progenitors to primary heart field in gastrula chick embryos...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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