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Cardiac inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345361/immunotherapy-for-cardiovascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Elisa Martini, Giuliano Giuseppe Stirparo, Marinos Kallikourdis
Heart failure (HF), the final stage of pathological cardiac hypertrophy, is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of HF has been extensively studied, with great emphasis on proinflammatory cytokines. Yet, clinical trials targeting these cytokines failed to become a credible therapeutic strategy for HF. More recent studies are increasingly highlighting an active role for T cells in the progression of HF pathology. As a result, a number of novel immunotherapy strategies are emerging for the treatment of HF and other cardiovascular diseases, via the targeting of adaptive immunity...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345251/cancer-associated-cachexia
#2
REVIEW
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344827/molecular-imaging-of-cardiac-remodelling-after-myocardial-infarction
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Curley, Begoña Lavin Plaza, Ajay M Shah, René M Botnar
Myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure is a major health burden associated with significant mortality and morbidity in western societies. The ability of cardiac tissue to recover after myocardial infarction is affected by numerous complex cellular and molecular pathways. Unbalance or failure of these pathways can lead to adverse remodelling of the heart and poor prognosis. Current clinical cardiac imaging modalities assess anatomy, perfusion, function, and viability of the myocardium, yet do not offer any insight into the specific molecular pathways involved in the repair process...
January 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344374/cardioprotection-by-an-anti-masp-2-antibody-in-a-murine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#4
James E Clark, Thomas Dudler, Michael S Marber, Wilhelm Schwaeble
Background: Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Many approaches have been investigated to counteract the pathological consequences associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiac remodelling. It is accepted that inflammation, and therefore activation of the complement pathway, is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of this injury, and many attempts have been made to ameliorate the infarction and consequent dysfunction using anticomplement therapy, with mixed success...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337094/vitamin-d-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-in-mice
#5
Liang Zhang, Xiao Yan, Jie Bai, Tesfaldet Habtemariam Hidru, Qing-Shan Wang, Hui-Hua Li
Vitamin D (VD) and its analogues play critical roles in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that VD exerts a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the beneficial effect of VD on pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling in mice were induced by pressure overload. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography, and myocardial histology was detected by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335272/complementary-value-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-the-assessment-of-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#6
Tomas Vita, David R Okada, Mahdi Veillet-Chowdhury, Paco E Bravo, Erin Mullins, Edward Hulten, Mukta Agrawal, Rachna Madan, Viviany R Taqueti, Michael Steigner, Hicham Skali, Raymond Y Kwong, Garrick C Stewart, Sharmila Dorbala, Marcelo F Di Carli, Ron Blankstein
BACKGROUND: Although cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) detect different pathological attributes of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), the complementary value of these tests has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the value of combining CMR and PET in assessing the likelihood of CS and guiding patient management. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective study, we included 107 consecutive patients referred for evaluation of CS by both CMR and PET...
January 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334670/genetic-ablation-of-trpv1-exacerbates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#7
Beihua Zhong, Jack Rubinstein, Shuangtao Ma, Donna H Wang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in sensory nerves may regulate vascular tone and cardiovascular function via their anti-inflammatory effects by releasing neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Inflammation plays a role in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and TRPV1 activation may be key to cardiac inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that TRPV1 modulates inflammatory processes to protect the heart from pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and inflammatory responses...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334496/oxygen-in-the-critically-ill-friend-or-foe
#8
Elisa Damiani, Abele Donati, Massimo Girardis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive oxygen supplementation may have detrimental pulmonary and systemic effects because of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury includes altered surfactant protein composition, reduced mucociliary clearance and histological damage, resulting in atelectasis, reduced lung compliance and increased risk of infections...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332573/torsades-de-pointes-in-patients-with-polymyalgia-rheumatica
#9
Pietro Enea Lazzerini, Iacopo Bertolozzi, Maurizio Acampa, Rosella Fulceri, Franco Laghi-Pasini, Pier Leopoldo Capecchi
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) represents the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease of the elderly. It is characterized by synovitis of proximal joints and extra-articular synovial structures, along with chronic high-grade systemic inflammation. PMR is closely related to giant cell arteritis (GCA), a large-vessel vasculitis that involves the major branches of the aorta, particularly the extracranial branches of carotid artery including temporal arteries. It is currently believed that PMR and GCA may represent different manifestations of the same disease process...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332571/role-of-heart-rate-reduction-in-the-management-of-myocarditis
#10
Chen Guang-Yi, Ge Li-Sha, Li Yue-Chun
The morbidity of myocarditis demonstrates an upward tendency by years, is commonly defined as the inflammation of myocytes and is caused by multiple factors. With the development of the molecular biological technique, great breakthroughs in the diagnosis and understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of myocarditis have recently been achieved. Several questions remain unresolved, however, including standard treatment approaches to myocarditis, which remain controversial and ambiguous. Heart rate, as an independent risk factor, has been shown to be related to cardiac disease...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331956/adenosine-production-by-biomaterial-supported-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduces-the-innate-inflammatory-response-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Eric Y Shin, Lanfang Wang, Marina Zemskova, Juline Deppen, Kai Xu, Frederick Strobel, Andrés J García, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Rebecca D Levit
BACKGROUND: During myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, there is extensive release of immunogenic metabolites that activate cells of the innate immune system. These include ATP and AMP, which upregulate chemotaxis, migration, and effector function of early infiltrating inflammatory cells. These cells subsequently drive further tissue devitalization. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a potential treatment modality for MI/R because of their powerful anti-inflammatory capabilities; however, the manner in which they regulate the acute inflammatory milieu requires further elucidation...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331339/cardiopulmonary-hemodynamics-and-c-reactive-protein-as-prognostic-indicators-in-compensated-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#12
Laura Turco, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Ilenia Magnani, Marcello Bianchini, Martina Costetti, Cristian Caporali, Stefano Colopi, Emilio Simonini, Nicola De Maria, Federico Banchelli, Rosario Rossi, Erica Villa, Filippo Schepis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The main stages of cirrhosis (compensated and decompensated) have been substaged based on clinical, endoscopic, and portal pressure (determined by the hepatic venous pressure gradient, HVPG) features. Vasodilatation leading to a hyperdynamic circulatory state is central in the development of a late decompensated stage with inflammation being currently considered a key driver. We aimed to assess hepatic/systemic hemodynamics and inflammation (by C reactive protein, CRP) among the different substages of cirrhosis and to investigate their interrelationship and prognostic relevance...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#13
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329564/phytochemical-analysis-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-feretia-apodanthera-root-bark-extracts
#14
Oluwayinka Olufunmilayo Owolabi, Dorcas Bolanle James, Ibrahim Sani, Binda T Andongma, Opeoluwa O Fasanya, Barnabas Kure
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been implicated in many disorders, including cancer and available therapies elicit adverse effects. Plants of the family Rubiaceae have shown potency against inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential of Feretia apodanthera was investigated in this study to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: The phytochemical, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of root bark (n-Hexane, diethyl ether, ethanol and aqueous) extracts of Feretia apodanthera was investigated in this study...
January 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327811/an-aza-resveratrol-chalcone-derivative-6b-protects-mice-against-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-by-alleviating-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#15
Shengban You, Jianchang Qian, Chuchu Sun, Hailing Zhang, Shiju Ye, Taiwei Chen, Zheng Xu, Jingying Wang, Weijian Huang, Guang Liang
Inflammation and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We previously had synthesized an Aza resveratrol-chalcone derivative 6b, of which effectively suppressing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effect of 6b on DCM and underlying mechanism. In H9c2 myocardial cells, 6b potently decreased high glucose (HG)-induced cell fibrosis, hypertrophy and apoptosis, alleviating inflammatory response and oxidant stress...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326834/ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#16
Marwan M Refaat, Jad Ballout, Moussa Mansour
With improved surgical techniques and medical management for patients with congenital heart diseases, more patients are living longer and well into adulthood. This improved survival comes with a price of increased morbidity, mainly secondary to increased risk of tachyarrhythmias. One of the major arrhythmias commonly encountered in this subset of cardiac patients is AF. Similar to the general population, the risk of AF increases with advancing age, and is mainly secondary to the abnormal anatomy, abnormal pressure and volume parameters in the hearts of these patients and to the increased scarring and inflammation seen in the left atrium following multiple surgical procedures...
December 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325796/lcz696-sacubitril-valsartan-an-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-fibrosis-and-vasculopathy-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Yasunori Suematsu, Wanghui Jing, Ane Nunes, Moti L Kashyap, Mahyar Khazaeli, Nosratola D Vaziri, Hamid Moradi
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. LCZ696 (Sacubitril/valsartan) is a promising agent which has shown significant potential in treatment of heart failure. We hypothesized that LCZ696 is more effective than valsartan alone in treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities associated with experimental CKD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy and were subsequently randomized to no treatment (CKD), 30 mg/kg valsartan (VAL), or 60 mg/kg LCZ696 (LCZ)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325227/soluble-st2-in-end-stage-heart-failure-before-and-after-support-with-a-left-ventricular-assist-device
#18
C C S Tseng, M M H Huibers, L H Gaykema, E Siera-de Koning, F Z Ramjankhan, A S Maisel, N de Jonge
BACKGROUND: The interleukin-33 (IL-33)/supressor of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) pathway is suggested to play an important role in fibrosis, remodeling and the progression of heart failure (HF). Increased soluble (sST2) levels are associated with adverse outcome in the average HF population. Less is known about sST2 levels in end-stage HF. Therefore, we studied sST2 levels in end-stage HF and the effect of unloading by left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support on sST2 levels. METHOD AND RESULTS: Serial plasma measurements of sST2 were performed pre-implantation and 1, 3 and 6 months after (LVAD) implantation in 38 patients...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325222/pneumonia-as-a-cardiovascular-disease
#19
REVIEW
Marcos I Restrepo, Luis F Reyes
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of death around the globe. Up to 30% of patients admitted to hospital for CAP develop cardiovascular complications (i.e. new/worsening heart failure, new/worsening arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions and/or strokes), acutely and up to 10 years thereafter. Cardiac complications result from complex interactions between preexisting conditions, relative ischaemia, upregulation of the sympathetic system, systemic inflammation and direct pathogen-mediated damage to the cardiovascular system...
January 11, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322883/cardiac-mesothelial-papillary-hyperplasia-in-four-dogs
#20
Shannon G Kirejczyk, Anne L Burnum, Corrie C Brown, Kaori Sakamoto, Daniel R Rissi
Mesothelial papillary hyperplasia (MPH) has been described as an incidental finding on the epicardial surface of clinically normal laboratory Beagle dogs. We describe MPH in 4 dogs diagnosed with acute cardiac tamponade (1 case) or chronic cardiac disease (3 cases). Cardiac MPH appeared as distinct, soft, irregular villous plaques on the epicardial surface of the auricles and occasionally the ventricles. Histologically, areas of MPH were composed of multiple papillary fronds arising from the epicardial surface and projecting into the pericardial space...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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