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Atrial macrophage

Natalia Smorodinova, Martin Bláha, Vojtěch Melenovský, Karolína Rozsívalová, Jaromír Přidal, Mária Ďurišová, Jan Pirk, Josef Kautzner, Tomáš Kučera
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and despite obvious clinical importance remains its pathogenesis only partially explained. A relation between inflammation and AF has been suggested by findings of increased inflammatory markers in AF patients. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to characterize morphologically and functionally CD45-positive inflammatory cell populations in atrial myocardium of patients with AF as compared to sinus rhythm (SR)...
2017: PloS One
Osamu Kume, Yasushi Teshima, Ichitaro Abe, Yuki Ikebe, Takahiro Oniki, Hidekazu Kondo, Shotaro Saito, Akira Fukui, Kunio Yufu, Masahiro Miura, Tatsuo Shimada, Naohiko Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-mediated inflammatory mechanisms have been shown to play a crucial role in atrial fibrosis induced by pressure overload. In the present study, we investigated whether left atrial endothelial cells would quickly respond structurally and functionally to pressure overload to trigger atrial fibrosis and fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent suprarenal abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or a sham operation...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Mingyi Zhao, Ping Zhu, Masayuki Fujino, Yoshiaki Nishio, Jimei Chen, Hidenori Ito, Kiwamu Takahashi, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Lingling Zhao, Jian Zhuang, Xiao-Kang Li
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia causes cardiac disease via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. 5-Aminolevulinic acid in combination with sodium ferrous citrate (ALA/SFC) has been shown to up-regulate heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and decrease macrophage infiltration and renal cell apoptosis in renal ischemia injury mice. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ALA/SFC could protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by autophagy via HO-1 signaling...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zewei Sun, Dongchen Zhou, Xudong Xie, Shuai Wang, Zhen Wang, Wenting Zhao, Hongfei Xu, Liangrong Zheng
Increased macrophage accumulation occurs in the atria of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the phenotype and functions of the macrophages in AF remain unclear. We investigated the macrophage-atrial myocyte interaction in AF patients and found that the increased macrophages were mainly pro-inflammatory macrophages (iNOS(+), Arg1(-)). Tachypacing of HL-1 atrial myocytes also led to pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated pro-inflammatory macrophages-induced atrial electrical remodeling, evidenced by increased AF incidence and decreased atrial effective refractory period and L-type calcium currents (I Ca-L) in both canine and mouse AF models...
November 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Hua Qu, Ke Lin, Hang Wang, Huili Wei, Baolan Ji, Zengsong Yang, Chuan Peng, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Huacong Deng
SCOPE: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the most important cardiac complications associated with diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying diabetic cardiomyopathy remain unclear. The PARP1, SIRT1, and mTOR pathways have been implicated in cardiac diseases, and they are also associated with diabetes. 1,25(OH)2 D3 was recently recognized as a potential PARP1inhibitor in a macrophage cell line. The aim of our study was to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2 D3 can improve diabetic cardiomyopathy through a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism associated with the PARP1/SIRT1/mTOR pathway...
August 26, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xiaoqing Chen, Wuchang Zhang, Qian Wang, Lili Du, Yi Yi, Yan Liu, Xu Liu, Shengzhong Duan
The purpose of the present study was to study the impacts of eplerenone (EPL), an antagonist of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), on atrial fibrosis in a mouse model with selective fibrosis in the atrium, and to explore the possible mechanisms. Using mutant TGF-β1 transgenic (Tx) mice, we first demonstrated that EPL inhibited atrial fibrosis specifically and decreased macrophage accumulation in the atria of these mice. Results from immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed that EPL attenuated protein expression of fibrosis-related molecules such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin in the atria of Tx mice...
October 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Mark Pv Begieneman, Reindert W Emmens, Liza Rijvers, Linde Woudstra, Walter J Paulus, Bela Kubat, Alexander Ba Vonk, Albert C van Rossum, Diana Wouters, Sacha Zeerleder, Marieke van Ham, Casper G Schalkwijk, Hans Wm Niessen, Paul Aj Krijnen
AIMS: Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI). Whether MI induces atrial inflammation is unknown however. Here, we analysed atrial inflammation in patients with MI and in rats with experimentally induced MI. The effect of the anti-inflammatory agent C1-esterase inhibitor (C1inh) on atrial inflammation in rats was also analysed. METHODS: In the hearts of patients who died at different time points after MI (total n=24, mean age=60), neutrophils (myeloperoxidase-positive cells), lymphocytes (CD45-positive cells) and macrophages (CD68-positive cells) were quantified in the myocardium of the left and right atria and the infarcted left and non-infarcted right ventricles and compared with control patients (n=5, mean age=59)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Alberto Roghi, Erika Poggiali, Elena Cassinerio, Patrizia Pedrotti, Marianna Giuditta, Angela Milazzo, Giuseppina Quattrocchi, Maria Domenica Cappellini
BACKGROUND: Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1) is the most common lysosomal disorder, characterized by the accumulation of beta-glucocerebroside into the macrophages of several organs. Cardiac involvement is rare and referred to as restrictive cardiomyopathy, pulmonary hypertension, and calcifications of the valves and the aortic arch. AIM: To assess the cardiovascular status by cardiac magnetic resonance, including evaluation of tissue characterization, in GD1 patients...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Kenshi Uemura, Hidekazu Kondo, Yumi Ishii, Mami Kobukata, Miho Haraguchi, Takaaki Imamura, Toyokazu Otsubo, Yuki Ikebe-Ebata, Ichitaro Abe, Reika Ayabe, Shotaro Saito, Kohei Aoki, Yasuko Nagano-Torigoe, Hidefumi Akioka, Tetsuji Shinohara, Yasushi Teshima, Takayuki Masaki, Kunio Yufu, Mikiko Nakagawa, Naohiko Takahashi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, it was reported that mast cells (MCs) could underlie the mechanisms of several cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of MCs in diabetes-induced atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been notably investigated. We tested the hypothesis that MC deficiency attenuates hyperglycemia-induced AF in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mast cell-deficient W/W(v)  mice, and congenic +/+ littermates (WT) were divided into either the vehicle (VEH)-injection group or the streptozotocin (STZ)-injection group (MCKO-VEH, MCKO-STZ, WT-VEH, and WT-STZ groups)...
August 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Mikio Shiba, Yasuo Sugano, Yoshihiko Ikeda, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Takahiro Ohara, Takuya Hasegawa, Hideaki Kanzaki, Toshihisa Anzai
A 74-year-old man, who had a history of a mitral valve replacement for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) 30 years previously, was admitted with progressive heart failure. Massive calcification was observed around the left atrium on multidetector CT, in addition to a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-positive layer adjacently outside of the calcification on MRI. He underwent a second mitral valve replacement for the prosthetic valve failure. Pathohistological analyses of a tissue section of the left atrial wall from a surgical specimen revealed lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration that coincided with the LGE-positive layer on MRI, suggesting the existence of sustained active inflammation even after the long period of RHD...
2016: Internal Medicine
Qihai David Gu, Charles R Moss, Kristen L Kettelhut, Carolyn A Gilbert, Hongzhen Hu
Transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 4 (TRPV4) is a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel implicated in numerous physiological and pathological functions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TRPV4 activation on respiration and to explore the potential involvement of bronchopulmonary sensory neurons. Potent TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A was injected into right atrium in anesthetized spontaneously breathing rats and the changes in breathing were measured. Patch-clamp recording was performed to investigate the effect of GSK1016790A or another TRPV4 activator 4α-PDD on cultured rat vagal bronchopulmonary sensory neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Olga Frunza, Ilaria Russo, Amit Saxena, Arti V Shinde, Claudio Humeres, Waqas Hanif, Vikrant Rai, Ya Su, Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
The β-galactoside-binding animal lectin galectin-3 is predominantly expressed by activated macrophages and is a promising biomarker for patients with heart failure. Galectin-3 regulates inflammatory and fibrotic responses; however, its role in cardiac remodeling remains unclear. We hypothesized that galectin-3 may be up-regulated in the pressure-overloaded myocardium and regulate hypertrophy and fibrosis. In normal mouse myocardium, galectin-3 was constitutively expressed in macrophages and was localized in atrial but not ventricular cardiomyocytes...
May 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Guixin He, Wei Tan, Bingjian Wang, Jianzhou Chen, Guannan Li, Suhui Zhu, Jun Xie, Biao Xu
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia. In patients with AF, the role of macrophage subsets in thrombogenesis is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the role of M1 and M2 macrophages and related cytokines in thrombogenesis of AF. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and TUNEL assay were used to detect M1/M2 macrophage infiltration, the expression pattern of IL-1β and inflammasome components, and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in 71 specimens obtained from the left atrial appendage of patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) with or without thrombosis...
2016: PloS One
Jussi V Leinonen, Avishag Korkus-Emanuelov, Yochai Wolf, Michal Milgrom-Hoffman, David Lichtstein, Sara Hoss, Chaim Lotan, Eldad Tzahor, Steffen Jung, Ronen Beeri
BACKGROUND: The developmental origin of the c-kit expressing progenitor cell pool in the adult heart has remained elusive. Recently, it has been discovered that the injured heart is enriched with c-kit(+) cells, which also express the hematopoietic marker CD45. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we characterize the phenotype and transcriptome of the c-kit+/CD45+/CD11b+/Flk-1+/Sca-1±(B-type) cell population, originating from the left atrial appendage. These cells are defined as cardiac macrophage progenitors...
April 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Mark P V Begieneman, Reindert W Emmens, Liza Rijvers, Bela Kubat, Walter J Paulus, Alexander B A Vonk, Lawrence Rozendaal, P Stefan Biesbroek, Diana Wouters, Sacha Zeerleder, Marieke van Ham, Stephane Heymans, Albert C van Rossum, Hans W M Niessen, Paul A J Krijnen
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication in myocarditis. Atrial inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of AF. However, little is known about the occurrence of atrial inflammation in myocarditis patients. Here, we analyzed inflammatory cell numbers in the atria of myocarditis patients without symptomatic AF. METHODS: Cardiac tissue was obtained postmortem from lymphocytic myocarditis patients (n=6), catecholamine-induced myocarditis patients (n=5), and control patients without pathological evidence of heart disease (n=5)...
March 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Suilane Coelho Ribeiro Oliveira, Camila Motta Venchiarutti Moniz, Rachel Riechelmann, Alexandra Kichfy Alex, Maria Ignez Braghirolli, Giovanni Bariani, Caio Nahas, Paulo Marcelo Gehm Hoff
UNLABELLED: This was a phase II study of capecitabine in substitution of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the chemoradiotherapy regimen for patients with localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. BACKGROUND: Combined chemoradiation with infusional 5-FU and mitomycin is the standard treatment for localized squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal. Capecitabine is an oral fluoropirimidine that has been shown to be equally effective to 5-FU in many solid tumors...
March 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Letizia Mezzasoma, Cinzia Antognelli, Vincenzo Nicola Talesa
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an hormone/paracrine/autocrine factor regulating cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-1). ANP plays an important role also in regulating inflammatory and immune systems by altering macrophages functions and cytokines secretion. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in a wide range of biological responses, including the immunological one. Unlike other cytokines, IL-1β production is rigorously controlled...
February 2016: Immunologic Research
David Kain, Uri Amit, Chana Yagil, Natalie Landa, Nili Naftali-Shani, Natali Molotski, Vered Aviv, Micha S Feinberg, Orly Goitein, Tammar Kushnir, Eli Konen, Fredrik H Epstein, Yoram Yagil, Jonathan Leor
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been implicated in the initiation, progression and manifestation of hypertensive heart disease. We sought to determine the role of monocytes/macrophages in hypertension and pressure overload induced left ventricular (LV) remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used two models of LV hypertrophy (LVH). First, to induce hypertension and LVH, we fed Sabra salt-sensitive rats with a high-salt diet. The number of macrophages increased in the hypertensive hearts, peaking at 10 weeks after a high-salt diet...
January 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Takeshi Yamashita, Akiko Sekiguchi, Shinya Suzuki, Takayuki Ohtsuka, Koichi Sagara, Hiroaki Tanabe, Takashi Kunihara, Hitoshi Sawada, Tadanori Aizawa
BACKGROUND: Enlargement of the left atrium (LA) is a risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for AF. However, structural changes associated with LA enlargement have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: To examine inflammation in the structural changes associated with LA enlargement, human left appendages obtained from 27 patients who underwent cardiac surgery by using the maze procedure were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis...
April 2015: Journal of Arrhythmia
Christian Stoppe, Steffen Rex, Andreas Goetzenich, Sandra Kraemer, Christoph Emontzpohl, Josefin Soppert, Luisa Averdunk, Yu Sun, Rolf Rossaint, Hongqi Lue, Caleb Huang, Yan Song, Georgios Pantouris, Elias Lolis, Lin Leng, Wibke Schulte, Richard Bucala, Christian Weber, Jürgen Bernhagen
AIMS: Cardiac surgery involves myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) with potentially deleterious consequences. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a stress-regulating chemokine-like cytokine that protects against I/R damage, but functional links with its homolog, d-dopachrome tautomerase (MIF-2), and the circulating soluble receptor CD74 (sCD74) are unknown. In this study, we investigate the role of MIF, MIF-2, sCD74, and MIF genotypes in patients scheduled for elective single or complex surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement...
October 10, 2015: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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