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meningeal tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446486/delayed-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-13-year-old-malawian-boy
#1
Niall Johnston, Nichola Sandys
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is a significant global health burden. There are more than 1 million new cases of childhood TB annually. Despite this, many national TB control programs largely focus on identification and treatment of smear positive adults. Early case detection is essential if childhood TB is to be controlled and eradicated.Delayed diagnosis of TB is associated with more advanced disease and worse treatment outcomes. Younger children who go undiagnosed for long periods are at risk of developing severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, such as meningitis...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443247/evaluation-of-a-new-ifn-%C3%AE-release-assay-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-active-tuberculosis-in-a-high-incidence-setting
#2
Gen Li, Feng Li, Hui-Min Zhao, Han-Li Wen, Hai-Cong Li, Chun-Ling Li, Ping Ji, Peng Xu, Kang Wu, Zhi-Dong Hu, Shui-Hua Lu, Douglas B Lowrie, Jian-Xin Lv, Xiao-Yong Fan
Blood-based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) have been proven to be useful in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, IGRAs have not been recommended for clinical practice in most low-income settings due to cost-intensive limitations and shortage of clinical data available. The established T-SPOT. TB assay containing Mtb-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP10 are widely used for immunodiagonsis of Mtb infection, but the high cost is one of the restricting factors against its clinical application in the developing countries...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427163/the-application-of-is6110-baced-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#3
Wen-Wen Sun, Qin Sun, Li-Ping Yan, Qing Zhang
Here, we evaluated the potential activity of rapid Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), for the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Patients with suspected TBM from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The cerebrospinalfluid(CSF) was collected. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining, MGIT 960 culture, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTFQ PCR) and LAMP were performed. A total of 200 patients were included in the study...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424703/immune-responses-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-why-do-they-fail-to-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
REVIEW
Juan I Moliva, Joanne Turner, Jordi B Torrelles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the current leading cause of death due to a single infectious organism. Although curable, the broad emergence of multi-, extensive-, extreme-, and total-drug resistant strains of M.tb has hindered eradication efforts of this pathogen. Furthermore, computational models predict a quarter of the world's population is infected with M.tb in a latent state, effectively serving as the largest reservoir for any human pathogen with the ability to cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422850/tuberculosis-associated-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-with-initial-presentation-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-in-a-general-hospital-an-analysis-of-8-clinical-cases
#5
Yun Zhang, Guangyu Liang, Hongli Qin, Yuanjie Li, Xuejun Zeng
The study aimed to investigate the clinical features and prognoses of patients with tuberculosis (TB) who had secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).Patients first presenting with fever of unknown origin, who were ultimately diagnosed with TB-associated secondary HLH, were assessed retrospectively. We summarized and analyzed clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses of patients using clinical data, outpatient follow-up, and telephone follow-up in combination with literature review...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420846/intrathecal-isoniazid-for-refractory-tuberculous-meningitis-with-cerebral-infarction
#6
Yuko Nakatani, Yutaka Suto, Kazuki Fukuma, Mika Yamawaki, Ryoichi Sakata, Shotaro Takahashi, Hiroyuki Nakayasu, Kenji Nakashima
A 30-year-old Vietnamese woman, about 19 weeks pregnant, was admitted for acute cerebral infarction with stenosis of the left middle cerebral artery (LMCA), tuberculous meningitis, and miliary tuberculosis. Treatment with heparin, quadruple anti-tuberculosis therapy, and dexamethasone afforded prompt symptomatic improvement. However, she delivered a stillbirth, after which there was recurrence of acute cerebral infarction with LMCA occlusion, sinus thrombosis, and cranial base inflammation. A thrice-weekly 100 mg dose of intrathecal isoniazid (INH) improved the signs of meningeal inflammation...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419368/leukotriene-a4-hydrolase-genotype-and-hiv-infection-influence-intracerebral-inflammation-and-survival-from-tuberculous-meningitis
#7
Nguyen T T Thuong, Dorothee Heemskerk, Trinh T B Tram, Le T P Thao, Lalita Ramakrishnan, Vu T N Ha, Nguyen D Bang, Tran T H Chau, Nguyen H Lan, Maxine Caws, Sarah J Dunstan, Nguyen V V Chau, Marcel Wolbers, Nguyen T H Mai, Guy E Thwaites
Background.: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of tuberculosis, yet very little is known about the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the genotype of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (encoded by LTA4H), which determines inflammatory eicosanoid expression, influences intracerebral inflammation, and predicts survival from TBM. Methods.: We characterized the pretreatment clinical and intracerebral inflammatory phenotype and 9-month survival of 764 adults with TBM...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410692/treatment-outcome-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-under-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-programme
#8
J J Cherian, I Lobo, A Sukhlecha, U Chawan, N A Kshirsagar, B L Nair, L Sawardekar
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) constitutes 15-20% of tuberculosis cases in India. Earlier studies have evaluated treatment outcomes of EPTB with little information on outcomes of individual site of EPTB. AIMS: The objective was to study the outcome of Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) treatment of EPTB in different organ systems under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme. METHODS: Multi-centric retrospectives record review was carried out in three states in India...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394836/18f-fdg-pet-ct-of-tuberculosis-meningitis-and-carotid-pseudoaneurysm
#9
Kasturi Rangan, Mudalsha Ravina, Nitin Yadav, Ajay Singh Suraj, Sanjay Gambhir
A 26-year-old woman presented with a headache, left-sided weakness of the body, and pulsatile swelling above the sternal notch. She was treated for abdominal tuberculosis in the past, two years later she developed miliary tuberculosis and was put on modified regimen of antitubercular drugs in view of drug induced hepatitis. Ultrasound neck revealed saccular aneurysm measuring 4 x 3 cm, located in between common carotid arteries with an eccentric thrombus. MRI brain revealed multiple tuberculoma with thick basal meningeal enhancement...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390400/a-comparative-study-do-clickers-increase-student-engagement-in-multidisciplinary-clinical-microbiology-teaching
#10
Niall T Stevens, Hélène McDermott, Fiona Boland, Teresa Pawlikowska, Hilary Humphreys
BACKGROUND: Audience response devices, or "clickers", have been used in the education of future healthcare professionals for several years with varying success. They have been reported to improve the learning experience by promoting engagement and knowledge retention. In 2014, our department evaluated the use of "clickers" in a newly introduced multidisciplinary approach to teaching large groups of third year medical students clinical cases developed around a microbiology theme. METHODS: Six multidisciplinary teaching sessions covering community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, infective endocarditis, peritonitis, bloodstream infection with pyelonephritis and bacterial meningitis were included in the study...
April 8, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367034/role-of-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-diagnosing-tubercular-meningitis
#11
Anupam Berwal, Kiran Chawla, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is one of the most serious manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Timely and accurate diagnosis provides a favorable prognosis in patients with TBM. The study evaluated the use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of TBM. A study was conducted on 74 patients clinically suspected with TBM. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were processed for smear microscopy, middle brook 7H9 culture, and multiplex PCR using primers directed against IS6110 gene and 38 kD protein for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353449/influence-of-socio-economic-inequality-measured-by-the-gini-coefficient-on-meningitis-incidence-caused-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-haemophilus-influenzae-in-colombia-2008-2011
#12
Wilmer F Acevedo-Mendoza, Diana Paola Buitrago Gómez, Miguel Ángel Atehortua-Otero, Miguel Ángel Páez, Manuela Jiménez-Rincón, Guillermo J Lagos-Grisales, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales
Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of infectious neurological morbidity and mortality. Its incidence has decreased with the introduction of vaccination programmes against preventable agents. However, low-income and middle-income countries with poor access to health care still have a significant burden of the disease. Thus, the relationship between the Gini coefficient and H. influenzae and M. tuberculosis meningitis incidence in Colombia, during 2008-2011, was assessed. In this ecological study, the Gini coefficient was obtained from the Colombian Department of Statistics, incidence rates were calculated (cases/1,000,000 pop) and linear regressions were performed using the Gini coefficient, to assess the relationship between the latter and the incidence of meningitis...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349011/late-onset-hydrocephalus-in-children-with-tuberculous-meningitis
#13
Disha Sharma, Ira Shah, Sharad Patel
Hydrocephalus is a known complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). It is almost always present in patients who have had the disease for four to six weeks. However, hydrocephalus can also develop later in the disease course as seen in our 3 patients. All 3 patients had multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and developed hydrocephalus after variable time after starting second line anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT). A 7 years old girl had hydrocephalus at onset of TBM and was shunted but the hydrocephalus increased in size after 6 months of being on second line ATT in spite of a patent ventricular peritoneal (VP) shunt...
October 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343419/clinical-features-long-term-clinical-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-west-china-a-multivariate-analysis-of-154-adults
#14
Kunyi Li, Hong Tang, Yi Yang, Qin Li, Yuchuan Zhou, Min Ren, Xianghua Long, Wenjing Shen, Rong Hu, Xue-Feng Wang, Kebin Zeng
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is prevalent in China, which is the second greatest contributor to the global tuberculosis burden. Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe disease form but few reports describe long-term clinical outcomes and prognostic factors. Thus, we studied these features in Chinese TBM patients. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was used to collect clinical features and outcomes of adult TB meningitis at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from June 2012 to August 2015...
March 27, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333988/years-of-life-lost-due-to-infectious-diseases-in-poland
#15
Marek Bryla, Elzbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Pawel Bryla, Malgorzata Pikala, Irena Maniecka-Bryla
PURPOSE: An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999-2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. METHODS: The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329667/serious-infections-are-on-the-rise-in-us-inpatients-with-psoriasis
#16
Derek Y Hsu
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with immune dysregulation and use of systemic immunosuppressive treatments that may predispose toward serious infections. We sought to determine the rates of serious infections in hospitalized patients with psoriasis. We analyzed data from the 2002-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a 20% sample of all US hospitalizations. Psoriasis was determined by a validated algorithm using ICD-9-CM codes. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographics, psoriasis was associated with multiple serious infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals] 1...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318770/expression-of-cathepsin-s-in-bcg-converts-it-into-a-pro-apoptotic-and-highly-immunogenic-strain
#17
Alice Lau, Vijender Singh, Hafid Soualhine, Zakaria Hmama
BACKGROUND: BCG vaccine, introduced almost 100years ago, is the only option to prevent TB disease. It effectively protects newborns from meningeal TB but fails to prevent adult pulmonary TB. TB kills 1.3million people annually in areas where BCG vaccination is widely practiced. Thus, more effective TB vaccines are urgently needed. Others and we have shown that BCG mimics features of virulent M. tuberculosis, in particular attenuation of essential macrophage functions such as phagosome maturation and antigen presentation...
March 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288691/immunological-diagnosis-as-an-adjunctive-tool-for-an-early-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis-of-an-immune-competent-child-in-a-low-tuberculosis-endemic-country-a-case-report
#18
Serena Vita, Camilla Ajassa, Emanuela Caraffa, Miriam Lichtner, Claudia Mascia, Fabio Mengoni, Maria Grazia Paglia, Cristina Mancarella, Davide Colistra, Claudio Di Biasi, Rosa Maria Ciardi, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo
BACKGROUND: Pediatric tuberculous meningitis is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. Its prompt diagnosis and treatment saves lives, in fact delays in the initiation of therapy have been associated with high mortality rates. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of an Italian child who was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis after a history of a month of headache, fatigue and weight loss. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis with predominance and decreased glucose concentration...
March 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281443/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#19
John M Leonard
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) takes three clinical forms: meningitis (TBM), intracranial tuberculoma, and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM predominates in the western world and presents as a subacute to chronic meningitis syndrome with a prodrome of malaise, fever, and headache progressing to altered mentation and focal neurologic signs, followed by stupor, coma, and death within five to eight weeks of onset. The CSF formula typically shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis, and low glucose and high protein concentrations...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281441/miliary-tuberculosis
#20
Surendra K Sharma, Alladi Mohan
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) results from a massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and is characterized by tiny tubercles evident on gross pathology resembling millet seeds in size and appearance. The global HIV/AIDS pandemic and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and biologicals have altered the epidemiology of miliary TB. Considered to be predominantly a disease of infants and children in the pre-antibiotic era, miliary TB is increasingly being encountered in adults as well...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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