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Lipid transfer protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081360/pinus-densiflora-bark-extract-pinexol-decreased-adiposity-in-mice-by-down-regulation-of-hepatic-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-white-adipose-tissue
#1
Hyemyoung Ahn, Gwang-Woong Go
PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti3 inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077357/triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-lipolysis-products-increase-blood-brain-barrier-transfer-coefficient-and-induce-astrocyte-lipid-droplets-and-cell-stress
#2
Linda L Lee, Hnin Hnin Aung, Dennis W Wilson, Steven E Anderson, John C Rutledge, Jennifer M Rutkowsky
Elevation of blood triglycerides, primarily as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL), has been linked to cerebrovascular inflammation, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes, two cell components of the neurovascular unit, participate in controlling blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and regulating neurovascular unit homeostasis. Our studies showed that infusion of high physiological concentrations of TGRL lipolysis products (TGRL + lipoprotein lipase) activate and injure brain endothelial cells and transiently increases the BBB transfer coefficient (Ki=permeability x surface area/volume) in vivo...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077296/extracellular-vesicle-communication-pathways-as-regulatory-targets-of-oncogenic-transformation
#3
REVIEW
Dongsic Choi, Tae Hoon Lee, Cristiana Spinelli, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Esterina D'Asti, Janusz Rak
Pathogenesis of human cancers bridges intracellular oncogenic driver events and their impact on intercellular communication. Among multiple mediators of this 'pathological connectivity' the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their subsets (exosomes, ectosomes, oncosomes) is of particular interest for several reasons. The release of EVs from cancer cells represents a unique mechanism of regulated expulsion of bioactive molecules, a process that also mediates cell-to-cell transfer of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067619/analyzing-native-membrane-protein-assembly-in-nanodiscs-by-combined-non-covalent-mass-spectrometry-and-synthetic-biology
#4
Erik Henrich, Oliver Peetz, Christopher Hein, Aisha Laguerre, Beate Hoffmann, Jan Hoffmann, Volker Dötsch, Frank Bernhard, Nina Morgner
Membrane proteins frequently assemble into higher order homo- or hetero-oligomers within their natural lipid environment. This complex formation can modulate their folding, activity as well as substrate selectivity. Non-disruptive methods avoiding critical steps such as membrane disintegration, transfer into artificial environments or chemical modifications are therefore essential to analyze molecular mechanisms of native membrane protein assemblies. The combination of cell-free synthetic biology, nanodisc-technology and non-covalent mass spectrometry provides excellent synergies for the analysis of membrane protein oligomerization within defined membranes...
January 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067047/solvatochromic-and-fluorogenic-dyes-as-environment-sensitive-probes-design-and-biological-applications
#5
Andrey S Klymchenko
Fluorescent environment-sensitive probes are specially designed dyes that change their fluorescence intensity (fluorogenic dyes) or color (e.g., solvatochromic dyes) in response to change in their microenvironment polarity, viscosity, and molecular order. The studies of the past decade, including those of our group, have shown that these molecules become universal tools in fluorescence sensing and imaging. In fact, any biomolecular interaction or change in biomolecular organization results in modification of the local microenvironment, which can be directly monitored by these types of probes...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063740/high-density-lipoproteins-biology-epidemiology-and-clinical-management
#6
REVIEW
Hong Y Choi, Anouar Hafiane, Adel Schwertani, Jacques Genest
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have multiple pleiotropic effects against arteriosclerosis. Most are independent of the cholesterol mass within HDL particles. Yet, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a biomarker to assess cardiovascular risk. Whereas the epidemiological association between HDL-C and cardiovascular risk is strong, graded and coherent across populations, Mendelian randomization studies cast doubt on whether HDL-C is causally related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The apparent failure of HDL-C-raising therapies (fibrates, niacin, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors) raises questions about the HDL-C hypothesis...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063497/pld-protein-protein-interactions-with-signaling-molecules-and-modulation-by-pa
#7
J Gomez-Cambronero, A J Morris, K M Henkels
We describe methods for studying phospholipase D (PLD) interactions with signaling proteins and modulation of these interactions by the PLD reaction product, phosphatidic acid (PA). PLD is fundamental to the physiological maintenance of cellular/intracellular membranes, protein trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics, membrane remodeling, cell proliferation, meiotic division and sporulation. PA is an acidic phospholipid involved in the biosynthesis of many other lipids that affects the enzymatic activities of many different signaling proteins via protein-lipid interactions or as a substrate...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063492/interfacial-enzymes-membrane-binding-orientation-membrane-insertion-and-activity
#8
S A Tatulian
Most interfacial enzymes undergo activation upon membrane binding. Interfacial activation is determined not only by the binding strength but also by the specific mode of protein-membrane interactions, including the angular orientation and membrane insertion of the enzymes. This chapter describes biophysical techniques to quantitatively evaluate membrane binding, orientation, membrane insertion, and activity of secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and lipoxygenase (LO) enzymes. Procedures for recombinant production and purification of human pancreatic PLA2 and human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) are also presented...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063231/exosomes-nanoparticulate-tools-for-rna-interference-and-drug-delivery
#9
REVIEW
Fahimeh Shahabipour, Nastaran Barati, Thomas P Johnston, Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Exosomes are naturally occurring extracellular vesicles released by most mammalian cells in all body fluids. Exosomes are known as key mediators in cell-cell communication and facilitate the transfer of genetic and biochemical information between distant cells. Structurally, exosomes are composed of lipids, proteins, and also several types of RNAs which enable these vesicles to serve as important disease biomarkers. Moreover, exosomes have emerged as novel drug and gene delivery tools owing to their multiple advantages over conventional delivery systems...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057378/beneficial-effect-of-cetp-gene-polymorphism-in-combination-with-a-mediterranean-diet-influencing-lipid-metabolism-in-metabolic-syndrome-patients-cordioprev-study
#10
Antonio Garcia-Rios, Juan Francisco Alcala-Diaz, Francisco Gomez-Delgado, Javier Delgado-Lista, Carmen Marin, Ana Leon-Acuña, Antonio Camargo, Fernando Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Ruth Blanco-Rojo, Gracia Quintana-Navarro, Jose Maria Ordovas, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Pablo Perez-Martinez
The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene has been implicated in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) metabolism. However, little is known about the impact of this gene on metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and its interaction with diet. Here, we evaluate whether the consumption of a Mediterranean diet, compared with a Low-fat diet, interacts with the rs3764261 SNP at the CETP locus to modify lipid metabolism in MetS patients. Plasma lipid concentrations and rs3764261 genotypes were determined in 424 MetS subjects participating in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial (NCT00924937)...
December 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055137/a-single-point-mutation-in-ms44-results-in-dominant-male-sterility-and-improves-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-maize
#11
Tim Fox, Jason DeBruin, Kristin Haug Collet, Mary Trimnell, Joshua Clapp, April Leonard, Bailin Li, Eric Scolaro, Sarah Collinson, Kimberly Glassman, Michael Miller, Jeff Schussler, Dennis Dolan, Lu Liu, Carla Gho, Marc Albertsen, Dale Loussaert, Bo Shen
Application of nitrogen fertilizer in the past 50 years has resulted in significant increases in crop yields. However, loss of nitrogen from crop fields has been associated with negative impacts on the environment. Developing maize hybrids with improved nitrogen use efficiency is a cost-effective strategy for increasing yield sustainably. We report that a dominant male sterile mutant Ms44 encodes a lipid transfer protein which is expressed specifically in the tapetum. A single amino acid change from alanine to threonine at the signal peptide cleavage site of the Ms44 protein abolished protein processing and impeded the secretion of protein from tapetal cells into the locule, resulting in dominant male sterility...
January 5, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054497/the-lipopolysaccharide-lipid-a-long-chain-fatty-acid-is-important-for-rhizobium-leguminosarum-growth-and-stress-adaptation-in-free-living-and-nodule-environments
#12
Dianna V Bourassa, Elmar Kannenberg, Janine Sherrier, Richard Jeffrey Buhr, Russell Carlson
Rhizobium bacteria live in soil and plant environments, are capable of inducing symbiotic nodules on legumes, invade these nodules, and develop into bacteroids that fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Rhizobial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is anchored in the bacterial outer membrane through a specialized lipid A containing a very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA). VLCFA function for rhizobial growth in soil and plant environments is not well understood. Two genes, acpXL and lpxXL, encoding acyl carrier protein and acyltransferase, are among the six genes required for biosynthesis and transfer of VLCFA to lipid A...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045431/unraveling-massive-crocins-transport-and-accumulation-through-proteome-and-microscopy-tools-during-the-development-of-saffron-stigma
#13
Lourdes Gómez-Gómez, Verónica Parra-Vega, Alba Rivas-Sendra, Jose M Seguí-Simarro, Rosa Victoria Molina, Claudia Pallotti, Ángela Rubio-Moraga, Gianfranco Diretto, Alicia Prieto, Oussama Ahrazem
Crocins, the glucosides of crocetin, are present at high concentrations in saffron stigmas and accumulate in the vacuole. However, the biogenesis of the saffron chromoplast, the changes during the development of the stigma and the transport of crocins to the vacuole, are processes that remain poorly understood. We studied the process of chromoplast differentiation in saffron throughout stigma development by means of transmission electron microscopy. Our results provided an overview of a massive transport of crocins to the vacuole in the later developmental stages, when electron dense drops of a much greater size than plastoglobules (here defined "crocinoplast") were observed in the chromoplast, connected to the vacuole with a subsequent transfer of these large globules inside the vacuole...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028209/tracking-solvents-in-the-skin-through-atomically-resolved-measurements-of-molecular-mobility-in-intact-stratum-corneum
#14
Quoc Dat Pham, Daniel Topgaard, Emma Sparr
Solvents are commonly used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and sanitary products and cleansers. The uptake of solvent into the skin may change the molecular organization of skin lipids and proteins, which may in turn alter the protective skin barrier function. We herein examine the molecular effects of 10 different solvents on the outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum (SC), using polarization transfer solid-state NMR on natural abundance (13)C in intact SC. With this approach it is possible to characterize the molecular dynamics of solvent molecules when present inside intact SC and to simultaneously monitor the effects caused by the added solvent on SC lipids and protein components...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012603/overexpressed-pltp-in-macrophage-may-promote-cholesterol-accumulation-by-prolonged-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#15
Xinquan Yang, Yang Yu, Daxin Wang, Shucun Qin
It is well known that phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is involved in the lipid metabolism and development of atherosclerosis (AS). Abundant PLTP is considered to be expressed on the foam cells derived from monocyte/macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting that high level of active PLTP may promote the formation of foam cells. However, the exact role of PLTP on the process of macrophage derived foam cell formation remains unclear. The accumulation of free cholesterol (FC) in the cytoplasm may lead to the prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs) and the imbalance of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011644/phosphatidylserine-stimulates-ceramide-1-phosphate-c1p-intermembrane-transfer-by-c1p-transfer-proteins
#16
Xiuhong Zhai, Yong-Guang Gao, Shrawan K Mishra, Dhirendra K Simanshu, Ivan A Boldyrev, Linda M Benson, H Robert Bergen, Lucy Malinina, John Mundy, Julian G Molotkovsky, Dinshaw J Patel, Rhoderick E Brown
Genetic models for studying localized cell suicide that halt the spread of pathogen infection and immune response activation in plants include Arabidopsis accelerated-cell-death11 (acd11) In this mutant, sphingolipid homeostasis is disrupted via depletion of ACD11, a lipid transfer protein that is specific for ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and phyto-C1P. The C1P binding site in ACD11 and in human ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein (CPTP) is surrounded by cationic residues. Here, we investigated the functional regulation of ACD11 and CPTP by anionic phosphoglycerides and found that 1 palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidic acid or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (≈ 15 mol%) in C1P-source vesicles depressed C1P intermembrane transfer...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008089/extracellular-vesicles-their-role-in-cancer-biology-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#17
REVIEW
Shashi K Gopal, David W Greening, Alin Rai, Maoshan Chen, Rong Xu, Adnan Shafiq, Rommel A Mathias, Hong-Jian Zhu, Richard J Simpson
Cell-cell communication is critical across an assortment of physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an integral facet of intercellular communication largely through the transfer of functional cargo such as proteins, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNA (miRNAs), DNAs and lipids. EVs, especially exosomes and shed microvesicles, represent an important delivery medium in the tumour micro-environment through the reciprocal dissemination of signals between cancer and resident stromal cells to facilitate tumorigenesis and metastasis...
January 1, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007605/mitochondrial-networking-in-diabetic-left-ventricle-cardiomyocytes
#18
REVIEW
Lucia-Doina Popov
Cardiomyocyte mitochondria preserve "the quorum sensing" attribute of their aerobic bacterial ancestors, as shown by the transient physical connectivity and communication not only with each other, but also with other intracellular organelles and with cytosol, ensuing cellular homeostasis. In this review, we present original electron microscopy evidence on mitochondrial networking within diabetic left ventricular cardiomyocytes, focusing on: (i) the inter-mitochondrial communication, allowing electrochemical signals transfer and outer membrane components or matrix proteins exchange, (ii) the interplay between mitochondria and the cardiomyocyte nucleus, nucleolus, sarcoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and lipid droplets viewed as attributes of mitochondrial "quality control" and "retrograde signaling function", and (iii) the crosstalk between mitochondria and cardiomyocyte cytosol, as part of the adaptive responses that allow cells survival...
December 19, 2016: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004240/silencing-of-an-%C3%AE-dioxygenase-gene-ca-dox-retards-growth-and-suppresses-basal-disease-resistance-responses-in-capsicum-annum
#19
Chi Eun Hong, Young-Im Ha, Hyoju Choi, Ju Yeon Moon, Jiyoung Lee, Ah-Young Shin, Chang Jin Park, Gyeong Mee Yoon, Suk-Yoon Kwon, Ick-Hyun Jo, Jeong Mee Park
Alpha-dioxygenases (α-DOX) catalyzing the primary oxygenation of fatty acids to oxylipins were recently found in plants. Here, the biological roles of the pepper α-DOX (Ca-DOX) gene, which is strongly induced during non-host pathogen infection in chili pepper, were examined. Virus-induced gene silencing demonstrated that down-regulation of Ca-DOX enhanced susceptibility to bacterial pathogens and suppressed the hypersensitive response via the suppression of pathogenesis-related genes such as PR4, proteinase inhibitor II and lipid transfer protein (PR14)...
December 21, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001010/adipocyte-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-lbp-is-linked-to-a-specific-lipidomic-signature
#20
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Mariona Jové, Teresa Padró, Jordi Boada, Francisco Ortega, Wifredo Ricart, Reinald Pamplona, Lina Badimón, Manuel Portero-Otín, José Manuel Fernández-Real
OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is part of a family of structurally and functionally related lipid transfer proteins. This study aimed to investigate the associations of LBP with the lipid composition of human adipose tissue. METHODS: Lipidomic analysis was performed in whole adipose tissue. To validate the associations found, LBP was knocked down (KD) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and lipidomic profile was evaluated by nontargeted lipidomics. RESULTS: LBP gene expression was negatively associated with phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin relative abundance in vivo...
December 21, 2016: Obesity
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