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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793115/estimating-chemical-ecotoxicity-in-eu-ecolabel-and-in-eu-product-environmental-footprint
#1
Erwan Saouter, An De Schryver, Rana Pant, Serenella Sala
The EU Commission Ecolabel and the Product and Environmental Footprint (PEF) aim at promoting the development and consumption of greener products. The product aquatic toxicity score from these 2 methods may lead in some circumstances to opposite conclusions. Although this could be interpreted as an inconsistency, the score should not be compared to each other but used in a complementary way. In short, CDV provided a "full" product formula aquatic toxicity score, even if some chemicals may never reach or persist in freshwater ecosystems...
May 21, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793106/microplastics-in-mussels-sampled-from-coastal-waters-and-supermarkets-in-the-united-kingdom
#2
Jiana Li, Christopher Green, Alan Reynolds, Huahong Shi, Jeanette M Rotchell
Global contamination of the marine environment by plastic has led to the discovery of microplastics in a range of marine species, including those for human consumption. In this study, the presence of microplastics and other anthropogenic debris in seawater and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of the U.K., as well as supermarket sources, was investigated. These were detected in all samples from all sites with spatial differences observed. Seawater samples taken from 6 locations (in triplicates) displayed 3...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793104/uptake-elimination-and-biotransformation-of-n-ethyl-perfluorooctane-sulfonamide-n-etfosa-by-the-earthworms-eisenia-fetida-after-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-exposure
#3
Shuyan Zhao, Bohui Wang, Lingyan Zhu, Tiankun Liang, Meng Chen, Liping Yang, Jingping Lv, Lifen Liu
N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is commonly known as the active ingredient of sulfluramid. It can be degraded to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in biota and environment. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed with N-EtFOSA to examine the bioaccumulation, elimination and metabolism of N-EtFOSA by the earthworms after in vivo and in vitro exposure. N-EtFOSA could be biodegraded in quartz sands to perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS. In the in vivo tests, in addition to parent N-EtFOSA, three metabolites, including perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), FOSA and PFOS also accumulated in earthworms as a result of N-EtFOSA biotransformation, with FOSA as the predominant metabolite...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793103/disruption-of-the-gonadal-endocannabinoid-system-in-zebrafish-exposed-to-diisononyl-phthalate
#4
Isabel Forner-Piquer, Stefania Santangeli, Francesca Maradonna, Alessandro Rabbito, Fabiana Piscitelli, Hamid R Habibi, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Oliana Carnevali
DiNP (Di-isononyl phthalate) has been recently introduced as DEHP (Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) substitute and due to its chemical properties, DiNP is commonly used in a large variety of plastic items. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a lipid signaling system involved in a plethora of physiological pathways including the control of the reproductive and metabolic processes. In this study, the effects of DiNP on the ECS of zebrafish (male and female) gonads were analyzed. Adult zebrafish were chronically exposed for 21 days via water to 3 environmentally relevant concentrations of DiNP (42 μg/L; 4...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792956/development-of-photo-modified-starch-kefiran-tio-2-bio-nanocomposite-as-an-environmentally-friendly-food-packaging-material
#5
Vahid Goudarzi, Iman Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi
This paper reports on an experiment in which starch/kefiran/TiO2 (SKT)-based bio-nanocomposite films were developed and modified by photo-chemical reaction. In so doing, film-forming solutions were exposed to ultraviolet A (UV-A) for different times (1, 6, and 12 h). The obtained results indicated that increasing UV-A exposure time brought about an increase (≈14.9%) in the tensile strength of bio-nanocomposites. However, elongation at break and Young's modulus of irradiated film specimen decreased (≈32%, ≈12%, respectively) by increasing UV-A exposure time, and the moisture-sensitive parameters of specimen decreased using UV-A irradiation...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792256/uncaring-nurses-mobilizing-power-knowledge-difference-and-resistance-to-explain-workplace-violence-in-academia
#6
Renee Berquist, Isabelle St-Pierre, Dave Holmes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Violence among nurses and in nursing academia is a significant issue, with attention increasingly focused on damage resulting from psychological violence, such as bullying, harassment, aggression, and incivility. Each workplace's interpretation of violence will impact individual behavior within the organization. Organizational and environmental factors can contribute to violent behaviors becoming normalized in the workplace. When violent behaviors go unconstrained, they become imbedded within the workplace culture...
May 1, 2018: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791850/the-memory-of-environmental-chemical-exposure-in-c-elegans-is-dependent-on-the-jumonji-demethylases-jmjd-2-and-jmjd-3-utx-1
#7
Jessica Camacho, Lisa Truong, Zeyneb Kurt, Yen-Wei Chen, Marco Morselli, Gerardo Gutierrez, Matteo Pellegrini, Xia Yang, Patrick Allard
How artificial environmental cues are biologically integrated and transgenerationally inherited is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of inheritance of reproductive outcomes elicited by the model environmental chemical Bisphenol A in C. elegans. We show that Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure causes the derepression of an epigenomically silenced transgene in the germline for 5 generations, regardless of ancestral response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), histone modification quantitation, and immunofluorescence assays revealed that this effect is associated with a reduction of the repressive marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 in whole worms and in germline nuclei in the F3, as well as with reproductive dysfunctions, including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791763/payments-for-ecosystem-services-in-mexico-reduce-forest-fragmentation
#8
Carlos Ramirez-Reyes, Katharine R E Sims, Peter Potapov, Volker C Radeloff
Forest fragmentation can lead to habitat reduction, edge increase, and exposure to disturbances. A key emerging policy to protect forests is payments for ecosystem services (PES), which offers compensation to landowners for environmental stewardship. Mexico was one of the first countries to implement a broad-scale PES program, enrolling over 2.3 Mha by 2010. However, Mexico's PES did not completely eliminate deforestation in enrolled parcels and could have increased incentives to hide deforestation in ways that increased fragmentation...
May 23, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791473/the-fecal-bacterial-microbiota-of-bats-slovenia
#9
Modest Vengust, Tea Knapic, J Scott Weese
METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 92 bats in Slovenia, consisting of 12 different species, and the bacterial microbiota was assessed via next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 region. RESULTS: Sequences were assigned to 28 different phyla, but only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria accounted for ≥1% of sequences. One phylum (Proteobacteria), one class (Gammaproteobacteria), three orders (Pseudomonadales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales), four families (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Carnobacteriaceae), and five genera (Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Carnobacterium, an unclassified Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter) accounted for 50% of sequences...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791472/pioglitazone-abolishes-autistic-like-behaviors-via-the-il-6-pathway
#10
Thiago Berti Kirsten, Renato C Casarin, Maria M Bernardi, Luciano F Felicio
Autism is characterized by social deficits, communication abnormalities, and repetitive behaviors. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infections by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790856/surface-terminations-of-hematite-i-%C3%AE-i-fe-sub-2-sub-o-sub-3-sub-exposed-to-oxygen-hydrogen-or-water-dependence-on-the-dft-methodology
#11
Richard Baochang Wang, Anders Hellman
Hematite ($\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$) is the most stable and abundant iron oxide
 in nature, and is used in many important environmental and industrial
 technologies, such as waste-water treatment, gas sensors, and
 photoelectrocatalysis. A clear understanding of
 the structure, composition, and chemistry of the hematite surface 
 is crucial for improving its function in these technologies. The (0001) 
 facet is reported to dominate under natural 
 conditions, while the specific terminations depend strongly on
 preparation conditions...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790737/environmental-stability-of-plasmonic-biosensors-based-on-natural-vs-artificial-antibody
#12
Jingyi Luan, Ting Xu, John Cashin, Jeremiah J Morrissey, Evan D Kharasch, Srikanth Singamaneni
Plasmonic biosensors based on the refractive index sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) are considered to be highly promising for on-chip and point-of-care biodiagnostics. However, most of the current plasmonic biosensors employ natural antibodies as biorecognition elements, which are easy to lose their biorecognition ability upon exposure to environmental stressors (e.g., temperature and humidity). Plasmonic biosensors relying on molecular imprints as recognition elements (artificial antibodies) are hypothesized to be an attractive alternative for applications in resource-limited settings due to their excellent thermal, chemical, and environmental stability...
May 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790051/probabilistic-risk-based-pollution-prevention-model-for-a-foundry-a-case-study-of-casting
#13
Souad Ahmed Benromdhane
Hazardous air pollutants from industrial activities have long been associated with serious health effects. Traditional health risk assessment uses point estimates of inhalation concentrations based on standard Gaussian diffusion models with steady-state emission rate assumptions. This traditional approach was criticized because it does not account for variability and thus leading to a potential overestimate of the health risk from the batch processes. To overcome this deficiency, a probabilistic risk assessment model is proposed...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789892/-the-significance-of-climate-and-environment-protection-for-health-under-special-consideration-of-skin-barrier-damages-and-allergic-sequelae
#14
REVIEW
Clemens Heuson, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann
The skin, together with gut and respiratory tract, harbor a central epithelial barrier function in regards to the interaction of an individual with the environment. Continuing exposure to environmental influences can cause epithelial barrier damages and thus pave the way for atopy development. The latter describes the tendency for allergies, i. e. hypersensitivity of the skin, intestine, and respiratory tract towards per se unharmful environmental substances.Allergies are classified as non-communicable diseases (NCDs)...
May 22, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789891/-overview-of-indicators-in-the-context-of-environment-and-health
#15
REVIEW
Myriam Tobollik, Claudia Kabel, Odile Mekel, Claudia Hornberg, Dietrich Plaß
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based political measures need reliable information about the health status of a population and the determinants affecting health. Here, environment and health indicators can provide helpful additional insights. AIM: This article provides an overview of existing indicators in the field of environment and health. MATERIALS: There are single indicators and indicator sets describing solely the environment or health as well as some indicators integrating both aspects...
May 22, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789260/respondent-driven-sampling-in-a-biomonitoring-study-of-refugees-from-burma-in-buffalo-new-york-who-eat-great-lakes-fish
#16
Ming Liu, Molly McCann, Elizabeth Lewis-Michl, Syni-An Hwang
BACKGROUND: Refugees from Burma who consume fish caught from local waterbodies have increased risk of exposure to environmental contaminants. We used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to sample this hard-to-reach population for the first Biomonitoring of Great Lakes Populations program. In the current study, we examined the interview data and assessed the effectiveness of RDS to sample the unique population. METHODS: In 2013, we used RDS to sample 205 Burmese refugees and immigrants residing in Buffalo, New York who consumed fish caught from Great Lakes waters...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788378/laboratory-validation-and-field-assessment-of-petroleum-laboratory-technicians-dermal-exposure-to-crude-oil-using-a-wipe-sampling-method
#17
Karen S Galea, Will Mueller, Ayman M Arfaj, Jose L Llamas, Jennifer Buick, David Todd, Carolyn McGonagle
Crude oil may cause adverse dermal effects therefore dermal exposure is an exposure route of concern. Galea et al. (2014b) reported on a study comparing recovery (wipe) and interception (cotton glove) dermal sampling methods. The authors concluded that both methods were suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil but that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. We describe a study which aimed to further evaluate the wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to crude oil, with this assessment including extended sample storage periods and sampling efficiency tests being undertaken at environmental conditions to mimic those typical of outdoor conditions in Saudi Arabia...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788325/ancestral-tcdd-exposure-induces-multigenerational-histologic-and-transcriptomic-alterations-in-gonads-of-male-zebrafish
#18
Danielle N Meyer, Bridget B Baker, Tracie R Baker
TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), the classic AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) agonist, is a potent environmental toxicant and endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) with known developmental toxicity in humans, rodents, and fish. Early life exposure to some EDCs, including TCDD, is linked to the occurrence of adult-onset and multigenerational disease. Previous work exposing juvenile F0 zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 50 ppt (parts per trillion) TCDD during reproductive development has shown male-mediated transgenerational decreases in fertility (F0-F2) and histological and transcriptomic alterations in F0 testes...
May 21, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788232/chronic-stress-exposure-reduces-parvalbumin-expression-in-the-rat-hippocampus-through-an-imbalance-of-redox-mechanisms-restorative-effect-of-the-antipsychotic-lurasidone
#19
Andrea C Rossetti, Maria Serena Paladini, Martina Colombo, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Katarzyna Tota-Glowczyk, Mariusz Papp, Marco A Riva, Raffaella Molteni
Background: Psychiatric disorders are associated with altered function of inhibitory neurotransmission within the limbic system, which may be due to the vulnerability of selective neuronal subtypes to challenging environmental conditions, such as stress. In this context, parvalbumin (PVB) positive GABAergic interneurons, which are critically involved in processing complex cognitive tasks, are particularly vulnerable to stress exposure, an effect that may be the consequence of dysregulated redox mechanisms...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788174/aspirin-abrogates-impairment-of-mammary-gland-differentiation-induced-by-early-in-life-second-hand-smoke-in-mice
#20
Julia Santucci-Pereira, Thomas J Pogash, Aman Patel, Navroop Hundal, Maria Barton, Anna Camoirano, Rosanna T Micale, Sebastiano La Maestra, Roumen Balansky, Silvio De Flora, Jose Russo
Epidemiological studies show that there is limited evidence that tobacco smoking causes breast cancer in humans. In rodents, many tobacco smoke chemicals cause mammary gland tumors. This study evaluated the mammary gland differentiation in mice exposed to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS), using 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes, starting after birth and continuing daily for 10 weeks (total particulate exposure 95 mg/m3; CO 610 ppm). We also analyzed the effects of oral administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin (1600mg/kg) or naproxen (320mg/kg), on mammary gland differentiation, either in unexposed or ECS-exposed mice...
May 17, 2018: Carcinogenesis
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