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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215055/occupational-hazards-for-home-care-nurses-across-the-rural-to-urban-gradient-in-ontario-canada
#1
Matthew Wong, Margaret Saari, Erin Patterson, Martine Puts, Ann E Tourangeau
The purpose of this paper was to describe occupational hazards for nurses working in home care (HC) and explore how they differ across the rural-to-urban gradient. Responses (n = 823) from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 of HC nurses registered to practise nursing in the Province of Ontario, Canada were used. Using chi-square analysis and posthoc pairwise tests with a Bonferroni correction, 14 occupational hazards were individually tested for differences between four geographical settings (rural, town, suburban or urban areas)...
February 19, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214946/an-evaluation-of-feather-corticosterone-as-a-biomarker-of-fitness-and-an-ecologically-relevant-stressor-during-breeding-in-the-wild
#2
Christopher M Harris, Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
Feather corticosterone (CORT) levels are increasingly employed as biomarkers of environmental stress. However, it is unclear if feather CORT levels reflect stress and/or workload in the wild. We investigated whether feather CORT represents a biomarker of environmental stress and reproductive effort in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Specifically, we examined whether individual state and investment during reproduction could predict feather CORT levels in subsequently moulted feathers and whether those levels could predict future survival and reproductive success...
February 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214937/factors-affecting-the-variability-in-the-observed-levels-of-cadmium-in-blood-and-urine-among-former-and-current-smokers-aged-20-64-and-%C3%A2-65years
#3
Ram B Jain
Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999-2012 were used to evaluate factors that affect observed levels of blood cadmium (BCd) and urine cadmium (UCd) among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥65 years. Adjusted levels (AGM) for BCd and UCd were higher among females as compared to males. The order of AGM for BCd by race/ethnicity for 20-64 years old was non-Hispanic white (NHW) < non-Hispanic black (NHB) and NHW > NHB for ≥65 years old. The order of AGMs for UCd for 20-64-year-old current smokers was NHW > NHB and NHW > NHB for former smokers...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214898/early-development-of-parvalbumin-somatostatin-and-cholecystokinin-expressing-neurons-in-rat-brain-following-prenatal-immune-activation-and-maternal-iron-deficiency
#4
Patricia Boksa, Ying Zhang, Dominique Nouel, Alice Wong, Tak Pan Wong
Prenatal maternal infection and maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy are 2 early environmental insults associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Substantial evidence suggests that abnormalities in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron function, especially in the parvalbumin subtype of GABA interneuron, both developmentally and in adulthood, may contribute mechanistically to cognitive deficits and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This study used a rat model to test whether prenatal immune activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; at gestation days, GD, 15 and 16) or maternal iron deficiency (from GD2 to postnatal day P7) or the combination of both insults alters major subtypes of GABAergic interneurons (parvalbumin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin) in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia (medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus, ventral subiculum) in offspring at P14 or P28...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214519/detection-and-quantification-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-environmental-samples-a-review-of-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Gulshan Singh, Thor Axel Stenström, Poovendhree Reddy
It is estimated that over a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) globally with majority occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Anclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are the main species infecting people. These infections are mostly gained through exposure to faecally contaminated water, soil or contaminated food and with an increase in the risk of infections due to wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture...
February 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213886/dysregulation-of-metabolic-pathways-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma
#6
Kevin D Quinn, Michaela Schedel, Yasmeen Nkrumah-Elie, Anthony Joetham, Michael Armstrong, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Richard Reisdorph, Erwin W Gelfand, Nichole Reisdorph
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex lung disease resulting from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. To understand the molecular changes that occur during the development of allergic asthma without genetic and environmental confounders, an experimental model of allergic asthma in mice was used. Our goals were to (1) identify changes at the small molecule level due to allergen exposure, (2) determine perturbed pathways due to disease, and (3) determine whether small molecule changes correlate with lung function...
February 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213827/resistance-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-toxicity-and-associated-bioenergetic-consequences-in-a-population-of-fundulus-heteroclitus
#7
C D Lindberg, N Jayasundara, J S Kozal, T C Leuthner, R T Di Giulio
Several locations in the Elizabeth River, VA, USA are highly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to the release of creosote mixtures from wood treatment facilities. Interestingly, some populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting the Elizabeth River (ER) are resistant to PAH-induced teratogenesis. However, evolutionary resistance to PAHs due to chronic PAH exposure is associated with reduced fitness and increased susceptibility to other environmental stressors in at least one PAH-resistant ER killifish population...
February 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213810/how-to-tackle-natural-focal-infections-from-risk-assessment-to-vaccination-strategies
#8
Luca Busani, Alexander E Platonov, Onder Ergonul, Giovanni Rezza
Natural focal diseases are caused by biological agents associated with specific landscapes. The natural focus of such diseases is defined as any natural ecosystem containing the pathogen's population as an essential component. In such context, the agent circulates independently on human presence, and humans may become accidentally infected through contact with vectors or reservoirs. Some viruses (i.e., tick-borne encephalitis and Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus) are paradigmatic examples of natural focal diseases...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213337/effect-of-advanced-oxidation-on-n-nitrosodimethylamine-ndma-formation-and-microbial-ecology-during-pilot-scale-biological-activated-carbon-filtration
#9
Dong Li, Ben Stanford, Eric Dickenson, Wendell O Khunjar, Carissa L Homme, Erik J Rosenfeldt, Jonathan O Sharp
Water treatment combining advanced oxidative processes with subsequent exposure to biological activated carbon (BAC) holds promise for the attenuation of recalcitrant pollutants. Here we contrast oxidation and subsequent biofiltration of treated wastewater effluent employing either ozone or UV/H2O2 followed by BAC during pilot-scale implementation. Both treatment trains largely met target water quality goals by facilitating the removal of a suite of trace organics and bulk water parameters. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation was observed in ozone fed BAC columns during biofiltration and to a lesser extent in UV/H2O2 fed columns and was most pronounced at 20 min of empty bed contact time (EBCT) when compared to shorter EBCTs evaluated...
February 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213326/amino-acid-mediated-turn-off-turn-on-nanozyme-activity-of-gold-nanoclusters-for-sensitive-and-selective-detection-of-copper-ions-and-histidine
#10
Yan Liu, Ding Ding, Yuanlin Zhen, Rong Guo
Herein, we presented a facile strategy for highly sensitive and selective detection of both Cu(2+) and histidine (His) by combining the peroxidase-like nanozyme activity of gold nanoclusters with amino acid's ambidentate nature. The peroxidase-like catalytic ability of histidine-Au nanoclusters (His-AuNCs) can be inhibited by the addition of Cu(2+). The sensitivity of this probe to Cu(2+) is significant with a linear range of 1-100nM, and a low detection limit of 0.1nM. More interestingly, His-AuNC/Cu(2+) undergoes recovery of the activity upon exposure to free His, because His/Cu(2+) complex is more stable due to the participation of the imidazole ring of His...
January 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213303/diethylstilbestrol-flutamide-and-their-combination-impaired-the-spermatogenesis-of-male-adult-zebrafish-through-disrupting-hpg-axis-meiosis-and-apoptosis
#11
Pan Yin, Ying-Wen Li, Qi-Liang Chen, Zhi-Haog Liu
Both diethylstilbestrol (DES, an environmental estrogen) and flutamide (FLU, an anti-androgen) are found to impair spermatogenesis by disrupting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and altering androgen levels through different mechanisms/modes of action in fish with poorly understood underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, it is not known whether and how a combined exposure of DES and FLU has a stronger effect than the compounds alone. In this study, male zebrafish adults were exposed to DES, FLU and their combination (DES+FLU) for 30days, and their effects on histological structure and sperm count in testis, androgen level in plasma, as well as the mRNA levels of genes involved in HPG axis, meiotic regulation and apoptosis were analyzed...
February 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212724/mechanistic-insight-into-neurotoxicity-induced-by-developmental-insults
#12
REVIEW
Christoffer Tamm, Sandra Ceccatelli
Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212705/detection-of-dna-damage-by-space-radiation-in-human-fibroblasts-flown-on-the-international-space-station
#13
Tao Lu, Ye Zhang, Michael Wong, Alan Feiveson, Ramona Gaza, Nicholas Stoffle, Huichen Wang, Bobby Wilson, Larry Rohde, Louis Stodieck, Fathi Karouia, Honglu Wu
Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212639/erectile-dysfunction-and-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-in-a-nationally-representative-cohort-of-older-men
#14
Lindsay A Tallon, Justin Manjourides, Vivian C Pun, Murray A Mittleman, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Brent Coull, Helen Suh
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between air pollution and erectile dysfunction (ED), a disorder occurring in 64% of men over the age of 70, and to date, no studies have been published. To address this significant knowledge gap, we explored the relationship between ED and air pollution in a group of older men who were part of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative cohort study of older Americans. METHODS: We obtained incident ED status and participant data for 412 men (age 57-85)...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212424/risk-factors-for-central-nervous-system-tumors-in-children-new-findings-from-a-case-control-study
#15
Rebeca Ramis, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Diana Gómez-Barroso, Gonzalo López-Abente, Antonio Morales-Piga, Elena Pardo Romaguera, Nuria Aragonés, Javier García-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tumors (CNS) are the most frequent solid tumor in children. Causes of CNS tumors are mainly unknown and only 5% of the cases can be explained by genetic predisposition. We studied the effects of environmental exposure on the incidence of CNS tumors in children by subtype, according to exposure to industrial and/or urban environment, exposure to crops and according to socio-economic status of the child. METHODS: We carried out a population-based case-control study of CNS tumors in Spain, covering 714 incident cases collected from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (period 1996-2011) and 4284 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212396/plants-promote-mating-and-dispersal-of-the-human-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus
#16
Deborah J Springer, Rajinikanth Mohan, Joseph Heitman
Infections due to Cryptococcus are a leading cause of fungal infections worldwide and are acquired as a result of environmental exposure to desiccated yeast or spores. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow, mate, and produce infectious propagules in association with plants is important for the maintenance of the genetic diversity and virulence factors important for infection of animals and humans. In the Western United States and Canada, Cryptococcus has been associated with conifers and tree species other than Eucalyptus; however, to date Cryptococcus has only been studied on live Arabidopsis thaliana, Eucalyptus sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212109/sustainable-exposure-prevention-through-innovative-detection-and-remediation-technologies-from-the-niehs-superfund-research-program
#17
Heather F Henry, William A Suk
Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups...
February 17, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212026/isotope-tracers-to-study-the-environmental-fate-and-bioaccumulation-of-metal-containing-engineered-nanoparticles-techniques-and-applications
#18
Yongguang Yin, Zhiqiang Tan, Ligang Hu, Sujuan Yu, Jingfu Liu, Guibin Jiang
The rapidly growing applicability of metal-containing engineered nanoparticles (MENPs) has made their environmental fate, biouptake, and transformation important research topics. However, considering the relatively low concentration of MENPs and the high concentration of background metals in the environment and in organisms, tracking the fate of MENPs in environment-related scenarios remains a challenge. Intrinsic labeling of MENPs with radioactive or stable isotopes is a useful tool for the highly sensitive and selective detection of MENPs in the environment and organisms, thus enabling tracing of their transformation, uptake, distribution, and clearance...
February 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211191/cigarette-smoking-increases-bronchial-mucosal-il-17a-expression-in-asthmatics-which-acts-in-concert-with-environmental-aeroallergens-to-engender-neutrophilic-inflammation
#19
Leonard Quok Chean Siew, Shih-Ying Wu, Sun Ying, Christopher John Corrigan
BACKGROUND: Mild asthmatics who smoke cigarettes may develop unstable disease and neutrophilic infiltration of the airways, features more usually associated with severe asthmatic disease. The mechanisms giving rise to this response remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To address the hypothesis that smoking increases bronchial mucosal production of IL-17A which acts on bronchial epithelial cells directly and in concert with other environmental stimuli to induce the production of IL-6 and neutrophil chemotaxins...
February 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210979/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-ii-allergens-and-role-of-the-microbiome-and-environmental-exposures
#20
REVIEW
George Knaysi, Anna R Smith, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Several properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbial penetration...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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