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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918339/interference-of-dibutylphthalate-on-human-prostate-cell-viability
#1
Mariana Di Lorenzo, Maurizio Forte, Salvatore Valiante, Vincenza Laforgia, Maria De Falco
Dibutylphthalate (DBP) is an environmental pollutant widely used as plasticizer in a variety of industrial applications worldwide. This agent can be found in personal-care products, children's toy, pharmaceuticals, food products. Exposure to DBP can occur via ingestion and inhalation as well as intravenous or skin contact. DBP belongs to the family of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and its effects on reproductive system were demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. In the present study we evaluated the effects of DBP on human prostate adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (LNCaP) in order to highlight xenoestrogens influence on human prostate...
September 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918277/lead-isotopic-fingerprint-in-human-scalp-hair-the-case-study-of-iglesias-mining-district-sardinia-italy
#2
D Varrica, G Dongarrà, M G Alaimo, F Monna, R Losno, E Sanna, G De Giudici, E Tamburo
The Sulcis-Iglesiente district (SW Sardinia, Italy) has been, until recently, one of the most important Italian polymetallic mining areas for the extraction of lead. Epidemiological studies conducted over several decades have indicated this site at high risk of environmental crisis with possible adverse effects on the public health. In the present paper we discuss Pb isotope signatures in human scalp hair and road dust collected from the Sulcis-Iglesiente area in order to trace the exposure of populations to potential Pb sources...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917946/cellular-uptake-and-intracellular-localization-of-poly-acrylic-acid-nanoparticles-in-a-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-gill-epithelial-cell-line-rtgill-w1
#3
Lindsey C Felix, Van A Ortega, Greg G Goss
The ever-growing production of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) for use in many agricultural, commercial, consumer, and industrial applications will lead to their accidental or intentional release into the environment. Potential routes of environmental exposure include manufacturing or transport spills, disposal of NP-containing products down the drain and/or in landfills, as well as direct usage on agricultural land. Therefore, NPs will inevitably contaminate aquatic environments and interact with resident organisms...
September 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917945/toxic-responses-of-perna-viridis-hepatopancreas-exposed-to-ddt-benzo-a-pyrene-and-their-mixture-uncovered-by-itraq-based-proteomics-and-nmr-based-metabolomics
#4
Qinqin Song, Hailong Zhou, Qian Han, Xiaoping Diao
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental estrogens (EEs) that are ubiquitous in the marine environment. In the present study, we integrated isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approaches to explore the toxic responses of green mussel hepatopancreas exposed to DDT (10μg/L), BaP (10μg/L) and their mixture. The metabolic responses indicated that BaP primarily disturbed energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in the hepatopancreas of the male green mussel P...
September 11, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917719/polymorphisms-in-manganese-transporters-show-developmental-stage-and-sex-specific-associations-with-manganese-concentrations-in-primary-teeth
#5
Karin Wahlberg, Manish Arora, Austen Curtin, Paul Curtin, Robert O Wright, Donald R Smith, Roberto G Lucchini, Karin Broberg, Christine Austin
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that can become neurotoxic at elevated levels with negative consequences on neurodevelopment. We have evaluated the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Mn transporter genes SLC30A10 and SLC39A8 on Mn concentrations in dentine, a validated biomarker that reflects Mn tissue concentrations early in life. METHODS: The study included 195 children with variable environmental Mn exposure. Mn concentrations in dentine representing fetal, early postnatal and early childhood developmental periods were measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
September 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917209/ecological-risk-estimation-of-organophosphorus-pesticides-in-riverine-ecosystems
#6
Sze Yee Wee, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
Pesticides are of great concern because of their existence in ecosystems at trace concentrations. Worldwide pesticide use and its ecological impacts (i.e., altered environmental distribution and toxicity of pesticides) have increased over time. Exposure and toxicity studies are vital for reducing the extent of pesticide exposure and risk to the environment and humans. Regional regulatory actions may be less relevant in some regions because the contamination and distribution of pesticides vary across regions and countries...
September 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917169/short-term-associations-of-ambient-air-pollution-and-cause-specific-emergency-department-visits-in-guangzhou-china
#7
Pi Guo, Wenru Feng, Murui Zheng, Jiayun Lv, Li Wang, Ju Liu, Yanhong Zhang, Gangfeng Luo, Yanting Zhang, Changyu Deng, Tongxing Shi, Pengda Liu, Lin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Evidence of association of ambient air pollution with cause-specific emergency department visits in China is still limited. This study aimed to investigate short-term associations between exposures to air pollutants and daily cause-specific emergency department visits using a large-scale multicenter database involving a total of 65 sentinel hospitals in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, during 2013-2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We obtained data on 162,771 emergency department visits from 65 hospitals from the Emergency Medical Command Center in Guangzhou between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917098/can-attitudes-about-smoking-impact-cigarette-cravings
#8
Lauren Bertin, Samara Lipsky, Joel Erblich
Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings...
September 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916631/experience-during-early-adulthood-shapes-the-learning-capacities-and-the-number-of-synaptic-boutons-in-the-mushroom-bodies-of-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#9
Amélie Cabirol, Rufus Brooks, Claudia Groh, Andrew B Barron, Jean-Marc Devaud
The honey bee mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain centers required for specific learning tasks. Here, we show that environmental conditions experienced as young adults affect the maturation of MB neuropil and performance in a MB-dependent learning task. Specifically, olfactory reversal learning was selectively impaired following early exposure to an impoverished environment lacking some of the sensory and social interactions present in the hive. In parallel, the overall number of synaptic boutons increased within the MB olfactory neuropil, whose volume remained unaffected...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916372/tracking-and-controlling-soft-surface-contamination-in-health-care-settings
#10
Jonathan D Sexton, Amanda M Wilson, Hannah P Sassi, Kelly A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Study objectives were to track the transfer of microbes on soft surfaces in health care environments and determine the efficiency of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered soft surface sanitizer in the health care environment. METHODS: Soft surfaces at 3 health care facilities were sampled for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli followed by a tracer study with a virus surrogate seeded onto volunteer hands and commonly touched surfaces...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916327/glycogen-metabolism-in-brain-and-neurons-astrocytes-metabolic-cooperation-can-be-altered-by-pre-and-neonatal-lead-pb-exposure
#11
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Anna Falkowska, Izabela Gutowska, Magdalena Gąssowska, Agnieszka Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Maciej Tarnowski, Karina Chibowska, Marta Goschorska, Dariusz Chlubek
Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxin which particularly affects the developing brain but the molecular mechanism of its neurotoxicity still needs clarification. The aim of this paper was to examine whether pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb (concentration of Pb in rat offspring blood below the "threshold level") may affect the brain's energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes via the amount of available glycogen. We investigated the glycogen concentration in the brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and phosphorylase kinase β (PHKB)...
September 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916290/conceptualizing-a-dynamic-fall-risk-model-including-intrinsic-risks-and-exposures
#12
Jochen Klenk, Clemens Becker, Pierpaolo Palumbo, Lars Schwickert, Kilan Rapp, Jorunn L Helbostad, Chris Todd, Stephen R Lord, Ngaire Kerse
Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915805/antibiotic-resistance-it-s-bad-but-why-isn-t-it-worse
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas Waglechner, Gerard D Wright
Antibiotic natural products are ancient and so is resistance. Consequently, environmental bacteria harbor numerous and varied antibiotic resistance elements. Nevertheless, despite long histories of antibiotic production and exposure, environmental bacteria are not resistant to all known antibiotics. This means that there are barriers to the acquisition of a complete resistance armamentarium. The sources, distribution, and movement of resistance mechanisms in different microbes and bacterial populations are mosaic features that act as barriers to slow this movement, thus moderating the emergence of bacterial pan-resistance...
September 15, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915699/biological-effects-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-arsenic-exposure-and-reagents-that-can-ameliorate-arsenic-damage-in-vivo
#14
REVIEW
Chinthalapally V Rao, Sanya Pal, Altaf Mohammed, Mudassir Farooqui, Mark P Doescher, Adam S Asch, Hiroshi Y Yamada
Through contaminated diet, water, and other forms of environmental exposure, arsenic affects human health. There are many U.S. and worldwide "hot spots" where the arsenic level in public water exceeds the maximum exposure limit. The biological effects of chronic arsenic exposure include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, epigenetic DNA modification, induction of genomic instability, and inflammation and immunomodulation, all of which can initiate carcinogenesis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915475/survival-of-european-plaice-discarded-from-coastal-otter-trawl-fisheries-in-the-english-channel
#15
Marie Morfin, Dorothée Kopp, Hugues P Benoît, Sonia Méhault, Peter Randall, Robert Foster, Thomas Catchpole
Species that have a high likelihood of surviving the discarding process have become great concern since the European Union reformed the Common Fisheries Policy and enacted a landing obligation prohibiting the discarding any individuals of species under quota. Among species presenting an elevated survival potential, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) is one of the most discarded in the coastal otter trawl fishery in the English Channel. The objective of this study is to provide the most reliable estimates of plaice survival after release in commercial conditions, and to identify the factors that influence survival rates...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915398/masculinization-and-reproductive-effects-in-western-mosquitofish-gambusia-affinis-after-long-term-exposure-to-androstenedione
#16
Li-Ping Hou, Yang Yang, Hu Shu, Guang-Guo Ying, Jian-Liang Zhao, Gui-Zhen Fang, Li Xin, Wen-Jun Shi, Li Yao, Xue-Mei Cheng
Androstenedione (AED) is a naturally occurring steroid hormone. It is metabolized to potent androgens, which may induce androgenic effects in fish. However, little is known whether and how the androgens interfere with the fish gonadal development and reproduction. This study aimed at demonstrating the effects of long-term AED exposure on reproduction and development in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). The growth, development and several morphological endpoints, including the segment number and length of anal fin, histological changes of gonads and liver, were evaluated in mosquitofish during development from fertilized embryo to adulthood (180 days) after exposure of AED at environmentally relevant concentrations...
September 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915397/alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-lemna-minor-by-exogenous-salicylic-acid
#17
Qianqian Lu, Tingting Zhang, Wei Zhang, Chunlei Su, Yaru Yang, Dan Hu, Qinsong Xu
Cadmium (Cd) is a significant environmental pollutant in the aquatic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous phenolic compound. The goal of this study was to assess the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in duckweed (L. minor) upon exposure to 10μM CdCl2, 10μM CdCl2 plus 50μM SA, or 50μM SA for 7 days. Reversing the effects of Cd, SA decreased Cd accumulation in plants, improved accumulation of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, B, Mo) absorption, increased endogenous SA concentration, and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity...
September 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915333/air-pollution-and-other-environmental-modulators-of-cardiac-function
#18
Matthew W Gorr, Michael J Falvo, Loren E Wold
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed regions and a worldwide health concern. Multiple external causes of CVD are well known, including obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, age, and sedentary behavior. Air pollution has been linked with the development of CVD for decades, though the mechanistic characterization remains unknown. In this comprehensive review, we detail the background and epidemiology of the effects of air pollution and other environmental modulators on the heart, including both short- and long-term consequences...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915320/adipose-tissue-as-a-site-of-toxin-accumulation
#19
Erin Jackson, Robin Shoemaker, Nika Larian, Lisa Cassis
We examine the role of adipose tissue, typically considered an energy storage site, as a potential site of toxicant accumulation. Although the production of most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was banned years ago, these toxicants persist in the environment due to their resistance to biodegradation and widespread distribution in various environmental forms (e.g., vapor, sediment, and water). As a result, human exposure to these toxicants is inevitable. Largely due to their lipophilicity, POPs bioaccumulate in adipose tissue, resulting in greater body burdens of these environmental toxicants with obesity...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915241/the-relative-contribution-of-dna-methylation-and-genetic-variants-on-protein-biomarkers-for-human-diseases
#20
Muhammad Ahsan, Weronica E Ek, Mathias Rask-Andersen, Torgny Karlsson, Allan Lind-Thomsen, Stefan Enroth, Ulf Gyllensten, Åsa Johansson
Associations between epigenetic alterations and disease status have been identified for many diseases. However, there is no strong evidence that epigenetic alterations are directly causal for disease pathogenesis. In this study, we combined SNP and DNA methylation data with measurements of protein biomarkers for cancer, inflammation or cardiovascular disease, to investigate the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic variation on biomarker levels. A total of 121 protein biomarkers were measured and analyzed in relation to DNA methylation at 470,000 genomic positions and to over 10 million SNPs...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
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