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Environmental exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156752/early-and-late-effects-of-aspirin-and-naproxen-on-micrornas-in-the-lung-and-blood-of-mice-either-unexposed-or-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke
#1
Alberto Izzotti, Roumen Balansky, Gancho Ganchev, Marietta Iltcheva, Mariagrazia Longobardi, Alessandra Pulliero, Anna Camoirano, Francesco D'Agostini, Marta Geretto, Rosanna T Micale, Sebastiano La Maestra, Mark Steven Miller, Vernon E Steele, Silvio De Flora
We recently showed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are able to inhibit the lung tumors induced by cigarette smoke, either mainstream (MCS) or environmental (ECS), in female mice. We used subsets of mice to analyze the expression of 1135 microRNAs in both lung and blood serum, as related to the whole-body exposure to smoke and/or oral administration of either aspirin or naproxen. In a first study, we evaluated early microRNA alterations in A/J mice exposed to ECS for 10 weeks, starting at birth, and/or treated with NSAIDs for 6 weeks, starting after weaning...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156538/combined-effects-of-simulated-microgravity-and-radiation-exposure-on-osteoclast-cell-fusion
#2
Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Ryan Clanton, Larry H Rohde, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Jean D Sibonga, Honglu Wu
The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156440/pharmaceutical-and-personal-care-products-induced-stress-symptoms-and-detoxification-mechanisms-in-cucumber-plants
#3
Chengliang Sun, Stacia Dudley, John Trumble, Jay Gan
Contamination of agricultural soils by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) resulting from the application of treated wastewater, biosolids and animal wastes constitutes a potential environmental risk in many countries. To date a handful of studies have considered the phytotoxicity of individual PPCPs in crop plants, however, little is known about the effect of PPCPs as mixtures at environmentally relevant levels. This study investigated the uptake and transport, physiological responses and detoxification of a mixture of 17 PPCPs in cucumber seedlings...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156432/the-effects-of-human-drugs-in-corbicula-fluminea-assessment-of-neurotoxicity-inflammation-gametogenic-activity-and-energy-status
#4
G V Aguirre-Martínez, C André, F Gagné, L M Martín-Díaz
The constant release of pharmaceuticals products to aquatic environment even at low concentrations (ng L(-1) to µg L(-1)) could lead to unknown chronic effects to non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurotoxic responses, inflammation, gametogenic activity and energy status on the fresh water clam C. fluminea after exposure to different concentrations of caffeine (CAF), ibuprofen (IBU), carbamazepine (CBZ), novobiocin (NOV) and tamoxifen (TMX) for 21 days under laboratory conditions...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156393/effect-of-tio2-and-ceo2-nanoparticles-on-the-metabolic-activity-of-surficial-sediment-microbial-communities-based-on-oxygen-microelectrodes-and-high-throughput-sequencing
#5
Lingzhan Miao, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Yu Yao, Jun Liu, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang, Guoxiang You, Yi Xu, Zhilin Liu, Songqi Liu
Environmental concerns regarding the potential ecological risks of metallic oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing; sediment is considered a sink for these MNPs. Although several studies have studied the potential impact of MNPs on microbial communities in freshwater and estuarine sediments, limited information is available regarding the influence of MNPs on the metabolic activity of surficial sediment microbial communities and related biogeochemical conditions. To address these issues, a microcosm approach was established to study the metabolic response of surficial sediment microbial communities to a single addition of TiO2 or CeO2 NPs (5 mg/L) using oxygen microelectrodes, enzyme activity measurements, and high-throughput sequencing...
November 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156343/native-and-exotic-oysters-in-brazil-comparative-tolerance-to-hypercapnia
#6
Anthony Moreira, Etelvina Figueira, Iracy L Pecora, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Environmental hypercapnia in shallow coastal marine ecosystems can be exacerbated by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2. In these ecosystems organisms are expected to become increasingly subjected to pCO2 levels several times higher than those inhabiting ocean waters (e.g.: 10,000µatm), but still our current understanding on different species capacity to respond to such levels of hypercapnia is limited. Oysters are among the most important foundation species inhabiting these coastal ecosystems, although natural oyster banks are increasingly threatened worldwide...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156341/urinary-bisphenol-a-concentrations-are-associated-with-reproductive-parameters-in-young-men
#7
Evdochia Adoamnei, Jaime Mendiola, Fernando Vela-Soria, Mariana F Fernández, Nicolás Olea, Niels Jørgensen, Shanna H Swan, Alberto M Torres-Cantero
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a pervasive environmental toxicant with known reproductive effects on sperm parameters and hormone levels. Several observational studies have investigated the associations between BPA exposure and male reproductive function, but findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between urinary BPA concentrations and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study with 215 healthy young university students (18-23 years old), investigated between 2010 and 2011 in Southern Spain (Murcia Region)...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156270/exceedance-of-environmental-exposure-limits-to-crystalline-silica-in-communities-surrounding-gold-mine-tailings-storage-facilities-in-south-africa
#8
Charlene Andraos, Wells Utembe, Mary Gulumian
BACKGROUND: Unlike occupational silica exposures, the association between non-occupational silica exposures and adverse health effects is not well researched, despite its occurrence in communities close to dust-generating sources such as tailings storage facilities (TSFs). Recent studies have shown that communities surrounding TSFs in South Africa often complain about the onset of dust-related health effects. Even though international interim non-occupational crystalline silica limits have been established, South Africa is yet to enforce its own limits for residential areas close to TSF sites...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156258/developing-an-online-tool-for-identifying-at-risk-populations-to-wildfire-smoke-hazards
#9
Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Fuyuen Yip, Paul Garbe
Wildfire episodes pose a significant public health threat in the United States. Adverse health impacts associated with wildfires occur near the burn area as well as in places far downwind due to wildfire smoke exposures. Health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter arising from wildfires can range from mild eye and respiratory tract irritation to more serious outcomes such as asthma exacerbation, bronchitis, and decreased lung function. Real-time operational forecasts of wildfire smoke concentrations are available but they are not readily integrated with information on vulnerable populations necessary to identify at-risk communities during wildfire smoke episodes...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155925/exposure-biomarkers-indicate-more-than-just-exposure
#10
David A Savitz, Gregory A Wellenius
Biomarkers of environmental exposures have notable strengths in integrating across diverse sources and routes of exposure and providing a marker reflecting biological dose. However, the physiologic determinants of biomarker toxicokinetics and measured levels may also affect or be affected by disease determinants and thus introduce confounding. Sagiv et al. (1) sought empirical evidence on the role of renal clearance in biasing the association between perfluoroalkyl compounds measured in plasma during pregnancy and infant birth weight and found little empirical support for such bias...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155358/criticism-of-efsa-s-scientific-on-combinatorial-effects-of-stacked-gm-plants
#11
Thomas Bøhn
Recent genetically modified plants tend to include both insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits. Some of these 'stacked' GM plants have multiple Cry toxins expressed as well as tolerance to several herbicides. This means that non-target organisms in the environment (biodiversity) will be co-exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously. A similar co-exposure may happen to consumers through chemical residues in the food chain. EFSA, the responsible unit for minimizing risk of harm in European food chains, has expressed its scientific interest in combinatorial effects...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154974/prostate-cancer-health-disparities-an-immuno-biological-perspective
#12
Sanjay Kumar, Rajesh Singh, Shalie Malik, Upender Manne, Manoj Mishra
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in males, and, in the United States, is the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men older than 40 years. There is a higher incidence of PCa for African Americans (AAs) than for European-Americans (EAs). Investigations related to the incidence of PCa-related health disparities for AAs suggest that there are differences in the genetic makeup of these populations. Other differences are environmentally induced (e.g., diet and lifestyle), and the exposures are different...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154521/cryptosporidiosis-outbreak-associated-with-a-single-hotel
#13
Mary-Margaret A Fill, Jennifer Lloyd, Tamal Chakraverty, David Sweat, Judy Manners, Katie Garman, Michele C Hlavsa, Dawn M Roellig, John R Dunn, William Schaffner, Timothy F Jones
We investigated a gastrointestinal illness cluster among persons who attended a baseball tournament (>200 teams) during July 2015. We interviewed representatives of 19 teams; illness was reported among only the 9 (47%) teams that stayed at Hotel A (p < .01). We identified 55 primary cases. A case-control study demonstrated that pool exposure at Hotel A was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio: 7.3; 95% confidence interval: 3.6, 15.2). Eight out of nine (89%) stool specimens tested were positive for Cryptosporidium, with C...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154364/non-contingent-exposure-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence-recruits-mir-218-to-regulate-dcc-expression-in-the-vta
#14
Santiago Cuesta, José Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Steven Silvestrin, Dominique Nouel, Angélica Torres-Berrio, Lauren M Reynolds, Andreas Arvanitogiannis, Cecilia Flores
The development of the dopamine input to the medial prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence and is a process that is vulnerable to disruption by stimulant drugs such as amphetamine. We have previously linked the amphetamine-induced disruption of dopamine connectivity and prefrontal cortex maturation during adolescence to the downregulation of the Netrin-1 receptor, DCC, in dopamine neurons. However, how DCC expression in dopamine neurons is itself regulated is completely unknown. MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation of mRNA translation and stability is a prominent mechanism linking environmental events to changes in protein expression...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154175/improving-human-health-outcomes-with-a-low-cost-intervention-to-reduce-exposures-from-lead-acid-battery-recycling-dong-mai-vietnam
#15
Bret Ericson, Thi To Duong, John Keith, Trong Cuu Nguyen, Deborah Havens, William Daniell, Catherine J Karr, Doan Ngoc Hai, Lo Van Tung, Tran Thi Nhi Ha, Brian Wilson, David Hanrahan, Gerry Croteau, Mark Patrick Taylor
This study details the first comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of a soil lead mitigation project in Dong Mai village, Vietnam. The village's population had been subject to severe lead poisoning for at least a decade as a result of informal Used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling. Between July 2013 to February 2015, Pure Earth and the Centre for Environment and Community Development (Hanoi, Vietnam) implemented a multi-faceted environmental and human health intervention. The intervention consisted of a series of institutional and low-cost engineering controls including the capping of lead contaminated surface soils, cleaning of home interiors, an education campaign and the construction of a work-clothes changing and bathing facility...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153727/lifetime-exposure-to-particulate-air-pollutants-is-negatively-associated-with-lung-function-in-non-asthmatic-children
#16
Hung-Chang Tsui, Chi-Hsien Chen, Ying-Hsuan Wu, Hung-Che Chiang, Bing-Yu Chen, Yue Leon Guo
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function is known to be affected by acute and subacute exposure to ambient air pollution. However, the impacts of lifetime exposure to air pollution on the pulmonary function of children have been inconsistent. The present study investigated the impact of lifetime residential exposure to intermediate levels of air pollution on the pulmonary function of schoolchildren. METHODS: In 2011, a survey of children aged 6-15 years was conducted in 44 schools in Taiwan...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153473/sensitivity-of-the-early-life-stages-of-a-mayfly-to-fine-sediment-and-orthophosphate-levels
#17
Nicholas C Everall, Matthew F Johnson, Paul Wood, Lauren Mattingley
The ecological effects of interacting stressors within lotic ecosystems have been widely acknowledged. In particular, the ecological effects of elevated fine sediment inputs and phosphate have been identified as key factors influencing faunal community structure and composition. However, while knowledge regarding adult and larval life stage responses to environmental stressors has grown, there has been very limited research on their eggs. In this study, the eggs of the mayfly Serratella ignita (Ephemerellidae: Ephemeroptera) were collected and incubated in laboratory aquaria to hatching under differing concentrations of inert suspended sediment (SS) and orthophosphate (OP), individually and in combination...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153381/prenatal-tvocs-exposure-negatively-influences-postnatal-neurobehavioral-development
#18
Moonhee Chang, Dongheon Lee, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yun-Chul Hong, Yangho Kim, Boong-Nyun Kim, Yeni Kim, Youn-Hee Lim, Eun-Hee Ha
Prenatal exposure to volatile organic compounds may restrict fetal development and adversely influence infants' life. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between prenatal exposure to total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and postnatal neurobehavioral development. A subsample of 383 pregnant participants was chosen from the prospective birth cohort study of Mother and Children's Environmental Health Study; MOCEH (N=1,751) from three regions of the Republic of Korea (Seoul, Cheon-an, and Ulsan). Participants were enrolled during their first trimester with informed consent...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153274/-classical-and-molecular-methods-for-identification-and-quantification-of-domestic-moulds
#19
REVIEW
E Fréalle, V Bex, G Reboux, S Roussel, S Bretagne
INTRODUCTION: To study the impact of the constant and inevitable inhalation of moulds, it is necessary to sample, identify and count the spores. BACKGROUND: Environmental sampling methods can be separated into three categories: surface sampling is easy to perform but non quantitative, air sampling is easy to calibrate but provides time limited information, and dust sampling which is more representative of long term exposure to moulds. The sampling strategy depends on the objectives (evaluation of the risk of exposure for individuals; quantification of the household contamination; evaluation of the efficacy of remediation)...
November 15, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153196/metabolic-biomarkers-in-heart-failure
#20
REVIEW
Chonyang L Albert, W H Wilson Tang
Metabolomics is the study of small, organic molecules within biochemical pathways. With advancement of technology, nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry have allowed for the discovery and analysis of large databases of metabolites implicated in heart failure. Metabolomics also explores the patient and environment interactions and unlocks the link between environmental exposures and the development of cardiovascular disease. Although a relatively new field, metabolomics is poised to become a clinically impactful field that develops novel biomarkers and explores new therapeutic interventions in heart failure...
January 2018: Heart Failure Clinics
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