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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144831/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-unique-considerations-in-athletes
#1
Chaney G Stewman, Catherine Liebman, Laura Fink, Brad Sandella
CONTEXT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric condition in the general population, with evidence suggesting that it may be more common among athletes. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Literature searches were performed on PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 2000 to 2016 utilizing the following key search terms: ADHD, ADD, guidelines, diagnosis, athlete, sports, treatment, pharmacotherapy, stimulants, risk, cardiovascular effects, concussion, and traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
November 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143197/three-cases-of-hereditary-tyrosinaemia-type-1-neuropsychiatric-outcomes-and-brain-imaging-following-treatment-with-ntbc
#2
Helen Walker, Mervi Pitkanen, Yusof Rahman, Sally F Barrington
AIM: To examine neuropsychiatric outcomes in adults with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I (HT-1), treated with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and correlate these with functional imaging as well as with tyrosine and phenylalanine-tyrosine (Phe:Tyr) ratios. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of three adult HT-1 patients with a particular focus on their FDG PET/CT brain scans, neuropsychiatric assessment (including neurocognitive assessment and mood and anxiety ratings) as well as mean tyrosine and phenylalanine levels and Phe:Tyr ratios for 3-month period...
November 16, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141778/pathophysiology-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-detected-after-ischemic-stroke-paradise-a-translational-integrated-and-transdisciplinary-approach
#3
Maryse Paquet, Joshua O Cerasuolo, Victoria Thorburn, Sebastian Fridman, Rasha Alsubaie, Renato D Lopes, Lauren E Cipriano, Paula Salamone, C W James Melling, Ali R Khan, Lucas Sedeño, Jiming Fang, Maria Drangova, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Jennifer Mandzia, Alexander V Khaw, Juan M Racosta, Justin Paturel, Lucy Samoilov, Devin Stirling, Brittany Balint, Victoria Jaremek, Marlys L Koschinsky, Michael B Boffa, Kelly Summers, Agustín Ibañez, Marko Mrkobrada, Gustavo Saposnik, Kurt Kimpinski, Shawn N Whitehead, Luciano A Sposato
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that ischemic stroke can cause atrial fibrillation. By elucidating the mechanisms of neurogenically mediated paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, novel therapeutic strategies could be developed to prevent atrial fibrillation occurrence and perpetuation after stroke. This could result in fewer recurrent strokes and deaths, a reduction or delay in dementia onset, and in the lessening of the functional, structural, and metabolic consequences of atrial fibrillation on the heart...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141164/lomustine-and-bevacizumab-in-progressive-glioblastoma
#4
Wolfgang Wick, Thierry Gorlia, Martin Bendszus, Martin Taphoorn, Felix Sahm, Inga Harting, Alba A Brandes, Walter Taal, Julien Domont, Ahmed Idbaih, Mario Campone, Paul M Clement, Roger Stupp, Michel Fabbro, Emilie Le Rhun, Francois Dubois, Michael Weller, Andreas von Deimling, Vassilis Golfinopoulos, Jacoline C Bromberg, Michael Platten, Martin Klein, Martin J van den Bent
BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab is approved for the treatment of patients with progressive glioblastoma on the basis of uncontrolled data. Data from a phase 2 trial suggested that the addition of bevacizumab to lomustine might improve overall survival as compared with monotherapies. We sought to determine whether the combination would result in longer overall survival than lomustine alone among patients at first progression of glioblastoma. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with progression after chemoradiation in a 2:1 ratio to receive lomustine plus bevacizumab (combination group, 288 patients) or lomustine alone (monotherapy group, 149 patients)...
November 16, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138991/test-retest-reliability-and-interpretation-of-common-concussion-assessment-tools-findings-from-the-ncaa-dod-care-consortium
#5
Steven P Broglio, Barry P Katz, Shi Zhao, Michael McCrea, Thomas McAllister
BACKGROUND: Concussion diagnosis is typically made through clinical examination and supported by performance on clinical assessment tools. Performance on commonly implemented and emerging assessment tools is known to vary between administrations, in the absence of concussion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of commonly implemented and emerging concussion assessment tools across a large nationally representative sample of student-athletes. METHODS: Participants (n = 4874) from the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium completed annual baseline assessments on two or three occasions...
November 14, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137271/environmental-conditions-differentially-affect-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#6
Mu-Huo Ji, Hui Tang, Dan Luo, Li-Li Qiu, Min Jia, Hong-Mei Yuan, Shan-Wu Feng, Jian-Jun Yang
Brain dysfunction remains a common complication after sepsis development and is an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis and an increased mortality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the behavioral outcomes after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration are exacerbated by an impoverished environment (IE) and alleviated by an enriched environment (EE), respectively. Mice were randomly allocated in a standard environment (SE), an EE, or an IE for 4 weeks after LPS or normal saline (NS) administration...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135273/-neuroscience-of-mental-flexibility
#7
Zoltán Janka
Mental flexibility enabling shifts from the usual prepotent behaviour to new strategies and solutions is a significant factor in the successful adaptation to the changing environment. Components of mental flexibility comprise attention, salience detection, inhibition, working memory and switch processes which can be measured by neurocognitive tests. Data derived from examinations by the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be compared to the features, observed under resting state and during task performance, of brain structures and functions...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135068/contribution-of-genes-in-the-gabaergic-pathway-to-bipolar-disorder-and-its-executive-function-deficit-in-the-chinese-han-population
#8
Hongyan Ren, Lijie Guan, Liansheng Zhao, Yin Lin, Yincheng Wang, Zhenxing Yang, Xuan Li, Xiaohong Ma, Xiongchao Cheng, Wenhao Deng, Katherine J Aitchison, Liping Cao, Tao Li
In this study, we investigated the association between bipolar I disorder (BDI) and between cognitive deficits therein and SNPs in GABAergic receptor genes. The sample comprised 477 patients with BDI and 438 healthy controls, with three neurocognitive tests being administered in 123 patients and 164 controls. For three SNPs, rs505474, rs1398175, and rs4868029 in the GABRA2, GABRA4, and GABRP genes, respectively, their allele frequencies were significantly different between patients and controls (Bonferroni-adjusted p = values 3...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#9
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128371/assessments-of-neurocognitive-and-behavioral-function-in-the-mucopolysaccharidoses
#10
REVIEW
Elsa G Shapiro, Maria L Escolar, Kathleen A Delaney, John J Mitchell
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorders in which accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) leads to progressive tissue and organ dysfunction. In addition to a variety of somatic signs and symptoms, patients with rapidly progressing MPS I (Hurler), II, III, and VII can present with significant neurological manifestations, including impaired cognitive abilities, difficulties in language and speech, behavioral abnormalities, sleep problems, and/or seizures. Neurological symptoms have a substantial impact on the quality of life of MPS patients and their families...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126299/cns-penetration-of-art-in-hiv-infected-children
#11
Malon Van den Hof, Charlotte Blokhuis, Sophie Cohen, Henriette J Scherpbier, Ferdinand W N M Wit, M C M Pistorius, Neeltje A Kootstra, Charlotte E Teunissen, Ron A A Mathot, Dasja Pajkrt
Background: Paediatric data on CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected children and explore associations with neurocognitive function. Patients and methods: Antiretroviral drug levels were measured in paired CSF and blood samples of clinically stable HIV-infected children between 8 and 18 years old on long-term combined ART. Plasma drug concentrations were corrected for protein binding...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126142/stereotactic-radiosurgery-in-the-management-of-limited-1-4-brain-metasteses-systematic-review-and-international-stereotactic-radiosurgery-society-practice-guideline
#12
Samuel T Chao, Antonio De Salles, Motohiro Hayashi, Marc Levivier, Lijun Ma, Roberto Martinez, Ian Paddick, Jean Régis, Samuel Ryu, Ben J Slotman, Arjun Sahgal
BACKGROUND: Guidelines regarding stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases are missing recently published evidence. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and provide an objective summary of publications regarding SRS in managing patients with 1 to 4 brain metastases. METHODS: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was conducted using PubMed and Medline up to November 2016...
November 3, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125540/is-high-folic-acid-intake-a-risk-factor-for-autism-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Darrell Wiens, M Catherine DeSoto
Folate is required for metabolic processes and neural development. Insuring its adequate levels for pregnant women through supplementation of grain-based foods with synthetic folic acid (FA) in order to prevent neural tube defects has been an ongoing public health initiative. However, because women are advised to take multivitamins containing FA before and throughout pregnancy, the supplementation together with natural dietary folates has led to a demographic with high and rising serum levels of unmetabolized FA...
November 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123473/neurobehavioral-abnormalities-associated-with-executive-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
REVIEW
Rodger Ll Wood, Andrew Worthington
Objective: This article will address how anomalies of executive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can translate into altered social behavior that has an impact on a person's capacity to live safely and independently in the community. Method: Review of literature on executive and neurobehavioral function linked to cognitive ageing in neurologically healthy populations and late neurocognitive effects of serious TBI. Information was collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the authors' own catalogs...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123218/identification-of-a-neurocognitive-mechanism-underpinning-awareness-of-chronic-tinnitus
#15
Krysta J Trevis, Chris Tailby, David B Grayden, Neil M McLachlan, Graeme D Jackson, Sarah J Wilson
Tinnitus (ringing in the ears) is a common auditory sensation that can become a chronic debilitating health condition with pervasive effects on health and wellbeing, substantive economic burden, and no known cure. Here we investigate if impaired functioning of the cognitive control network that directs attentional focus is a mechanism erroneously maintaining the tinnitus sensation. Fifteen people with chronic tinnitus and 15 healthy controls matched for age and gender from the community performed a cognitively demanding task known to activate the cognitive control network in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121444/neurocognitive-functioning-clinical-course-and-functional-outcome-in-first-treatment-bipolar-i-disorder-patients-with-and-without-clinical-relapse-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#16
Christine Demmo, Trine V Lagerberg, Levi R Kvitland, Sofie R Aminoff, Tone Hellvin, Carmen Simonsen, Beathe Haatveit, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Torill Ueland
OBJECTIVES: Due to limited research on the association between recurrence of mood episodes and the longitudinal course of neurocognitive functioning in early phase bipolar I disorder (BD I), the impact of recurrence on neurocognition remains unclear. Further, a strong correlation between neurocognitive impairment and functional impairment has been demonstrated. The longitudinal relationship between neurocognitive impairment and functional outcome in relation to recurrence is, however, not established...
November 9, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121332/frontostriatal-and-dopamine-markers-of-individual-differences-in-reinforcement-learning-a-multi-modal-investigation
#17
Roselinde H Kaiser, Michael T Treadway, Dustin W Wooten, Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Miranda Beltzer, Pia Pechtel, Alexis Whitton, Andrew L Cohen, Nathaniel M Alpert, Georges El Fakhri, Marc D Normandin, Diego A Pizzagalli
Prior studies have shown that dopamine (DA) functioning in frontostriatal circuits supports reinforcement learning (RL), as phasic DA activity in ventral striatum signals unexpected reward and may drive coordinated activity of striatal and orbitofrontal regions that support updating of action plans. However, the nature of DA functioning in RL is complex, in particular regarding the role of DA clearance in RL behavior. Here, in a multi-modal neuroimaging study with healthy adults, we took an individual differences approach to the examination of RL behavior and DA clearance mechanisms in frontostriatal learning networks...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#18
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While CRT is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality-of-life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120931/perioperative-neurocognition-in-elderly-patients
#19
Huiqun Fu, Long Fan, Tianlong Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The extrinsic risk factors for postoperative cognitive disturbance have been a source of concern during the perioperative period, and these risk factors remain the subject of controversy. This review of recent studies focuses on the effect of these factors on postoperative cognitive disturbance during the perioperative period. RECENT FINDINGS: Impairment of cerebral autoregulation may predispose patients to intraoperative cerebral malperfusion, which may subsequently induce postoperative cognitive disturbance...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119612/are-you-surprised-to-hear-this-longitudinal-spectral-speech-exposure-in-older-compared-to-middle-aged-normal-hearing-adults
#20
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Julia Bauer, Susann Widmer, Martin Meyer
Cognitive abilities such as attention or working memory can support older adults during speech perception. However, cognitive abilities as well as speech perception decline with age, leading to the expenditure of effort during speech processing. This longitudinal study therefore investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological processes during speech discrimination, and assessed the extent of enhancement to such cognitive auditory processes through repeated auditory exposure. For that purpose, accuracy and reaction time were compared between 13 older adults (62-76y) and 15 middle-aged (28-52y) controls in an active oddball paradigm which was administered at three consecutive measurement time points at an interval of two weeks, while EEG was recorded...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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