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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785673/the-impact-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-bipolar-depression-mania-and-euthymia-a-systematic-review-of-preliminary-data
#1
Clément Dondé, Nicholas H Neufeld, Pierre A Geoffroy
The neurobiological basis of bipolar disorders (BD) has received increased attention and several brain regions and brain circuits have been correlated with clinical symptoms. These brain regions and circuits may represent targets for neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). We systematically reviewed the literature to explore the risks and benefits of tDCS in BD and examined all mood states. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search using several databases was performed from April 2002 to June 2017...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785582/altered-cerebro-cerebellum-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-hiv-infected-male-patients
#2
Huijuan Wang, Ruili Li, Yawen Zhou, Yanming Wang, Jin Cui, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hongjun Li
In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781879/cognitive-burden-of-common-non-antiretroviral-medications-in-hiv-infected-women
#3
Leah H Rubin, Kendra K Radtke, Seenae Eum, Bani Tamraz, Krithika N Kumanan, Gayle Springer, Pauline M Maki, Kathryn Anastos, Daniel Merenstein, Roksana Karim, Kathleen M Weber, Deborah Gustafson, Ruth M Greenblatt, Jeffrey R Bishop
OBJECTIVE: The aging HIV population has increased comorbidity burden and consequently non-antiretroviral (ARV) medication utilization. Many non-ARV medications have known neurocognitive-adverse effects ("NC-AE medications"). We assessed the cognitive effects of NC-AE medications in HIV+ and HIV- women. METHODS: 1558 participants (1037 HIV+; mean age 46) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study completed a neuropsychological test battery between 2009 and 2011...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781658/rapid-instruction-based-task-learning-ritl-in-schizophrenia
#4
Julia M Sheffield, Hannes Ruge, Sridhar Kandala, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate broad impairments in neurocognitive functioning as measured through laboratory-based tasks. Neuropsychological measures depend on rapid instruction-based task learning (RITL), the ability to rapidly translate task instruction into goal-directed behavior. Here, the authors present the first known investigation of RITL in schizophrenia and aim to test whether RITL deficits exist in schizophrenia, are associated with abnormal brain activation, and contribute to the generalized cognitive deficit...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780970/three-challenges-for-future-research-on-cochlear-implants
#5
REVIEW
David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Michael S Harris, Aaron C Moberly
Cochlear implants (CIs) often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL) hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780967/visual-working-memory-span-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants-some-preliminary-findings
#6
Aaron C Moberly, David B Pisoni, Michael S Harris
Objective: Neurocognitive functions, specifically verbal working memory (WM), contribute to speech recognition in postlingual adults with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal-hearing (NH) listener shearing degraded speech. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) WM accuracy as assessed using three visual span measures - digits, objects, and symbols - would correlate with recognition scores for spectrally degraded speech (through a CI or when noise-vocoded); (2) WM accuracy would be best for digit span, intermediate for object span, and lowest for symbol span, due to the increasing cognitive demands across these tasks...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780353/normal-performance-in-non-visual-social-cognition-tasks-in-women-with-turner-syndrome
#7
David Anaki, Tal Zadikov-Mor, Vardit Gepstein, Ze'ev Hochberg
Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder in women resulting from a partial or complete absence of the X chromosome. In addition to physical and hormonal dysfunctions, along with a unique neurocognitive profile, women with TS are reported to suffer from social functioning difficulties. Yet, it is unclear whether these difficulties stem from impairments in social cognition per se or from other deficits that characterize TS but are not specific to social cognition. Previous research that has probed social functioning in TS is equivocal regarding the source of these psychosocial problems since they have mainly used tasks that were dependent on visual-spatial skills, which are known to be compromised in TS...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779761/planting-the-seed-for-marijuana-use-changes-in-exposure-to-medical-marijuana-advertising-and-subsequent-adolescent-marijuana-use-cognitions-and-consequences-over-seven-years
#8
Elizabeth J D'Amico, Anthony Rodriguez, Joan S Tucker, Eric R Pedersen, Regina A Shih
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use during adolescence is associated with neurocognitive deficits and poorer functioning across several domains. It is likely that more states will pass both medical and recreational marijuana legalization laws in the coming elections; therefore, we must begin to look more closely at the longitudinal effects of medical marijuana (MM) advertising on marijuana use among adolescents so that we can better understand effects that this advertising may have on their subsequent marijuana use and related outcomes...
May 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779671/resting-state-connectivity-biomarkers-of-cognitive-performance-and-social-function-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-and-healthy-control-subjects
#9
Joseph D Viviano, Robert W Buchanan, Navona Calarco, James M Gold, George Foussias, Nikhil Bhagwat, Laura Stefanik, Colin Hawco, Pamela DeRosse, Miklos Argyelan, Jessica Turner, Sofia Chavez, Peter Kochunov, Peter Kingsley, Xiangzhi Zhou, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Deficits in neurocognition and social cognition are drivers of reduced functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, with potentially shared neurobiological underpinnings. Many studies have sought to identify brain-based biomarkers of these clinical variables using a priori dichotomies (e.g., good vs. poor cognition, deficit vs. nondeficit syndrome). METHODS: We evaluated a fully data-driven approach to do the same by building and validating a brain connectivity-based biomarker of social cognitive and neurocognitive performance in a sample using resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (n = 74 healthy control participants, n = 114 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 188 total)...
April 13, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779184/limbic-system-structure-volumes-and-associated-neurocognitive-functioning-in-former-nfl-players
#10
Christian Lepage, Marc Muehlmann, Yorghos Tripodis, Jakob Hufschmidt, Julie Stamm, Katie Green, Pawel Wrobel, Vivian Schultz, Isabelle Weir, Michael L Alosco, Christine M Baugh, Nathan G Fritts, Brett M Martin, Christine Chaisson, Michael J Coleman, Alexander P Lin, Ofer Pasternak, Nikos Makris, Robert A Stern, Martha E Shenton, Inga K Koerte
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with exposure to repetitive head impacts. CTE has been linked to disruptions in cognition, mood, and behavior. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of CTE can only be made post-mortem. Neuropathological evidence suggests limbic structures may provide an opportunity to characterize CTE in the living. Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging, we compared select limbic brain regional volumes - the amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus - between symptomatic former National Football League (NFL) players (n = 86) and controls (n = 22)...
May 19, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777462/a-composite-of-multisystem-injury-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection-association-with-everyday-functioning
#11
María J Marquine, Ilse Flores, Rujvi Kamat, Neco Johnson, Anya Umlauf, Scott Letendre, Dilip Jeste, Igor Grant, David Moore, Robert K Heaton
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is a composite marker of multisystem injury among HIV-infected persons. We aimed to examine its cross-sectional association with functional outcomes, after considering neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and other well-established correlates of everyday functioning among HIV-infected persons. Participants included 670 HIV-infected adults (ages 18-76; 88% male; 63% non-Hispanic White; median current CD4 = 404 cells/mm3 ; 67% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS = 63%) enrolled in observational studies at the University of California San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777287/decreased-plasma-levels-of-gasotransmitter-hydrogen-sulfide-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-correlation-with-psychopathology-and-cognition
#12
Jian-Wen Xiong, Bo Wei, Yan-Kun Li, Jin-Qiong Zhan, Shu-Zhen Jiang, Hai-Bo Chen, Kun Yan, Bin Yu, Yuan-Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter that regulates NMDAR function. The current study investigated the relationship between plasma H2 S levels and both psychopathological and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy control subjects were recruited in present study...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774174/outpatient-interventions-that-may-enhance-the-care-of-a-patient-with-co-existing-moyamoya-and-down-syndromes
#13
Anita Lwanga, Waldo Herrera, Katya Cruz Madrid, Antony Irungu
Moyamoya vasculopathy is a condition of chronic, progressive occlusion of the distal internal carotid arteries and the Circle of Willis. The resultant ischemia produces compensatory angiogenesis and the growth of a network of collateral blood vessels, which on angiography resemble a "puff of smoke" or "moyamoya" in Japanese. The objective of this case report is to describe the clinical course of a patient with Down and moyamoya syndromes and to enlighten clinicians about strategies that can be taken to enhance the care of similar patients...
March 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773664/cognitive-development-and-quality-of-life-associated-with-bpd-in-10-year-olds-born-preterm
#14
Sudhir Sriram, Michael D Schreiber, Michael E Msall, Karl C K Kuban, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O' Shea, Elizabeth N Allred, Alan Leviton
OBJECTIVES: To compare neurocognitive, language, executive function, academic achievement, neurologic and behavioral outcomes, and quality of life at age 10 years in children born extremely preterm who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to children who did not develop BPD. METHODS: The Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns study population included 863 children born extremely preterm whose BPD status before discharge was known had an IQ (Differential Ability Scales II [DAS II]) assessment at 10 years...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772816/alpha-mannosidosis-therapeutic-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Maria Rachele Ceccarini, Michela Codini, Carmela Conte, Federica Patria, Samuela Cataldi, Matteo Bertelli, Elisabetta Albi, Tommaso Beccari
Alpha-mannosidosis (α-mannosidosis) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder with an autosomal recessive inheritance caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the lysosomal α-d-mannosidase. So far, 155 variants from 191 patients have been identified and in part characterized at the biochemical level. Similarly to other lysosomal storage diseases, there is no relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Enzyme replacement therapy is at the moment the most effective therapy for lysosomal storage disease, including alpha-mannosidosis...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772485/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#16
Wei Zheng, Qing-E Zhang, Dong-Bin Cai, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Findings of neurocognitive dysfunction in subjects at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) have been controversial. This meta-analysis systematically examined studies of neurocognitive functions using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in CHR-P. An independent literature search of both English and Chinese databases was conducted by two reviewers. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated using a random effects model to evaluate the effect size of the meta-analytic results. Six case-control studies (n = 396) comparing neurocognitive functions between CHR-P subjects (n = 197) and healthy controls (n = 199) using the MCCB were identified; 4 (66...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771819/sharing-as-a-model-for-understanding-division
#17
Alexa Ellis, Xiaosu Hu, Craig E Smith, Pamela E Davis-Kean, Ioulia Kovelman
Emerging research suggests that children's ability to divide is the best predictor of later arithmetic development. Although division is typically taught around grade 3, children much younger than this practice division when sharing and allocating resources (e.g. sharing food). To test the hypothesis that social sharing abilities are linked to the emergence of complex numerical division abilities, we examined sharing and division abilities in adults and children. The first study used functional near infrared spectroscopy to examine the neurocognitive bases of division in adults (N=28; age range: 18-23 years) during a task that evaluated their judgment of proportions in the context of sharing, as well as traditional numerical division tasks...
May 16, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771285/increased-dolutegravir-peak-concentrations-in-people-living-with-hiv-aged-60-and-over-and-analysis-of-sleep-quality-and-cognition
#18
Emilie R Elliot, Xinzhu Wang, Suveer Singh, Bryony Simmons, Jaime H Vera, Robert F Miller, Colin Fitzpatrick, Graeme Moyle, Myra McClure, Marta Boffito
Background: Demographic data show an increasingly aging HIV population worldwide. Recent concerns over dolutegravir-related neuropsychiatric toxicity have emerged, particularly amongst older HIV patients. We describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dolutegravir (DTG) 50mg once daily in people living with HIV (PLWH) aged 60 and older. Additionally, to address the call for prospective neuropsychiatric toxicodynamic data, we evaluate changes in sleep quality and cognitive function after switching to abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC)/DTG, over 6 months in this population...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770225/quality-of-life-of-irradiated-brain-tumor-survivors-treated-with-donepezil-or-placebo-results-of-the-wfu-ccop-research-base-protocol-91105
#19
Michelle J Naughton, L Douglas Case, Ann Peiffer, Michael Chan, Volker Stieber, Dennis Moore, Steven Falchuk, James Piephoff, William Edenfield, Jeffrey Giguere, Monica Loghin, Edward G Shaw, Stephen R Rapp
Background: The health-related quality of life (HRQL) and fatigue of brain cancer survivors treated with donepezil or placebo for cognitive symptoms after radiation therapy were examined. Methods: One hundred ninety-eight patients who completed >30 Gy fractionated whole or partial brain irradiation at least 6 months prior to enrollment were randomized to either placebo or donepezil (5 mg for 6 weeks followed by 10 mg for 18 weeks) in a phase 3 trial. A neurocognitive battery, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-fatigue, was administered at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks...
May 2018: Neuro-oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768190/a-bayesian-model-comparison-approach-to-test-the-specificity-of-visual-integration-impairment-in-schizophrenia-or-psychosis
#20
Tyler B Grove, Beier Yao, Savanna A Mueller, Merranda McLaughlin, Vicki L Ellingrod, Melvin G McInnis, Stephan F Taylor, Patricia J Deldin, Ivy F Tso
Impaired visual integration is well documented in schizophrenia and related to functional outcomes. However, it is unclear if this deficit is specific to schizophrenia, or characteristic of psychosis more broadly. To address this question, this study used a Bayesian model comparison approach to examine the evidence of three grouping models of visual integration performance in 116 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SA), bipolar disorder (BD) with or without a history of prominent psychosis (BDP+ and BDP-, respectively), or no psychiatric diagnosis (healthy controls; HC)...
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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