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Neurocognitive functioning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339557/chronic-dietary-creatine-enhances-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-memory-bioenergetics-and-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#1
Wanda M Snow, Chris Cadonic, Claudia Cortes-Perez, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Michael J Bernstein, Miyoung Suh, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
The brain has a high demand for energy, of which creatine (Cr) is an important regulator. Studies document neurocognitive benefits of oral Cr in mammals, yet little is known regarding their physiological basis. This study investigated the effects of Cr supplementation (3%, w/w) on hippocampal function in male C57BL/6 mice, including spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and oxygen consumption rates from isolated mitochondria in real time. Levels of transcription factors and related proteins (CREB, Egr1, and IκB to indicate NF-κB activity), proteins implicated in cognition (CaMKII, PSD-95, and Egr2), and mitochondrial proteins (electron transport chain Complex I, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1) were probed with Western blotting...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339147/neural-signatures-for-active-maintenance-and-interference-during-working-memory-updating
#2
Adrià Vilà-Balló, Juha Salmi, Anna Soveri, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Minna Lehtonen, Matti Laine
Although working memory (WM) is amongst the most studied neurocognitive functions, temporal patterns of its component processes are not fully understood. We examined the neural underpinnings of active maintenance and interference management in the n-back task by manipulating load (1-back vs 3-back) and including so-called lure stimuli. ERPs of 27 young adults revealed that the 1-back condition enabling active maintenance showed a positive slow wave (PSW) prior to the next stimulus (-600-0 ms) and augmented P2 (190-290 ms) and P3b (330-430 ms) responses after the stimulus appeared, albeit the latter effects were driven by the initial PSW...
January 12, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336287/endoscopically-assisted-crawford-tube-placement-results-in-shorter-general-anesthesia-times-in-pediatric-patients
#3
Mitchell R Dobberpuhl, Peter J Timoney, Brett T Comer
BACKGROUND: Crawford tube placement is commonly used to achieve patency of nasolacrimal ducts for epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The nasal passages of pediatric patients are narrower than adults, and the result is a relatively higher risk of intranasal complications (e.g., synechiae, bleeding) with Crawford tube placement. There is evidence that general anesthesia may negatively affect the neurocognitive function and behavioral development of children, which prompts efforts to decrease operation times for potential health benefits and also potentially to reduce health care costs...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#4
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331595/the-interaction-between-neurocognitive-functioning-subthreshold-psychotic-symptoms-and-pharmacotherapy-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-longitudinal-comparative-study
#5
R Weinberger, O Weisman, Y Guri, T Harel, A Weizman, D Gothelf
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common genetic syndrome associated with schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the interaction between neurocognitive functioning, the presence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms (SPS) and conversion to psychosis in individuals with 22q11DS. In addition, we attempted to identify the specific neurocognitive domains that predict the longitudinal evolution of positive and negative SPS, as well as the effect of psychiatric medications on 22q11DS psychiatric and cognitive developmental trajectories...
December 8, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329164/a-systematic-review-of-risk-factors-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-after-pediatric-critical-illness
#6
Alicia G Kachmar, Sharon Y Irving, Cynthia A Connolly, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors associated with cognitive impairment as assessed by neuropsychologic tests in neurotypical children after critical illness. DATA SOURCES: For this systematic review, we searched the Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and CINAHL databases from January 1960 to March 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Included were studies with subjects 3-18 years old at the time of post PICU follow-up evaluation and use of an objective standardized neuropsychologic test with at least one cognitive functioning dimension...
January 11, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327599/motor-skills-cognition-and-work-performance-of-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#7
Lena Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Dikla Elgerisi, Adam Easterbrook, Navah Z Ratzon
PURPOSE: Employment offers many benefits to people with mental illness, yet their employment rate is much lower than that of the general population. We investigated the effect of work-related motor skills, neurocognition, and job attitudes on the work performance of people with mental illness, comparing those working in sheltered workshops, with controls working in similar jobs. METHODS: Twenty-nine adults with severe mental illness and 27 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled into the study using convenience sampling...
January 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327497/congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-broader-cognitive-deficits-revealed-by-parent-controls
#8
Frank A Zelko, Tracey M Stewart, Cindy D Brogadir, Casey M Rand, Debra E Weese-Mayer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate neurocognitive deficits in children with Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) by comparing them to their parents, since parents comprise a particularly suitable control group matched on disease-extrinsic factors that can influence neurocognitive functioning. We compared CCHS patients to their parents and to population norms, hypothesizing that they would obtain lower intelligence test scores than both groups. We also compared patient-parent differences against patient-normative differences, to determine whether the two analytic approaches would yield different results...
January 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326869/prenatal-methadone-exposure-is-associated-with-altered-neonatal-brain-development
#9
Victoria J Monnelly, Devasuda Anblagan, Alan Quigley, Manuel Blesa Cabez, E Sarah Cooper, Helen Mactier, Scott I Semple, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Methadone is used for medication-assisted treatment of heroin addiction during pregnancy. The neurodevelopmental outcome of children with prenatal methadone exposure can be sub-optimal. We tested the hypothesis that brain development is altered among newborn infants whose mothers were prescribed methadone. 20 methadone-exposed neonates born after 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and 20 non-exposed controls underwent diffusion MRI at mean PMA of 39+ 2 and 41+ 1 weeks, respectively. An age-optimized Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) pipeline was used to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data between exposed and non-exposed neonates...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326031/depressive-symptoms-and-poorer-performance-on-the-stroop-task-are-associated-with-weight-gain
#10
Emma J Stinson, Jonathan Krakoff, Marci E Gluck
OBJECTIVE: Executive function impairments and depression are associated with obesity but whether they predict weight gain is unclear. METHODS: Forty-six individuals (35m, 37±10y) completed the Stroop Task, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Body composition (DXA) and fasting glucose were also measured. Data from return visits were used to assess changes in weight...
January 8, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324923/the-operation-of-the-day-care-centre-of-alzheimer-hellas-saint-helen-and-of-the-memory-clinic-of-papanikolaou-general-hospital-from-2007-to-2017
#11
Chrysa Papasozomenou, Eleni Poptsi, Eirini Maria Tabaki, Magda Tsolaki
OBJECTIVE: Nowadays, there is a rapid increase of neurocognitive disorders (ND), while Alzheimer disease (AD), is the most frequent type of neurodegeneration. Therefore, Day Care Centers (DCC) and Memory Clinics (MC) have been created in order to correspond to the rising needs of people with ND. The aim of the study was to record clinical and demographic characteristics of people with ND from the broader area of Thessaloniki. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data bases were collected and were analyzed in order to examine demographical characteristics of all visitors of the DCC of Alzheimer Hellas and of visitors of the Papanikolaou General Hospital, during the years 2007-2017...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324745/proof-of-concept-study-of-an-at-home-engaging-digital-intervention-for-pediatric-adhd
#12
Naomi O Davis, Jeffrey Bower, Scott H Kollins
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have limited impact on the distinct neurocognitive impairments associated with ADHD, and existing cognitive training programs have shown limited efficacy. This proof-of-concept study assessed treatment acceptability and explored outcomes for a novel digital treatment targeting cognitive processes implicated in ADHD. METHOD: Participants included 40 children with ADHD and 40 children without ADHD. Following psychiatric screening, ADHD ratings, and baseline neuropsychological measures, participants completed 28-days of at-home treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324300/hippocampal-insulin-resistance-links-maternal-obesity-with-impaired-neuronal-plasticity-in-adult-offspring
#13
Lisa Schmitz, Rebecca Kuglin, Inga Bae-Gartz, Ruth Janoschek, Sarah Appel, Andrea Mesaros, Igor Jakovcevski, Christina Vohlen, Marion Handwerk, Regina Ensenauer, Jörg Dötsch, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother
OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity and a disturbed metabolic environment during pregnancy and lactation have been shown to result in many long-term health consequences for the offspring. Among them, impairments in neurocognitive development and performance belong to the most dreaded ones. So far, very few mechanistic approaches have aimed to determine the responsible molecular events. METHODS: In a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity and perinatal hyperinsulinemia, we assessed adult offspring's hippocampal insulin signaling as well as concurrent effects on markers of hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and function using western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
December 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319333/an-investigation-of-executive-functioning-in-pediatric-anxiety
#14
Yolanda E Murphy, Anna Luke, Elle Brennan, Sarah Francazio, Isabella Christopher, Christopher A Flessner
Although science's understanding (e.g., etiology, maintaining factors, etc.) of pediatric anxiety and related problems has grown substantially over recent years, several aspects to anxiety in youths remain elusive, particularly with relation to executive functioning. To this end, the current study sought to examine several facets to executive functioning (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, working memory) within a transdiagnostic sample of youths exhibiting varying degrees of anxiety symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318452/correction-to-csf-inflammatory-markers-and-neurocognitive-function-after-addition-of-maraviroc-to-monotherapy-darunavir-ritonavir-in-stable-hiv-patients-the-cinammon-study
#15
T J Barber, A Imaz, M Boffito, J Niubó, A Pozniak, R Fortuny, J Alonso, N Davies, S Mandalia, D Podzamczer, B Gazzard
Due to a production error the bottom portion of Figure 1 was omitted. The corrected figure is given below.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317003/identification-of-heterogeneous-cognitive-subgroups-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-latent-class-analysis-of-the-einstein-aging-study
#16
Andrea R Zammit, Charles B Hall, Richard B Lipton, Mindy J Katz, Graciela Muniz-Terrera
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify natural subgroups of older adults based on cognitive performance, and to establish each subgroup's characteristics based on demographic factors, physical function, psychosocial well-being, and comorbidity. METHODS: We applied latent class (LC) modeling to identify subgroups in baseline assessments of 1345 Einstein Aging Study (EAS) participants free of dementia. The EAS is a community-dwelling cohort study of 70+ year-old adults living in the Bronx, NY...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316527/contrasting-effects-of-individual-versus-combined-estrogen-and-progestogen-regimens-as-working-memory-load-increases-in-middle-aged-ovariectomized-rats-one-plus-one-does-not-equal-two
#17
Alesia V Prakapenka, Ryoko Hiroi, Alicia M Quihuis, Catie Carson, Shruti Patel, Claire Berns-Leone, Carly Fox, Rachael W Sirianni, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson
Most estrogen-based hormone therapies are administered in combination with a progestogen, such as Levonorgestrel (Levo). Individually, the estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) and Levo can improve cognition in preclinical models. However, although these hormones are often given together clinically, the impact of the E2 + Levo combination on cognitive function has yet to be methodically examined. Thus, we investigated E2 + Levo treatment on a cognitive battery in middle-aged, ovariectomized rats. When administered alone, E2 and Levo treatments each enhanced spatial working memory relative to vehicle treatment, whereas the E2 + Levo combination impaired high working memory load performance relative to E2 only and Levo only treatments...
December 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316520/psychosocial-functioning-in-patients-with-psychotic-and-non-psychotic-bipolar-i-disorder-a-comparative-study-with-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#18
Estela Jiménez-López, Eva María Sánchez-Morla, Ana Isabel Aparicio, Ana López-Villarreal, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Roberto Rodriguez-Jimenez, Eduard Vieta, José Luis Santos
BACKGROUND: More than 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) do not reach full psychosocial functioning, even during periods of euthymia. It has been suggested that history of psychotic symptoms is one of the factors which are associated with a worse functional outcome. The objective was to compare psychosocial functioning between patients with BD, with (BD-P), and without (BD-NP) a history of psychotic symptoms, and to examine whether the history of psychotic symptoms, or other clinical or neurocognitive variables predict psychosocial functioning...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315194/relations-between-self-reported-executive-functioning-and-speech-perception-skills-in-adult-cochlear-implant-users
#19
Aaron C Moberly, Tirth R Patel, Irina Castellanos
HYPOTHESIS: As a result of their hearing loss, adults with cochlear implants (CIs) would self-report poorer executive functioning (EF) skills than normal-hearing (NH) peers, and these EF skills would be associated with performance on speech recognition tasks. BACKGROUND: EF refers to a group of high order neurocognitive skills responsible for behavioral and emotional regulation during goal-directed activity, and EF has been found to be poorer in children with CIs than their NH age-matched peers...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313802/augmenting-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-the-act-study-design-and-methods-of-a-phase-iii-tdcs-and-cognitive-training-trial
#20
Adam J Woods, Ronald Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Gene E Alexander, Sara J Czaja, Samuel Wu
BACKGROUND: Adults over age 65 represent the fastest growing population in the US. Decline in cognitive abilities is a hallmark of advanced age and is associated with loss of independence and dementia risk. There is a pressing need to develop effective interventions for slowing or reversing the cognitive aging process. While certain forms of cognitive training have shown promise in this area, effects only sometimes transfer to neuropsychological tests within or outside the trained domain...
December 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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