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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143823/salt-responsive-gut-commensal-modulates-th17-axis-and-disease
#1
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G Matus, Sean M Kearney, Scott W Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó, Olga Vvedenskaya, Friedrich H Kleiner, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Lars Klug, Paul I Costea, Shinichi Sunagawa, Lisa Maier, Natalia Rakova, Valentin Schatz, Patrick Neubert, Christian Frätzer, Alexander Krannich, Maik Gollasch, Diana A Grohme, Beatriz F Côrte-Real, Roman G Gerlach, Marijana Basic, Athanasios Typas, Chuan Wu, Jens M Titze, Jonathan Jantsch, Michael Boschmann, Ralf Dechend, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Stefan Kempa, Peer Bork, Ralf A Linker, Eric J Alm, Dominik N Müller
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141759/cell-type-specific-immunomodulation-induced-by-helminthes-effect-on-metainflammation-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Gowrishankar Anand
Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS)...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141217/th1-like-plasmodium-specific-memory-cd4-t-cells-support-humoral-immunity
#3
Ryan A Zander, Rahul Vijay, Angela D Pack, Jenna J Guthmiller, Amy C Graham, Scott E Lindner, Ashley M Vaughan, Stefan H I Kappe, Noah S Butler
Effector T cells exhibiting features of either T helper 1 (Th1) or T follicular helper (Tfh) populations are essential to control experimental Plasmodium infection and are believed to be critical for resistance to clinical malaria. To determine whether Plasmodium-specific Th1- and Tfh-like effector cells generate memory populations that contribute to protection, we developed transgenic parasites that enable high-resolution study of anti-malarial memory CD4 T cells in experimental models. We found that populations of both Th1- and Tfh-like Plasmodium-specific memory CD4 T cells persist...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140820/renal-effects-of-cytokines-in-hypertension
#4
Yi Wen, Steven D Crowley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension through effects on renal blood flow and sodium handling. This review will update recent advances that explore the renal actions of immune cells and cytokines in the pathogenesis of hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Populations of cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to hypertension by modulating functions of the vasculature and epithelial cells in the kidney...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140110/il-21-therapy-controls-immune-activation-and-maintains-antiviral-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-acute-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#5
Gema Méndez-Lagares, Ding Lu, David Merriam, Christopher A Baker, François Villinger, Koen K A Van Rompay, Joseph M McCune, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replicate during acute infection in lymphocytes of the gastrointestinal tract, before disseminating systemically. Localized replication and associated loss of gut-resident CD4(+) T cells occur regardless of the portal of entry of the virus (e.g., intravenous vs. rectal). Thus, HIV and SIV are tropic for gut tissue, and their pathogenesis requires the special environment of the intestine. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are important contributors to microbial defense in the gut that are vulnerable to HIV infection and whose loss is associated with translocation of microbial products to the systemic circulation, leading to chronic immune activation and disease progression...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138487/associations-between-th17-related-inflammatory-cytokines-and-asthma-in-adults-a-case-control-study
#6
Ting Zhou, Xiji Huang, Yun Zhou, Jixuan Ma, Min Zhou, Yuewei Liu, Lili Xiao, Jing Yuan, Jungang Xie, Weihong Chen
Chronic airway inflammation is recognized as an essential process in the pathogenesis of asthma. Cytokine profiles derived from immune and inflammation cells such as T-helper (Th) cells, eosinophilia and neutrophilia are not limited to the Th2 type in asthma. However, little is understood about associations between Th2-low inflammatory cytokine profiles and risk of asthma in adults. A case-control study of 910 adult asthma and 881 healthy controls was conducted. Inflammatory cytokines screening was undertaken by high-throughput protein microarray technology, and Th17-related inflammatory cytokines (IL17A, IL-9, adipsin and CCL11) were finally selected...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137933/cd4-t-cell-differentiation-in-chronic-viral-infections-the-tfh-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Laura A Vella, Ramin S Herati, E John Wherry
CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in the response to chronic viral infections during the acute phase and in the partial containment of infections once chronic infection is established. As infection persists, the virus-specific CD4(+) T cell response begins to shift in phenotype. The predominant change described in both mouse and human studies of chronic viral infection is a decrease in detectable T helper type (Th)1 responses. Some Th1 loss is due to decreased proliferative potential and decreased cytokine production in the setting of chronic antigen exposure...
November 11, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137886/diesel-exhaust-inhalation-exposure-induces-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-mice
#8
Jing Liu, Xiaoqing Ye, Dapeng Ji, Xiaofei Zhou, Cong Qiu, Weiping Liu, Luyang Yu
Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the main sources of urban air pollution. An increasing number of evidence showed the association of air pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the most disastrous vascular diseases, which results in right ventricular failure and death. However, the relationship of DE inhalation exposure with PAH is still unknown. In this study, male adult mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered ambient air (negative control), 10% O2 hypoxia (PAH-phenotype positive control), 350 μg/m(3) particulate matter whole DE, or the combination of DE and hypoxic condition...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137362/an-optimized-hmgb1-expressed-by-recombinant-rabies-virus-enhances-immunogenicity-through-activation-of-dendritic-cells-in-mice
#9
Zhao Wang, Qian Liang, Yajing Zhang, Jie Yang, Mingming Li, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao, Ming Zhou
Rabies remains an important public health threat, killing approximately 59,000 people worldwide annually, most of which are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia where dog rabies are endemic. Therefore, developing an affordable and efficacious vaccine for dog-mediated rabies control is needful in these countries. Our previous studies indicated that over-expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α or CCL3) by recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) could enhance the immunogenicity by activating dendritic cells (DCs)...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137256/qishenyiqi-pill-attenuates-atherosclerosis-by-promoting-regulatory-t-cells-inhibiting-t-helper-17-cells-and-accelerating-cholesterol-excretion
#10
Li Peng, Chong-Shan Lv, Yun Zhao, Shao-Dong Chen, Yang Huang, Da-Wei Lu, Shu-Qiong Huang, Zong-Bao Yang, Lin-Chao Qian, Lei Wen
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore potential immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying the suppressive effect on atherosclerosis of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ). Methods and Results: Male ApoE(-/-) mice were maintained on a Western-type diet and QSYQ treatment for eight weeks. Determination of atherosclerosis demonstrated that QSYQ attenuated plaque formation and decreased the level of blood low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol. QSYQ treatment did not affect body weight but reduced the ratio of liver weight and body weight...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136759/novel-function-of-hydroxychloroquine-down-regulation-of-t-follicular-helper-cells-in-collagen-induced-arthritis
#11
Jiaochan Han, Qingyou Zhou, Xing Li, Juan He, Yanping Han, Hongyu Jie, Yi He, Erwei Sun
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an immunosuppressive agent widely used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a vital role in the pathogenesis of RA. However, whether HCQ suppresses arthritis development through interfering with Tfh cells have never been reported. To address this issue, we investigated the percent of Tfh cells in newly diagnosed RA patients and found that they were up-regulated in peripheral blood. Importantly, in ex vivo experiments of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers, we proved that the percentage of Tfh cells in PBMCs and purified CD4(+) T cells were decreased after HCQ treatment...
November 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136128/the-proton-activated-receptor-gpr4-modulates-intestinal-inflammation
#12
Yu Wang, Cheryl de Vallière, Pedro H Imenez Silva, Irina Leonardi, Sven Gruber, Alexandra Gerstgrasser, Hassan Melham, Achim Weber, Katharina Leucht, Lutz Wolfram, Martin Hausmann, Carsten Krieg, Koray Thomasson, Onur Boyman, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Gerhard Rogler, Carsten A Wagner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During active inflammation tissue intraluminal intestinal pH is decreased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Acidic pH may play a role in IBD pathophysiology. Recently, proton sensing G-protein coupled receptors were identified, including GPR4, OGR1 (GPR68), and TDAG8 (GPR65). We investigated whether GPR4 is involved in intestinal inflammation. METHODS: The role of GPR4 was assessed in murine colitis models: chronic dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) administration and by crossbreeding into an IL-10 deficient background for development of spontaneous colitis...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133396/repression-of-mir-31-by-bcl6-stabilizes-the-helper-function-of-human-follicular-helper-t-cells
#13
A Ripamonti, E Provasi, M Lorenzo, M De Simone, V Ranzani, S Vangelisti, S Curti, R J P Bonnal, L Pignataro, S Torretta, J Geginat, G Rossetti, M Pagani, S Abrignani
Follicular helper T cells (TFHs) are a key component of adaptive immune responses as they help antibody production by B cells. Differentiation and function of TFH cells are controlled by the master gene BCL6, but it is largely unclear how this transcription repressor specifies the TFH program. Here we asked whether BCL6 controlled helper function through down-regulation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs). We first assessed miRNA expression in TFH cells and defined a TFH-specific miRNA signature. We report that hsa-miR-31-5p (miR-31) is down-regulated in TFH; we showed that BCL6 suppresses miR-31 expression by binding to its promoter; and we demonstrated that miR-31 inhibits the expression of molecules that control T-helper function, such as CD40L and SAP...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131267/interleukin-33-promotes-the-inflammatory-reaction-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#14
L Zhang, L-L Jiang, Z-W Cao
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-33 promotes T helper (Th2) immune response and may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Using murine and human specimens, we evaluated the role of IL-33 in CRSwNP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To establish CRSwNP, Balb/c mice were sensitized with house dust mite, followed up by intranasal exposure to Staphylococcus aureus to stimulate the inflammatory response of nasal mucosa. The hematoxylin-eosin staining and total serum IgE were used to the successful construction of CRSwNP model...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131072/il-21-is-increased-in-nasal-polyposis-and-after-stimulation-with-staphylococcus-aureus-enterotoxin-b
#15
Lien Calus, Lara Derycke, Melissa Dullaers, Thibaut Van Zele, Natalie De Ruyck, Claudina Pérez-Novo, Gabriele Holtappels, Geert De Vos, Bart N Lambrecht, Claus Bachert, Philippe Gevaert
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory disease associated with lymphoid aggregates and local IgE production related to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. T-follicular helper cells and their effector cytokine interleukin (IL)-21 play an important role in germinal center proliferation. METHODS: IL-21 was determined on the mRNA level by qPCR in nasal tissue of 3 groups of patients: control (n = 17), chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP; n = 23), and CRSwNP (n = 35)...
November 9, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130972/human-dendritic-cells-with-th2-polarizing-capacity-analysis-using-label-free-quantitative-proteomics
#16
Leonie Hussaarts, Maria Mardalena Martini Kaisar, Arzu Tugce Guler, Hans Dalebout, Bart Everts, André M Deelder, Magnus Palmblad, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are the sentinels of the immune system. Upon recognition of a pathogen, they mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to prime and polarize T cell responses. Although it is known that helminths and helminth-derived molecules condition DCs to polarize T helper (Th) cells towards Th2, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to conduct a proteome analysis of helminth antigen-stimulated DCs in order to gain more insight into the cellular processes associated with their ability to polarize immune responses...
November 10, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129452/long-term-humoral-immunity-induced-by-cvc1302-adjuvanted-serotype-o-foot-and-mouth-disease-inactivated-vaccine-correlates-with-promoted-t-follicular-helper-cells-and-thus-germinal-center-responses-in-mice
#17
Luping Du, Jin Chen, Liting Hou, Xiaoming Yu, Qisheng Zheng, Jibo Hou
Long-lasting humoral immunity is one of the necessary criteria for a successful vaccine. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the immunopotentiator CVC1302 could improve the humoral immunity induced by the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) killed vaccine (KV) with only one dose. Significantly higher FMDV-specific antibody titers and more persistent antibody responses were observed in pigs receiving CVC1302-adjuvanted KV (KV-CVC1302) than in those inoculated with KV alone. In this study, we show that CVC1302 enhances murine IgG responses to FMDV by promoting a potent T follicular helper cell (TFH) response, which directly controls the magnitude of the germinal center (GC) B cell response...
November 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127199/the-full-length-interleukin-33-flil33-importin-5-interaction-does-not-regulate-flil33-s-nuclear-localization-but-controls-its-intracellular-degradation
#18
Andrew Clerman, Zahid Noor, Rita Fishelevich, Virginia Lockatell, Brian S Hampton, Nirav G Shah, Mariah V Salcedo, Nevins W Todd, Sergei P Atamas, Irina G Luzina
Human mature interleukin-33 (MIL33) is a member of the IL-1 family and a potent regulator of immunity through its pro-T helper cell 2 (Th2) activity. Its precursor form, full-length interleukin-33 (FLIL33), is an intranuclear protein in many cell types, including fibroblasts, and its intracellular levels can change in response to stimuli. However, the mechanisms controlling the nuclear localization of FLIL33 or its stability in cells are not understood. Here, we identified importin-5 (IPO5), a member of the importin family of nuclear transport proteins, as an intracellular binding partner of FLIL33...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125185/thymus-involvement-in-early-onset-myasthenia-gravis
#19
REVIEW
Mélanie A Cron, Solène Maillard, José Villegas, Frédérique Truffault, Muriel Sudres, Nadine Dragin, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Rozen Le Panse
It has long been established that the thymus plays a central role in autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) because of either thymoma or thymic hyperplasia of lymphoproliferative origin. In this review, we discuss thymic changes associated with thymic hyperplasia and their implications in the development of an autoimmune response against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR).The hyperplastic MG thymus displays all the characteristics of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs): neoangiogenic processes with high endothelial venule and lymphatic vessel development, chemokine overexpression favoring peripheral cell recruitment, and ectopic germinal center development...
November 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124488/t-helper-1-immune-response-in-metastatic-lymph-nodes-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-marker-for-prolonged-survival
#20
Eran Nizri, Neta Sternbach, Shoshi Bar-David, Amir Ben-Yehuda, Fabian Gerstenhaber, Tali Ofir, Ido Wolf, Gilad Weiner, Guy Lahat, Joseph Klausner
BACKGROUND: Although lymph node (LN) metastases is considered a grave prognostic sign in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), patients with positive lymph nodes (PLN) constitute a heterogeneous group. Our purpose was to identify morphological and immune parameters in the primary tumor and in PLN of resected PDAC patients, which could further stratify these patients to different subgroups. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of 66 patients with PDAC who were operated at our institution...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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