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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677210/provider-reported-barriers-and-solutions-to-improve-testing-among-tuberculosis-patients-eligible-for-drug-susceptibility-test-a-qualitative-study-from-programmatic-setting-in-india
#1
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Arun M Kokane, Akash Ranjan Singh, Malik Parmar, Manoj Verma, Prabha Desikan, Sheeba Naz Khan, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: In a study conducted in Bhopal district (a setting with facility for molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST)) located in central India in 2014-15, we found high levels of pre-diagnosis attrition among patients with presumptive multi drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)-meaning TB patients who were eligible for DST, were not being tested. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we explored the health care provider perspectives into barriers and suggested solutions for improving DST...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675789/experimental-platform-utilising-melting-curve-technology-for-detection-of-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#2
Agnieszka Broda, Vlad Nikolayevskyy, Nicki Casali, Huma Khan, Richard Bowker, Gemma Blackwell, Bhakti Patel, James Hume, Waqar Hussain, Francis Drobniewski
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly infections with approximately a quarter of cases not being identified and/or treated mainly due to a lack of resources. Rapid detection of TB or drug-resistant TB enables timely adequate treatment and is a cornerstone of effective TB management. We evaluated the analytical performance of a single-tube assay for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) on an experimental platform utilising RT-PCR and melting curve analysis that could potentially be operated as a point-of-care (PoC) test in resource-constrained settings with a high burden of TB...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675357/radiological-signs-associated-with-pulmonary-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-an-analysis-of-published-evidences
#3
Yì Xiáng J Wáng, Myung Jin Chung, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Alex Rosenthal, Andrei Gabrielian, Michael Tartakovsky
Background: Despite that confirmative diagnosis of pulmonary drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is determined by microbiological testing, early suspicions of MDR-TB by chest imaging are highly desirable in order to guide diagnostic process. We aim to perform an analysis of currently available literatures on radiological signs associated with pulmonary MDR-TB. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed on January 29, 2018...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675262/genotyping-and-molecular-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-tuberculosis-lymphadenitis-cases-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#4
O Zewdie, A Mihret, T Abebe, A Kebede, K Desta, A Worku, G Ameni
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a major public health problem. Drug-resistance surveillance data show that 3.9% of new and 21% of previously treated TB cases were estimated to have had rifampicin/ multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) in 2015. This implies that the MDR-TB is increasing alarmingly. Hence, a better understanding of drug resistance mechanisms and genotypes associated with multidrug resistance in M. tuberculosis is crucial for improving diagnostic and therapeutic methods to treat individuals with MDR-TB...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668748/mdr-tb-patients-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-cost-effectiveness-of-5-models-of-care
#5
Marian Loveday, Kristina Wallengren, Tarylee Reddy, Donela Besada, James C M Brust, Anna Voce, Harsha Desai, Jacqueline Ngozo, Zanele Radebe, Iqbal Master, Nesri Padayatchi, Emmanuelle Daviaud
BACKGROUND: South Africa has a high burden of MDR-TB, and to provide accessible treatment the government has introduced different models of care. We report the most cost-effective model after comparing cost per patient successfully treated across 5 models of care: centralized hospital, district hospitals (2), and community-based care through clinics or mobile injection teams. METHODS: In an observational study five cohorts were followed prospectively. The cost analysis adopted a provider perspective and economic cost per patient successfully treated was calculated based on country protocols and length of treatment per patient per model of care...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665952/community-engagement-for-paediatric-mdr-tb-clinical-trials-principles-to-support-ethical-trial-implementation
#6
G Hoddinott, S Staples, R Brown, M Simwinga, C Mubekapi-Musadaidzwa, A C Hesseling, G Hendricks, P De Koker, L McKenna
The paediatric tuberculosis (TB) prevention and treatment landscape is moving into a new and exciting era, with knowledge from clinical trials offering real benefit to children. Community engagement is key to optimising the success of these trials. However, the clinical profile, epidemiology and social perceptions for paediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) complicate the operationalisation of this community engagement. We reflect on a diversity of recent experiences attempting to implement this type of research and the community engagement around it...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665950/conducting-efficacy-trials-in-children-with-mdr-tb-what-is-the-rationale-and-how-should-they-be-done
#7
J A Seddon, E D Weld, H S Schaaf, A J Garcia-Prats, S Kim, A C Hesseling
Paediatric anti-tuberculosis treatment trials have traditionally been limited to Phase I/II studies evaluating the drug pharmacokinetics and safety in children, with assumptions about efficacy made by extrapolating data from adults. However, it is increasingly being recognised that, in some circumstances, efficacy trials are required in children. The current treatment for children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is long and toxic; shorter, safer regimens, using novel agents, require urgent evaluation...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665949/current-status-of-pharmacokinetic-and-safety-studies-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-children
#8
A J Garcia-Prats, E M Svensson, E D Weld, H S Schaaf, A C Hesseling
After decades of neglect, data are finally becoming available on the appropriate, safe dosing of key second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children, including levofloxacin (LVX), moxifloxacin (MFX), linezolid (LZD) and delamanid (DLM). Much needed data on some novel and repurposed drugs are still lacking, including for bedaquiline (BDQ), pretomanid (PTM) and clofazimine (CFZ). We review the status of pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety studies of key anti-tuberculosis medications in children with MDR-TB, identify priority knowledge gaps and note ongoing work to address those gaps, in the context of planning for an efficacy trial in children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665947/the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#9
H E Jenkins, C M Yuen
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has historically been neglected, although in recent years there has been increased focus on this problem. In particular, there have been two efforts to estimate the burden of pediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). METHODS: We review current estimates of the global incidence of pediatric MDR-TB disease. We then combine pediatric MDR-TB treatment data from the World Health Organization and recently published case fatality ratio estimates for children with TB to produce mortality estimates for children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665946/mdr-tb-in-children-back-to-the-basics
#10
C Robert Horsburgh, Amita Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663960/impact-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-on-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-karakalpakstan-uzbekistan
#11
J Kuhlin, C Smith, A Khaemraev, Z Tigay, N Parpieva, M Tillyashaykhov, J Achar, J Hajek, J Greig, P du Cros, D Moore
SETTING: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of pyrazinamide (PZA) in treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) unless resistance has been confirmed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between PZA susceptibility and MDR-TB treatment outcome among patients treated with a PZA-containing regimen and whether the duration of the intensive phase of the PZA-containing regimen affected treatment outcome. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all eligible MDR-TB patients starting treatment in 2003-2013 in the TB programme in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663870/identification-of-some-novel-pyrazolo-1-5-a-pyrimidine-derivatives-as-inha-inhibitors-through-pharmacophore-based-virtual-screening-and-molecular-docking
#12
Palmi Modi, Shivani Patel, Mahesh T Chhabria
The InhA inhibitors play key role in mycolic acid synthesis by preventing the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. In this present article Pharmacophore modelling and molecular docking study followed by in silico virtual screening could be considered as effective strategy to identify newer enoyl-ACP reductase inhibitors. Pyrrolidine carboxamide derivatives were opted to generate pharmacophore models using HypoGen algorithm in Discovery studio 2.1. Further it was employed to screen Zinc and Minimaybridge databases to identify and design newer potent hit molecules...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659912/turning-off-the-tap-using-the-fast-approach-to-stop-the-spread-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-russian-federation
#13
Ann C Miller, Viktoria Livchits, Faiz Ahmad Khan, Sidney Atwood, Sergei Kornienko, Yulia Kononenko, Irina Vasilyeva, Salmaan Keshavjee
Background: We report the association of the FAST (Find cases Actively, Separate safely and Treat effectively) strategy with reduction of hospital-based acquisition of MDR-TB in Russian Federation. Methods: We used pre- and post-intervention cohorts in two Russian hospitals to determine whether the FAST strategy was associated with reduced odds of converting from known baseline isoniazid and rifampin (H/R) susceptibility to MDR within 12 months. Results: Sixty-three (8...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642833/-management-and-treatment-difficulties-of-multi-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-pediatric-case
#14
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628698/drug-resistant-skeletal-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#15
J Arockiaraj, G S Balaji, V M Cherian, Jepegnanam T S, B P Thomas, Joy S Michael, P M Poonnoose
Back ground: Drug resistant tuberculosis is alarmingly on the rise especially in developing countries. Skeletal tuberculosis accounts up to 10% of all extra pulmonary tuberculosis. World Health Organisation (WHO) has not formulated guidelines for the management of Multi-drug resistant skeletal tuberculosis. Results: A retrospective analysis of patients treated for musculoskeletal tuberculosis was done, to study drug resistance patterns. The outcome was assessed both clinically and radiologically...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622495/identification-of-serine-119-as-an-effective-inhibitor-binding-site-of-m-tuberculosis-ubiquitin-like-protein-ligase-pafa-using-purified-proteins-and-m-smegmatis
#16
He-Wei Jiang, Daniel M Czajkowsky, Tao Wang, Xu-De Wang, Jia-Bin Wang, Hai-Nan Zhang, Cheng-Xi Liu, Fan-Lin Wu, Xiang He, Zhao-Wei Xu, Hong Chen, Shu-Juan Guo, Yang Li, Li-Jun Bi, Jiao-Yu Deng, Jin Xie, Jian-Feng Pei, Xian-En Zhang, Sheng-Ce Tao
Owing to the spread of multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensive drug resistance (XDR), there is a pressing need to identify potential targets for the development of more-effective anti-M. tuberculosis (Mtb) drugs. PafA, as the sole Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein ligase in the Pup-proteasome System (PPS) of Mtb, is an attractive drug target. Here, we show that the activity of purified Mtb PafA is significantly inhibited upon the association of AEBSF (4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride) to PafA residue Serine 119 (S119)...
March 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611497/validity-of-time-to-sputum-culture-conversion-to-predict-cure-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-single-center-study
#17
Nafees Ahmad, Arshad Javaid, Afsar Khan Afridi, Anila Basit, Amer Hayat Khan, Izaz Ahmad, Muhammad Atif
To evaluate the predictive value of time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) in predicting cure and factors associated with time to SCC and cure in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients, a retrospective study was conducted at programmatic management unit of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB), Peshawar. A total of 428 pulmonary MDR-TB patients enrolled at the study site from January 1, 2012 to August 31, 2014 were followed until treatment outcome was recorded. Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model and multivariate binary logistic regression were, respectively, used to identify factors associated with time to SCC and cure...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611381/determining-genotypic-drug-resistance-by-ion-semiconductor-sequencing-with-the-ion-ampliseq%C3%A2-tb-panel-in-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#18
Joonhong Park, So Youn Shin, Kyungjong Kim, Kuhn Park, Soyoung Shin, Chunhwa Ihm
BACKGROUND: We examined the feasibility of a full-length gene analysis for the drug resistance-related genes inhA, katG, rpoB, pncA, rpsL, embB, eis, and gyrA using ion semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) and compared the results with those obtained from conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. METHODS: We extracted genomic DNA from 30 pure MDR-TB isolates with antibiotic susceptibility profiles confirmed by phenotypic DST for isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), pyrazinamide (PZA), amikacin (AMK), kanamycin (KM), streptomycin (SM), and fluoroquinolones (FQs) including ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin...
July 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608388/surveillance-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-spain-2001-2015
#19
Juan Bautista Gutiérrez-Aroca, Pilar Ruiz, Manuel Vaquero, Manuel Causse, Manuel Casal
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a cause of increasing concern. This study investigated first-line anti-TB drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains submitted to the Tuberculosis Reference Center in Córdoba (Spain) between 2001 and 2015. A total of 1,207 cultures were tested against first-line drugs using the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Resistance to first-line drugs was detected in 207 strains (17.2%), the greatest resistance being found in INH (5.3%) followed by streptomycin (3%), pyrazinamide (2...
April 2, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606112/risk-factors-for-the-occurrence-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-patients-undergoing-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-east-shoa-ethiopia
#20
Fanta Desissa, Tilaye Workineh, Takele Beyene
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is resistant to the two main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs: rifampicin and isoniazid. It is a major threat to public health worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess the potential risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients undergoing MDR-TB treatment at two community hospitals in Ethiopia. METHODS: A case-control study design was conducted from February 1, 2016, to April 29, 2016...
April 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
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