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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086877/treating-the-invisible-gaps-and-opportunities-for-enhanced-tb-control-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border
#1
Naomi Tschirhart, Sein Sein Thi, Lei Lei Swe, Francois Nosten, Angel M Foster
BACKGROUND: In Thailand's northwestern Tak province, contextual conditions along the border with Myanmar pose difficulties for TB control among migrant populations. Incomplete surveillance data, migrant patient mobility, and loss to follow-up make it difficult to estimate the TB burden and implement effective TB control measures. This multi-methods study examined tuberculosis, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment accessibility for migrants and refugees in Tak province, health system response, and public health surveillance...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081227/diagnostic-accuracy-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-comparison-to-conventional-drug-susceptibility-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#2
Pratikshya Pandey, Narayan Dutt Pant, Komal Raj Rijal, Bhawana Shrestha, Sirita Kattel, Megha Raj Banjara, Bhagwan Maharjan, Rajendra Kc
Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081169/assessment-of-a-96-well-plate-assay-of-quantitative-drug-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-in-china
#3
Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Bing Zhao, Susan van den Hof, Frank Cobelens, YanLin Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the Sensitire MYCOTB MIC Plate (MYCOTB) which could measure the twelve anti-tuberculosis drugs susceptibility on one 96-wells plate. METHODS: A total of 140 MDR-TB strains and 60 non-MDR strains were sub-cultured and 193 strains were finally tested for drug resistance using MYCOTB and agar proportion method (APM) and another 7 strains failed of subculture. The drugs included ofloxacin (Ofx), moxifloxacin (Mfx), rifampin (RFP), amikacin (Am), rifabutin (Rfb), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), ethionamide (Eth), isoniazid (INH), kanamycin (Km), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (Sm), and cycloserine(Cs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073970/estimated-generic-prices-for-novel-treatments-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#4
Dzintars Gotham, Joseph Fortunak, Anton Pozniak, Saye Khoo, Graham Cooke, Frederick E Nytko, Andrew Hill
BACKGROUND: The estimated worldwide annual incidence of MDR-TB is 480 000, representing 5% of TB incidence, but 20% of mortality. Multiple drugs have recently been developed or repurposed for the treatment of MDR-TB. Currently, treatment for MDR-TB costs thousands of dollars per course. OBJECTIVES: To estimate generic prices for novel TB drugs that would be achievable given large-scale competitive manufacture. METHODS: Prices for linezolid, moxifloxacin and clofazimine were estimated based on per-kilogram prices of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073344/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-disease-burden-in-china-a-systematic-review-and-spatio-temporal-analysis
#5
Peipei Ding, Xiaowen Li, Zhongwei Jia, Zuhong Lu
BACKGROUND: Surveillance data on the proportion of incident TB cases with MDR was limited and there is no systematic study of MDR-TB in China to date. Our aim was to estimate MDR-TB disease burden in 2012 and change trends during 2003-2012 using spatio-temporal systematic analysis. METHODS: We systematically searched Chinese and English databases for primary articles and reviews that contain MDR-TB survey data about China during the period of 2003-2012. We estimated the proportion of incident TB cases with MDR in cities which had no data to report in 2012 by Kriging spatial interpolation analysis...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071975/dynamics-of-fluoroquinolones-induced-resistance-in-dna-gyrase-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Bharati Pandey, Sonam Grover, Chetna Tyagi, Sukriti Goyal, Salma Jamal, Aditi Singh, Jagdeep Kaur, Abhinav Grover
DNA gyrase is a validated target of fluoroquinolones which are key components of multidrug resistance (MDR) TB treatment. Most frequent occurring mutations associated with high level of resistance to fluoroquinolone in clinical isolates of TB patients are A90V, D94G and A90V-D94G (double mutant), present in the larger subunit of DNA Gyrase. In order to explicate the molecular mechanism of drug resistance corresponding to these mutations, molecular dynamics and mechanics approach was applied. Structure based molecular docking of complex comprised of DNA bound with Gyrase A (large subunit) and Gyrase C (small subunit) with moxifloxacin revealed high binding affinity to wild type with considerably high Glide XP docking score of -7...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069654/reduced-chance-of-hearing-loss-associated-with-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-aminoglycosides-in-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#7
R van Altena, J A Dijkstra, M E van der Meer, J F Borjas Howard, J G W Kosterink, D van Soolingen, T S van der Werf, J W C Alffenaar
Hearing loss and nephrotoxicity are associated with prolonged treatment duration and higher dosage of amikacin and kanamycin. In our Tuberculosis Center, we have employed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) targeting pre-set pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) surrogate endpoints in an attempt to maintain efficacy while preventing (oto-)toxicity. To evaluate this strategy, we retrospectively evaluated medical charts of TB patients treated with amikacin or kanamycin in the period 2000 - 2012.Patients with culture-confirmed multi- or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) receiving amikacin or kanamycin as part of their TB treatment for at least 3 days were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068907/hospitalized-care-for-mdr-tb-in-port-harcourt-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#8
Kingsley Lezor Bieh, Ralf Weigel, Helen Smith
BACKGROUND: In Nigeria multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is prevalent in 2.9% of new TB cases and 14% of retreatment cases, and the country is one of 27 with high disease burden globally. Patients are admitted and confined to one of ten MDR-TB treatment facilities throughout the initial 8 months of treatment. The perspectives of MDR-TB patients shared on social media and in academic research and those of providers are limited to experiences of home-based care. In this study we explored the views of hospitalised MDR-TB patients and providers in one treatment facility in Nigeria, and describe how their experiences are linked to accessibility of care and support services, in line with international goals...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062386/rna-expression-analysis-of-efflux-pump-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-south-korea
#9
Tae Sang Oh, Young Jin Kim, Hee Yoon Kang, Chang-Ki Kim, Sun Young Cho, Hee Joo Lee
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an important communicable disease. Various mechanisms of resistance to antituberculosis drugs have been reported; these are principally mutations in target genes. However, not all M. tuberculosis resistance can be explained by mutations in such genes. Other resistance mechanisms associated with drug transport, such as efflux pumps, have also been reported. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of three putative efflux pumps and mutations in target genes associated with injectable agents and fluoroquinolones with clinical MDR and XDR-TB isolates...
January 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061948/levels-of-microrna-mir-16-and-mir-155-are-altered-in-serum-of-patients-with-tuberculosis-and-associate-with-responses-to-therapy
#10
Vishal Wagh, Anant Urhekar, Deepak Modi
Identification of blood biomarkers that can be useful for predicting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB) infection, effect of therapy and Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) TB infected individuals is clinically useful for combating tuberculosis epidemic. In this study, we have evaluated the levels of selected miRNAs in serum of TB and MDR TB patients. In addition, we have studied their levels in serum of patients post-therapy. The levels of 4-miRNAs (miR-16, miR-29a, miR-125b and miR-155) were measured in 30 newly diagnosed TB patients, 19 Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) TB patients, 10 patients who completed TB therapy and were TB negative...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061832/high-rates-of-multidrug-resistant-and-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-among-re-treatment-cases-where-do-they-come-from
#11
Romain Ragonnet, James M Trauer, Justin T Denholm, Ben J Marais, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Globally 3.9% of new and 21% of re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) cases are multidrug-resistant or rifampicin-resistant (MDR/RR), which is often interpreted as evidence that drug resistance results mainly from poor treatment adherence. This study aims to assess the respective contributions of the different causal pathways leading to MDR/RR-TB at re-treatment. METHODS: We use a simple mathematical model to simulate progression between the different stages of disease and treatment for patients diagnosed with TB...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057421/preparation-and-biological-evaluation-of-ethionamide-mesoporous-silicon-nanoparticles-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Nuno Vale, Alexandra Correia, Sara Silva, Patrícia Figueiredo, Ermei Mäkilä, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen, Jorge Pedrosa, Hélder A Santos, Alexandra Fraga
Ethionamide (ETH) is an important second-line antituberculosis drug used for the treatment of patients infected with multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recently, we reported that the loading of ETH into thermally carbonized-porous silicon (TCPSi) nanoparticles enhanced the solubility and permeability of ETH at different pH-values and also increased its metabolization process. Based on these results, we synthesized carboxylic acid functionalized thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (UnTHCPSi NPs) conjugated with ETH and its antimicrobial effect was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv...
December 26, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057041/rifampicin-resistance-pattern-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-associated-factors-among-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients-referred-to-debre-markos-referral-hospital-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Tadesse Hailu, Haimanot Ayele, Dereje Abate
BACKGROUND: Prevailing data on rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis is essential for early management of MDR-TB. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated factors among presumptive TB cases in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to March 2015. Detection of M. tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin was performed using Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053915/frequency-of-mutations-in-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistant-isolates-of-m-tuberculosis-an-analysis-from-central-india
#14
Prabha Desikan, Atul Kharate, Nikita Panwalkar, Jyoti Khurana, Shaina Beg Mirza, Aparna Chaturvedi, Reeta Varathe, Manju Chourey, Pradeep Kumar, Nitin Doshi, Manoj Pandey
BACKGROUND: The spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis has challenged tuberculosis control strategies globally. The present study aims to analyze the frequency of mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA genes in strains of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) circulating in Central India. It is anticipated that the findings may provide a starting point to understand the evolutionary success of drug-resistant strains of MTBC in this region. METHODS: Line probe assay was carried out on 720 consecutive sputum samples of MDR suspects from June 2012 to May 2013...
December 2016: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050363/first-line-anti-tb-drug-resistance-in-an-urban-area-of-odisha-india
#15
Dasarathi Das, Prakasini Satapathy, Biswanath Murmu
INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance is a major cause for increasing the global burden of Tuberculosis (TB). However in countries with larger geographical areas and different climatic conditions like India the prevalence of drug resistance varies from place to place. Information on anti-TB drug resistance patterns particularly among newly diagnosed cases is crucial for planning an effective TB control program. AIM: To determine the prevalence of resistance against first line anti-TB drugs and Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049171/group-5-drugs-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#16
Greg J Fox, Andrea Benedetti, Helen Cox, Won-Jung Koh, Piret Viiklepp, Shama Ahuja, Geoffrey Pasvol, Dick Menzies
The role of so-called "group 5" second-line drugs as a part of antibiotic therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is widely debated. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of several group 5 drugs including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, thioacetazone, the macrolide antibiotics, linezolid, clofazimine and terizidone for treatment of patients with MDR-TB.Detailed individual patient data were obtained from 31 published cohort studies of MDR-TB therapy. Pooled treatment outcomes for each group 5 drug were calculated using a random effects meta-analysis...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043788/comparison-of-bacteriological-conversion-and-treatment-outcomes-among-mdr-tb-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-in-mexico-preliminary-data
#17
M Muñoz-Torrico, J Caminero Luna, G B Migliori, L D'Ambrosio, J L Carrillo-Alduenda, H Villareal-Velarde, A Torres-Cruz, H Flores-Ergara, D Martínez-Mendoza, C García-Sancho, R Centis, M Á Salazar-Lezama, R Pérez-Padilla
: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City...
December 30, 2016: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043620/implementation-of-new-tools-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-detection-and-control
#18
Robin M Warren
Contrary to classical dogma, molecular epidemiological studies and mathematical modeling clearly show that the global drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is driven by transmission. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence demonstrating that amplification of resistance occurs during treatment, possibly as a result of insufficient active drugs being administered. To control the drug-resistant TB epidemic, it will be essential to implement new, rapid, and highly sensitive and specific diagnostic methods to decrease the diagnostic delay associated with culture-based testing...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043617/bedaquiline-in-the-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-belarus-experience
#19
Alena Skrahina, Hennadz Hurevich, Dennis Falzon, Liudmila Zhilevich, Valiantsin Rusovich, Masoud Dara, Svetlana Setkina
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Outcomes of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain poor worldwide. Among patients with MDR-TB in Belarus who started treatment in 2012, only 54% completed it successfully, with treatment failure reported in 22% of the patients; additionally, 11% died and 13% were lost to follow-up or remained unevaluated. In Belarus, to improve outcomes, bedaquiline was introduced in MDR-TB treatment in June 2015. The national TB program developed measures to monitor safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in line with the World Health Organization recommendations...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043614/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-the-problem-and-some-priorities-in-controlling-it
#20
Sven Hoffner
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and even more severe forms of drug resistance, cause significant problems and costs for national TB control programs and constitutes an increasing public health concern globally. In parts of the former Soviet Union, the prevalence of MDR-TB is as high as 50% and one third of all newly detected TB patients are infected with MDR strains. Such strains transmit and certain MDR-TB clones constitute an important part of the problem, especially in high MDR-TB burden areas...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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