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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041901/prevalence-of-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-india-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Vishal Goyal, Vijay Kadam, Prashant Narang, Vikram Singh
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a significant public health issue that considerably deters the ongoing TB control efforts in India. The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence of DR-TB and understand the regional variation in resistance pattern across India from 1995 to 2015, based on a large body of published epidemiological studies. METHODS: A systematic review of published studies reporting prevalence of DR-TB from biomedical databases (PubMed and IndMed) was conducted...
October 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040413/bilateral-cavitary-multidrug-or-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-role-of-surgery
#2
Galina Yu Marfina, Kirill B Vladimirov, Armen O Avetisian, Anna A Starshinova, Grigorii G Kudriashov, Evgenii G Sokolovich, Piotr K Yablonskii
OBJECTIVES: Cavitary disease and bilateral lesions are among the risk factors for poor outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Our aim was to explore the value and limits of surgery in patients with advanced TB. METHODS: A retrospective study of 57 consecutive patients who underwent thoracic surgery for culture-positive bilateral cavitary pulmonary TB was performed. Forty-four (77.2%) patients were men and 13 (22.8%) patients were women; their ages were in the range of 18-61 years...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037298/determinants-of-multidrug-resistance-among-previously-treated-tuberculosis-patients-in-zimbabwe-2014
#3
G Muchena, G Shambira, N Masuka, T Juru, N Gombe, L Takundwa, D Bangure, M Tshimanga
SETTING: Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among previously treated TB patients. DESIGN: A 1:3 case-control study with bivariate analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: Risk factors for MDR-TB were history of nursing an MDR-TB patient (adjusted OR [aOR] 4.46, 95%CI 2.02-9.88), history of hospitalisation for 3 days (aOR 2.91, 95%CI 1.62-5.23) and history of foreign travel and stay outside Zimbabwe (aOR 2...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037291/the-devil-we-know-is-the-use-of-injectable-agents-for-the-treatment-of-mdr-tb-justified
#4
A Reuter, P Tisile, D von Delft, H Cox, V Cox, L Ditiu, A Garcia-Prats, S Koenig, E Lessem, R Nathavitharana, J A Seddon, J Stillo, A von Delft, J Furin
For decades, second-line injectable agents (IAs) have been the cornerstone of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Although evidence on the efficacy of IAs is limited, there is an expanding body of evidence on the serious adverse events caused by these drugs. Here, we present the results of a structured literature review of the safety and efficacy of IAs. We review the continued widespread use of these agents in the context of therapeutic alternatives-most notably the newer TB drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid-and from the context of human rights, ethics and patient-centered care...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033301/characterization-of-gyra-and-gyrb-mutations-associated-with-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-morocco
#5
Imane Chaoui, Amal Oudghiri, Mohammed El Mzibri
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are the cornerstone for treatment of drug-resistant TB, there are the most effective second-line anti-mycobacterial drugs and are recommended for the treatment of MDR-TB. However, it's widely accepted that FQs resistance is high among MDR-TB. Thus, characterization of mutations conferring resistance to FQs will be of a great interest for an effective and efficient management of TB resistance in Morocco. METHODS: A laboratory collection of 30 MTB isolates already characterized as phenotypically and genotypically MDR and 20 pan-susceptible isolates randomly selected were enrolled in this retrospective study...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031637/molecular-epidemiology-of-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-ireland-2001-2014
#6
E Roycroft, R F O'Toole, M M Fitzgibbon, L Montgomery, M O'Meara, P Downes, S Jackson, J O'Donnell, I F Laurenson, A M McLaughlin, J Keane, T R Rogers
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this work was to examine the acquisition and spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in Ireland. METHODS: All available Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates (n=42), from MDR-TB cases diagnosed in Ireland between 2001 and 2014, were analysed using phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing, Mycobacterial-Interspersed-Repetitive-Units Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028228/preventing-emergence-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-myanmar-s-transitioning-health-system
#7
Mishal S Khan, Coll Hutchison, Richard J Coker, Joanne Yoong, Khaung M Hane, Anh L Innes, Tin M Khaing, Sithu Aung
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a particular threat to the populations of resource-limited countries. Although inadequate treatment of TB has been identified as a major underlying cause of drug resistance, essential information to inform changes in health service delivery and policy is missing. We investigate factors that may be driving the emergence of MDR-TB in Myanmar, a country where investment and health system reforms are ongoing to address the unexplained, high occurrence of MDR-TB. We conducted a multi-centre, retrospective case-control study in 10 townships across Yangon...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028223/are-scientific-research-outputs-aligned-with-national-policy-makers-priorities-a-case-study-of-tuberculosis-in-cambodia
#8
Lydia Boudarene, Richard James, Richard Coker, Mishal S Khan
With funding for tuberculosis (TB) research decreasing, and the high global disease burden persisting, there are calls for increased investment in TB research. However, justification of such investments is questionable, when translation of research outputs into policy and health care improvements remains a challenge for TB and other diseases. Using TB in Cambodia as a case study, we investigate how evidence needs of national policy makers are addressed by topics covered in research publications. We first conducted a systematic review to compile all studies on TB in Cambodia published since 2000...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#9
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025487/incorporating-social-justice-and-stigma-in-cost-effectiveness-analysis-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment
#10
A Zwerling, D Dowdy, A von Delft, H Taylor, M W Merritt
Novel therapies for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are likely to be expensive. The cost of novel drugs (e.g., bedaquiline, delamanid) may be so prohibitively high that a traditional cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) would rate regimens containing these drugs as not cost-effective. Traditional CEA may not appropriately account for considerations of social justice, and may put the most disadvantaged populations at greater risk. Using the example of novel drug regimens for MDR-TB, we propose a novel methodology, 'justice-enhanced CEA', and demonstrate how such an approach can simultaneously assess social justice impacts alongside traditional cost-effectiveness ratios...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017248/fluoroquinolone-resistance-mutation-detection-is-equivalent-to-culture-based-drug-sensitivity-testing-for-predicting-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-outcome-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Maha R Farhat, Karen R Jacobson, Molly F Franke, Devinder Kaur, Megan Murray, Carole D Mitnick
Background: Molecular diagnostics that rapidly and accurately predict fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance promise to improve treatment outcomes for individuals with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB). Mutations in the gyr genes, though, can cause variable levels of in vitro FQ resistance, and some in vitro resistance remains unexplained by gyr mutations alone, but the implications of these discrepancies for treatment outcome are unknown. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 172 subjects with MDR/extensively drug-resistant TB subjects and sequenced the full gyrA and gyrB open reading frames in their respective sputum TB isolates...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016684/performance-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-rifampin-resistance-in-a-low-incidence-high-resource-setting
#12
Jason P Rice, Marva Seifert, Kathleen S Moser, Timothy C Rodwell
Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, designed to simultaneously detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampin (RIF) resistance, has been well documented in low-resource settings with high TB-incidence. However, few studies have assessed its accuracy in low TB incidence settings. We evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF using clinical sputum specimens routinely collected from suspect pulmonary TB patients over a 4-year time period in San Diego County, California. Xpert MTB/RIF results were compared to acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016283/identification-of-risk-factors-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-by-using-classification-tree-method
#13
Dixin Tan, Bin Wang, Xuhui Li, Xiaonan Cai, Dandan Zhang, Mengyu Li, Cong Tang, Yaqiong Yan, Songlin Yu, Qian Chu, Yihua Xu
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a major public health problem. We tried to apply the classification tree model in building and evaluating a risk prediction model for MDR-TB. In this case-control study, 74 newly diagnosed MDR-TB patients served as the case group, and 95 patients without TB from the same medical institution served as the control group. The classification tree model was built using Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detectormethod and evaluated by income diagram, index map, risk statistic, and the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993300/analysis-of-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-morocco-using-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay
#14
Wifak Ennassiri, Sanae Jaouhari, Radia Sabouni, Wafa Cherki, Reda Charof, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Ouafae Lahlou
OBJECTIVES: The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is rising worldwide. The present investigation aims to evaluate, using the GenoType(®) MTBDRplus, the most common mutations associated with rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH) resistance within the resistant strains in Morocco. METHODS: 319M. tuberculosis isolates referred to the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, between 2013 and 2015, were subjected to GenoType(®) MTBDRplus for detecting M...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992819/tb-pcr-and-drug-resistance-pattern-in-balf-in-smear-negative-active-pulmonary-tb
#15
K Chavalertsakul, V Boonsarngsuk, S Saengsri, P Santanirand
<h2>SETTING:</h2>A tertiary referral hospital in Bangkok, Thailand.<h2>OBJECTIVES:</h2>To evaluate the efficacy of a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) tuberculosis (TB) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB) and the usefulness of a drug-resistant (DR) TB-PCR assay compared with standard drug susceptibility testing (DST).<h2>DESIGN:</h2>BALF samples from 918 patients with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) negative sputum smears who underwent bronchoscopy for diagnostic evaluations of pulmonary diseases were prospectively determined for specific genetic elements of TB using the Anyplex(TM) MTB/NTM Real-Time Detection kit...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980217/incremental-cost-effectiveness-of-bedaquiline-for-the-treatment-of-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-model-based-analysis
#16
Kathryn Schnippel, Cynthia Firnhaber, Francesca Conradie, Norbert Ndjeka, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: Nearly 20,000 people were diagnosed with multi-drug and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) in South Africa in 2015, yet only one-half of the patients who start treatment are expected to have a successful outcome. There is increasing evidence of the effectiveness and safety of new drug regimens containing bedaquiline for MDR/RR-TB; however, whether they are affordable for high-burden, limited-resource settings is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the incremental cost effectiveness of a bedaquiline-based regimen for MDR/RR-TB treatment in South Africa compared with the standard kanamycin-based regimen...
October 4, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974394/laboratory-evaluation-of-the-anyplex%C3%A2-ii-mtb-mdr-and-mtb-xdr-tests-based-on-multiplex-real-time-pcr-and-melting-temperature-analysis-to-identify-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-drug-resistance
#17
Yuriko Igarashi, Kinuyo Chikamatsu, Akio Aono, Lina Yi, Hiroyuki Yamada, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
We evaluated the performance of two multiplex, real-time PCR tests (Anyplex II MTB/MDR and MTB/XDR; Seegene, Seoul, Korea), designed to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and drug-resistance mutations associated with isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones, and second-line injectable drugs. We analyzed 122 clinical isolates with the Anyplex II MTB/MDR test, 68 of which were also tested with the Anyplex II MTB/XDR test. The Anyplex II MTB/MDR and MTB/XDR tests showed the following respective sensitivities and specificities: 68...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970158/predictors-of-poor-treatment-outcomes-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Arshad Javaid, Irfan Ullah, Haleema Masud, Anila Basit, Waqas Ahmad, Zahid Ahmad Butt, Muhammad Qasim
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the characteristics, treatment outcomes and risk factors for poor treatment outcomes among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including all patients with MDR-TB attended at the MDR-TB unit in Peshawar was conducted between January 2012 and April 2014. Patients were followed until an outcome of TB treatment was recorded as successful (cured or completed) or unsuccessful...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969162/home-based-care-as-an-approach-to-improve-the-efficiency-of-treatment-for-mdr-tuberculosis-a-quasi-experimental-pilot-study
#19
Neha Taneja, Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan, Shailaja Daral, Mrinmoy Adhikary, Timiresh Kumar Das
INTRODUCTION: Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) has emerged as a significant public health problem in India. The prolonged treatment duration in MDR TB is a challenge in achieving treatment completion and poses a threat to TB control in the country. Home based care is an approach accepted by patients because it helps in ameliorating their understanding of TB, improving the compliance and reducing stigma in the community. AIM: To assess the outcome of Home-Based Care (HC) versus No Home-Based Care (NHC) on the treatment of MDR TB patients registered at two chest clinics in Eastern Delhi...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968017/-diagnostic-accuracy-of-three-technologies-for-the-diagnosis-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#20
Nelson José Alvis-Zakzuk, María De Los Ángeles Carrasquilla, Verónica Jhajaira Gómez, Jaime Robledo, Nelson Rafael Alvis-Guzmán, José Mauricio Hernández
INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) tuberculoses are a global public health problem. Their timely detection might reduce the burden of the disease and the economic impact on health systems worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review of the diagnostic accuracy of three molecular tests to detect multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review following Cochrane methodology was carried out to study the diagnostic accuracy of three molecular tests to detect MDR-TB and XDR-TB in previous studies among immunocompetent population...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
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