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Cheng-Fu Chang, Yi-Chao Lee, Kuen-Haur Lee, Hui-Ching Lin, Chia-Ling Chen, Che-Kun James Shen, Chi-Chen Huang
BACKGROUND: In the central nervous system regions of the sporadic and familial FTLD and ALS patients, TDP-43 has been identified as the major component of UBIs inclusions which is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved into C-terminal fragments to form detergent-insoluble aggregates. So far, the effective drugs for FTLD and ALS neurodegenerative diseases are yet to be developed. Autophagy has been demonstrated as the major metabolism route of the pathological TDP-43 inclusions, hence activation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic strategy for TDP-43 pathogenesis in FTLD and ALS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Liina Kuuluvainen, Minna Pöyhönen, Petra Pasanen, Maija Siitonen, Jaana Rummukainen, Pentti J Tienari, Anders Paetau, Liisa Myllykangas
Mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene represent about 5-10% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We describe a proband with a novel GRN mutation c.687T>A, p.(Tyr229*), presenting with dyspraxia, dysgraphia, and dysphasia at the age of 60 and a very severe FTLD neuropathological phenotype with TDP43 inclusions. The nephew of the proband had signs of dementia and personality changes at the age of 60 and showed similar but milder FTLD pathology. Three other family members had had early-onset dementia...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Giorgio Biasiotto, Silvana Archetti, Diego Di Lorenzo, Francesca Merola, Giulia Paiardi, Barbara Borroni, Antonella Alberici, Alessandro Padovani, Massimiliano Filosto, Cristian Bonvicini, Luigi Caimi, Isabella Zanella
Although large expansions of the non-coding GGGGCC repeat in C9orf72 gene are clearly defined as pathogenic for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD), intermediate-length expansions have also been associated with those and other neurodegenerative diseases. Intermediate-length allele sizing is complicated by intrinsic properties of current PCR-based methodologies, in that somatic mosaicism could be suspected. We designed a protocol that allows the exact sizing of intermediate-length alleles, as well as the identification of large expansions...
October 17, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Keiko Imamura, Naruhiko Sahara, Nicholas M Kanaan, Kayoko Tsukita, Takayuki Kondo, Yumiko Kutoku, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Koichi Kawakami, Akitsu Hotta, Satoshi Yawata, Dai Watanabe, Masato Hasegawa, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi, Haruhisa Inoue
Mutations in the gene MAPT encoding tau, a microtubules-associated protein, cause a subtype of familial neurodegenerative disorder, known as frontotemporal lobar degeneration tauopathy (FTLD-Tau), which presents with dementia and is characterized by atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Although induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has facilitated the investigation of phenotypes of FTLD-Tau patient neuronal cells in vitro, it remains unclear how FTLD-Tau patient neurons degenerate...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ashley N Nilson, Kelsey C English, Julia E Gerson, T Barton Whittle, C Nicolas Crain, Judy Xue, Urmi Sengupta, Diana L Castillo-Carranza, Wenbo Zhang, Praveena Gupta, Rakez Kayed
It is well-established that inflammation plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD). Inflammation and synapse loss occur in disease prior to the formation of larger aggregates, but the contribution of tau to inflammation has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Tau pathologically aggregates to form large fibrillar structures known as tangles. However, evidence suggests that smaller soluble aggregates, called oligomers, are the most toxic species and form prior to tangles...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Amado Rivero-Santana, Daniel Ferreira, Lilisbeth Perestelo-Pérez, Eric Westman, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Antonio Sarría, Pedro Serrano-Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis in dementia is at present one of the main challenges both in clinical practice and research. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are included in the current diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but their clinical utility is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of studies analyzing the diagnostic performance of CSF Aβ42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in the discrimination between AD and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) dementias...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Katerina Placek, Lauren Massimo, Christopher Olm, Kylie Ternes, Kim Firn, Vivianna Van Deerlin, Edward B Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, David Irwin, Murray Grossman, Corey T McMillan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if cognitive reserve (CR) contributes to interindividual differences in frontal gray matter density (GMD) and executive impairment that underlie heterogeneity in the disease course of confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) pathology. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with autopsy confirmation or a pathogenic mutation consistent with underlying tau (FTLD-tau) or TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP) pathology and 90 demographically comparable healthy controls were assessed with T1 MRI and neuropsychological measures (Mini-Mental State Examination, letter fluency, forward digit span, Rey complex figure, and Boston Naming Test)...
September 28, 2016: Neurology
S Prpar Mihevc, Marco Baralle, Emanuele Buratti, Boris Rogelj
TDP-43 protein plays an important role in regulating transcriptional repression, RNA metabolism, and splicing. Typically it shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm to perform its functions, while abnormal cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). For the purpose of this study we selected a set of proteins that were misregulated following silencing of TDP-43 and analysed their expression in a TDP-43-aggregation model cell line HEK293 Flp-in Flag-TDP-43-12x-Q/N F4L...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
H Bea Kuiperij, Alexandra A M Versleijen, Marijke Beenes, Nicolaas A Verwey, Luisa Benussi, Anna Paterlini, Giuliano Binetti, Charlotte E Teunissen, Joost Raaphorst, Helenius J Schelhaas, Benno Küsters, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Roberta Ghidoni, Marcel M Verbeek
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous disease both at the clinical, genetic, and pathobiological level. The underlying pathological spectrum (termed FTLD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration) is in most cases defined by accumulation of either tau (FTLD-tau) or TDP-43 proteins (FTLD-TDP). Biomarkers to differentiate these subtypes are not yet available, whereas these are essential requirements to study the natural course of disease and for homogeneous inclusion of patients in clinical studies...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Joery Goossens, Jorne Laton, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jeroen Gielen, Hanne Struyfs, Sara Van Mossevelde, Tobi Van den Bossche, Johan Goeman, Peter Paul De Deyn, Anne Sieben, Jean-Jacques Martin, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Julie van der Zee, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Guy Nagels
We investigated the power of EEG as biomarker in differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). EEG was recorded from 106 patients with AD or FTLD, of which 37 had a definite diagnosis, and 40 controls. Dominant frequency peaks were extracted for all 19 channels, for each subject. The average frequency of the largest dominant frequency peaks (maxpeak) was significantly lower in AD than FTLD patients and controls. Based on ROC analysis, classification could be made with diagnostic accuracy of 78...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Benjamin M Schwenk, Hannelore Hartmann, Alperen Serdaroglu, Martin H Schludi, Daniel Hornburg, Felix Meissner, Denise Orozco, Alessio Colombo, Sabina Tahirovic, Meike Michaelsen, Franziska Schreiber, Simone Haupt, Michael Peitz, Oliver Brüstle, Clemens Küpper, Thomas Klopstock, Markus Otto, Albert C Ludolph, Thomas Arzberger, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Dieter Edbauer
Nuclear clearance of TDP-43 into cytoplasmic aggregates is a key driver of neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that TDP-43 knockdown specifically reduces the number and motility of RAB11-positive recycling endosomes in dendrites, while TDP-43 overexpression has the opposite effect. This is associated with delayed transferrin recycling in TDP-43-knockdown neurons and decreased β2-transferrin levels in patient CSF Whole proteome quantification identified the upregulation of the ESCRT component VPS4B upon TDP-43 knockdown in neurons...
September 12, 2016: EMBO Journal
Simon Molgaard, Ditte Demontis, Alexandra M Nicholson, Nicole A Finch, Ronald C Petersen, Claus M Petersen, Rosa Rademakers, Anders Nykjaer, Simon Glerup
Mutations in progranulin are a major cause of frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD). Hence, plasma progranulin is an attractive biomarker in FTLD but poorly reflects levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), suggesting tissue-specific regulation of progranulin levels. Sortilin was recently identified as a progranulin scavenger receptor that destines it for lysosomal degradation. Proteolysis or alternative splicing generates soluble sortilin variants that retain progranulin binding and potentially functions as a decoy receptor...
November 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Nesli Ece Sen, Jessica Drost, Suzana Gispert, Sylvia Torres-Odio, Ewa Damrath, Michael Klinkenberg, Hamid Hamzeiy, Gülden Akdal, Halil Güllüoğlu, A Nazlı Başak, Georg Auburger
Ataxin-2 (ATXN2) polyglutamine domain expansions of large size result in an autosomal dominantly inherited multi-system-atrophy of the nervous system named spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), while expansions of intermediate size act as polygenic risk factors for motor neuron disease (ALS and FTLD) and perhaps also for Levodopa-responsive Parkinson's disease (PD). In view of the established role of ATXN2 for RNA processing in periods of cell stress and the expression of ATXN2 in blood cells such as platelets, we investigated whether global deep RNA sequencing of whole blood from SCA2 patients identifies a molecular profile which might serve as diagnostic biomarker...
September 3, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Hiroaki Suzuki, Masaaki Matsuoka
A common genetic variation in the transmembrane protein 106B (TMEM106B) gene has been suggested to be a risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with inclusions of transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) (FTLD-TDP), the most common pathological subtype in FTLD. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that TMEM106B levels are upregulated in the brains of FTLD-TDP patients, although significance of this finding remains unknown. In this study, we show that the overexpression of TMEM106B and its N-terminal fragments induces cell death, enhances oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity, and causes the cleavage of TDP-43, which represents TDP-43 pathology, using cell-based models...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Alice Goode, Sarah Rea, Melanie Sultana, Barry Shaw, Mark S Searle, Robert Layfield
The transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor protein Keap1 play key roles in the regulation of antioxidant stress responses and both Keap1-Nrf2 signalling and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the ALS-FTLD spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders. The Keap1-binding partner and autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62 has also recently been linked genetically to ALS-FTLD, with some missense mutations identified in patients mapping within or close to its Keap1-interacting region (KIR, residues 347-352)...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Sandro Orrù, Paola Coni, Andrea Floris, Roberto Littera, Carlo Carcassi, Valeria Sogos, Carla Brancia
TAR deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a key protein in the pathogenesis of amyoptrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Recent studies suggest that mutations in the TDP-43 coding gene, TARDBP, as well as variations in TDP-43 protein expression levels may disrupt the dynamics of stress granules (SGs). However, it remains unclear whether the pathogenetic effect of the TDP-43 protein is exerted at the cytoplasmic level, through direct participation to SG composition, or at nuclear level, through control of proteins essential to SG assembly...
August 22, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Aleksandr Pankov, Richard J Binney, Adam M Staffaroni, John Kornak, Suneth Attygalle, Norbert Schuff, Michael W Weiner, Joel H Kramer, Bradford C Dickerson, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen
Current research is investigating the potential utility of longitudinal measurement of brain structure as a marker of drug effect in clinical trials for neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have shown that measurement of change in empirically derived regions of interest (ROIs) allows more reliable measurement of change over time compared with regions chosen a-priori based on known effects of AD on brain anatomy. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder for which there are no approved treatments...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
J De Reuck, F Auger, N Durieux, V Deramecourt, C-A Maurage, F Lebert, D Leys, C Cordonnier, F Pasquier, R Bordet
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular lesions are rare in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), in contrast to other neurodegenerative diseases. Cortical microbleeds (CoMBs) are frequent in Alzheimer's disease, in particular in cases associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The present study investigates the gyral topographic distribution of CoMBs in post-mortem FTLD brains with 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The distribution of CoMBs in 11 post-mortem FTLD brains and in 12 control brains was compared on T2*-GRE MRI of six coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
R A Armstrong
Factors associated with survival were studied in 84 neuropathologically documented cases of the pre-senile dementia frontotemporal dementia lobar degeneration (FTLD) with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis estimated mean survival as 7.9 years (range: 1-19 years, SD = 4.64). Familial and sporadic cases exhibited similar survival, including progranulin (GRN) gene mutation cases. No significant differences in survival were associated with sex, disease onset, Braak disease stage, or disease subtype, but higher survival was associated with lower post-mortem brain weight...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
R A Armstrong
Traditional methods of describing and classifying neurodegenerative disease are based on the clinico-pathological concept supported by molecular pathological studies and defined by 'consensus criteria'. Disease heterogeneity, overlap between disorders, and the presence of multiple co-pathologies, however, have questioned the validity and status of many traditional disorders. If cases of neurodegenerative disease are not easily classifiable into distinct entities, but more continuously distributed, then a new descriptive framework may be required...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
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