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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213613/an-atf4-atg5-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-regulates-fat-mass-via-affecting-energy-expenditure
#1
Yuzhong Xiao, Yalan Deng, Feixiang Yuan, Tingting Xia, Hao Liu, Zhigang Li, Zhixue Liu, Hao Ying, Yi Liu, Qiwei Zhai, Shanghai Chen, Feifan Guo
Although many biological functions of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) have been identified, a role of hypothalamic ATF4 in the regulation of energy homeostasis is poorly understood. Here, we showed that hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons specific ATF4 knockout (PAKO) mice are lean and have higher energy expenditure. Furthermore, PAKO mice were resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and leptin resistance. Moreover, the expression of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) was increased or decreased by ATF4 knockdown or over-expression, respectively, and ATF4 inhibited the transcription of ATG5 by binding to the basic zipper-containing protein (bZIP) sites on its promoter...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213107/hypoglycemic-effect-of-the-polyphenols-rich-extract-from-rose-rugosa-thunb-on-high-fat-diet-and-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#2
Liu Liu, Dan Tang, Haiqing Zhao, Xuelei Xin, Haji Akber Aisa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rosa rugosa Thunb is traditional Uygur medicine, it is widely used for regulating blood condition, nourishing liver and gallbladder in Uygur ancient prescription. But the mechanism of Rosa rugosa Thunb on diabetes is still unclear. In here, we studied the hypoglycemic effect and explained one probable pathway of polyphenols rich extract from Rosa rugosa Thunb (RPE) on diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro, the effect of RPE on α-glucosidase inhibition was finished, and the antioxidant activity of RPE was evaluated by ABTS and DPPH assay...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#3
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#4
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208792/an%C3%A2-exercise-only%C3%A2-intervention%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-fathers%C3%A2-restores%C3%A2-glucose%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-insulin%C3%A2-regulation%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-conjunction%C3%A2-with%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-rescue%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-islet%C3%A2-cell%C3%A2-morphology%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-microrna%C3%A2-expression%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-male%C3%A2-offspring
#5
Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Lauren Sandeman, Julie A Owens, Tod Fullston
Paternal obesity programs metabolic syndrome in offspring. Low-impact exercise in obese  males improves the metabolic health of female offspring, however whether this occurred in male  offspring remained unknown. C57BL/6NHsd (Harlan) mice were fed a control diet (CD; 6% fat, n =  7) or a high-fat diet (HFD; 21% fat, n = 16) for 18 weeks. After 9 weeks, HFD-fed mice either remained  sedentary (HH, n = 8) or undertook low-moderate exercise (HE, n = 8) for another 9 weeks...
February 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202906/bar502-a-dual-fxr-and-gpbar1-agonist-promotes-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-reverses-liver-steatosis-and-fibrosis
#6
Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Silvia Marchianò, Michele Biagioli, Chiara Santorelli, Annibale Donini, Angela Zampella, Maria Chiara Monti, Stefano Fiorucci
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease. Here, we have investigated whether BAR502, a non-bile acid, steroidal dual ligand for FXR and GPBAR1, reverses steato-hepatitis in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) and fructose. After 9 week, mice on HFD gained ≈30% of b.w (P < 0.01 versus naïve) and were insulin resistant. These overweighting and insulin resistant mice were randomized to receive HFD or HFD in combination with BAR502. After 18 weeks, HFD mice developed NASH like features with severe steato-hepatitis and fibrosis, increased hepatic content of triacylglycerol and cholesterol and expression of SREPB1c, FAS, ApoC2, PPARα and γ, α-SMA, α1 collagen and MCP1 mRNAs...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202548/neutrophil-elastase-regulates-emergency-myelopoiesis-preceding-systemic-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#7
Jun-Yuan Huang, Qiong Lin Zhou, Chun-Hong Huang, Ye Song, Andria G Sharma, Zhangping Liao, Kavin Zhu, Miles W Massidda, Ryan R Jamieson, Jun-Yuan Zhang, Daniel G Tenen, Zhen Y Jiang
Inflammation plays a significant role in the development of obesity-related complications, but the molecular events that initiate and propagate such inflammation remain unclear. Here, we report that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for as short as one to three days show increased myeloid progenitors differentiation into neutrophils and monocytes but reduced B lymphocyte production in the bone marrow (BM). Levels of neutrophil elastase (NE) and the nuclear factors CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and growth factor independent 1 (GFI-1) are elevated in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from HFD-fed mice, but mice lacking either NE or C/EBPα are resistant to HFD-induced myelopoiesis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199741/melatonin-prevents-obesity-through-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#8
Pengfei Xu, Jialin Wang, Fan Hong, Sheng Wang, Xi Jin, Tingting Xue, Li Jia, Yonggong Zhai
Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196857/deletion-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-in-myeloid-lineage-exaggerates-angiotensin-ii-induced-formation-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#9
Yusuke Takahara, Tomotake Tokunou, Hiroshi Kojima, Yoshitaka Hirooka, Toshihiro Ichiki
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is a transcription factor that regulates various genes responding to hypoxic conditions. We previously reported that myeloid-specific activation of HIF-1α had protective effects on hypertensive cardiovascular remodeling in mice. However the role of myeloid lineage HIF-1α in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has not been determined. Myeloid-specific HIF-1α knockout (HIF-1KO) mice were created using a Cre-lox recombination system in the background of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195154/zinc-finger-protein-zpr9-functions-as-an-activator-of-ampk-related-serine-threonine-kinase-mpk38-melk-involved-in-ask1-tgf-%C3%AE-p53-signaling-pathways
#10
Hyun-A Seong, Ravi Manoharan, Hyunjung Ha
Murine protein serine-threonine kinase 38 (MPK38), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, has been implicated in the induction of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-, and p53-mediated activity involved in metabolic homeostasis. Here, zinc finger protein ZPR9 was found to be an activator of MPK38. The association of MPK38 and ZPR9 was mediated by cysteine residues present in each of these two proteins, Cys(269) and Cys(286) of MPK38 and Cys(305) and Cys(308) of ZPR9...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193233/tacrolimus-in-the-prevention-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-diabetes-associated-embryopathies-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#11
Ahmad J H Albaghdadi, Melanie A Hewitt, Samantha M Putos, Michael Wells, Terence R S Ozolinš, Frederick W K Kan
BACKGROUND: T2DM is a high-risk pregnancy with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes including repeated miscarriages and fetal malformations. Despite the established association between placental insufficiency and poor maternal Th1-adaptability to the development of pregnancy complications in T2DM, there have been no established data to assess benefits of pre-pregnancy immunosuppression relative to gestational outcomes in T2DM. We hypothesized that pre-pregnancy macrolide immune suppression can re-establish normal placental development and uterine vascular adaptation in a mouse model of obesity-associated T2DM...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193094/protective-effects-of-ficus-carica-leaves-on-glucose-and-lipids-levels-carbohydrate-metabolism-enzymes-and-%C3%AE-cells-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#12
Santiagu Stephen Irudayaraj, Sunil Christudas, Stalin Antony, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Al-Dhabi Naif Abdullah, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
CONTEXT: The decoctions of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) leaves are used in the folklore treatment of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of F. carica on glucose and lipids levels, carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and β-cells protective effects in type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 15 days high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg). The ethyl acetate extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) of F...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192884/myoinositol-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats-through-promoting-insulin-receptor-signaling
#13
Poovathumkal James Antony, Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Antony Stalin, Kedike Balakrishna, Erenius Toppo, Kuppusamy Sivasankaran, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) has been traditionally used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India. The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of myoinositol (25 and 50mg/kg) isolated from M. pudica stem methanol extract in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic and high-fat diet (HFD) fed-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-resistant diabetic rats. Lipid biomarkers, fasting blood glucose (FBG), changes in body weight, food and water intakes, plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, oral glucose tolerance, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance, urea, creatinine, marker enzymes of liver function, β-cell function and the expression levels of insulin receptor-induced signaling molecules were studied...
February 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192375/adipose-tissue-b2-cells-promote-insulin-resistance-through-leukotriene-ltb4-ltb4r1-signaling
#14
Wei Ying, Joshua Wollam, Jachelle M Ofrecio, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Dalila El Ouarrat, Yun Sok Lee, Da Young Oh, Pingping Li, Olivia Osborn, Jerrold M Olefsky
Tissue inflammation is a key component of obesity-induced insulin resistance, with a variety of immune cell types accumulating in adipose tissue. Here, we have demonstrated increased numbers of B2 lymphocytes in obese adipose tissue and have shown that high-fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) insulin resistance is mitigated in B cell-deficient (Bnull) mice. Adoptive transfer of adipose tissue B2 cells (ATB2) from wild-type HFD donor mice into HFD Bnull recipients completely restored the effect of HFD to induce insulin resistance...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192190/%C3%AE-7-integrin-and-madcam-1-play-opposing-roles-during-the-development-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#15
Hannah K Drescher, Angela Schippers, Thomas Clahsen, Hacer Sahin, Heidi Noels, Mathias Hornef, Norbert Wagner, Christian Trautwein, Konrad L Streetz, Daniela C Kroy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in western countries. It is unclear how infiltrating leukocytes affect NASH-development. Hence our study aims to investigate the role of the homing/receptor-pair mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1)/β7-Integrin for immune cell recruitment and disease progression in a steatohepatitis model. METHODS: Constitutive β7-Integrin deficient (β7(-/-)) and MAdCAM-1 deficient (MAdCAM-1(-/-)) mice were fed high-fat-diet (HFD) for 26 weeks or methionine-choline-deficient-diet (MCD) for 4 weeks...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191013/quercetin-and-quercetin-rich-red-onion-extract-alter-pgc-1%C3%AE-promoter-methylation-and-splice-variant-expression
#16
Prasad P Devarshi, Aarin D Jones, Erin M Taylor, Barbara Stefanska, Tara M Henagan
Pgc-1α and its various isoforms may play a role in determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations in response to diet. 8 wks of dietary supplementation with the flavonoid quercetin (Q) or red onion extract (ROE) in a high fat diet (HFD) ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/J mice while upregulating Pgc-1α and increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function. Here, mice were fed a low fat (LF), high fat (HF), high fat plus quercetin (HF + Q), or high fat plus red onion extract (HF + RO) diet for 9 wks and skeletal muscle Pgc-1α isoform expression and DNA methylation were determined...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188334/aicar-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-associated-pathophysiology-in-mouse-and-ex-vivo-models-independent-of-adiponectin
#17
Emma Börgeson, Ville Wallenius, Gulam H Syed, Manjula Darshi, Juan Lantero Rodriguez, Christina Biörserud, Malin Ragnmark Ek, Per Björklund, Marianne Quiding-Järbrink, Lars Fändriks, Catherine Godson, Kumar Sharma
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, for ameliorating high-fat diet (HFD)-induced pathophysiology in mice. We also aimed to determine whether the beneficial effects of AICAR were dependent on adiponectin. Furthermore, human adipose tissue was used to examine the effect of AICAR ex vivo. METHODS: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J wild-type and Adipoq (-/-) mice were fed a standard-fat diet (10% fat) or an HFD (60% fat) for 12 weeks and given vehicle or AICAR (500 μg/g) three times/week from weeks 4-12...
February 10, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188215/cystathionine-gamma-lyase-protects-vascular-endothelium-a-role-for-inhibition-of-histone-deacetylase-6
#18
Thorsten Martin Leucker, Yohei Nomura, Jae Hyung Kim, Anil Bhatta, Victor Wang, Andrea Wecker, Sandeep S Jandu, Lakshmi Santhanam, Dan E Berkowitz, Lewis Romer, Deepesh Pandey
Endothelial cystathionine -lyase (CSE) contributes to cardiovascular homeostasis, mainly through production of hydrogen sulfide. However, the molecular mechanisms that control CSE gene expression in endothelium during cardiovascular diseases are unclear. The aim of the current study is to determine the role of specific histone deacetylases (HDAC) in the regulation of endothelial CSE. Reduced CSE mRNA expression and protein abundance were observed in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) exposed to OxLDL and in aortas from atherogenic ApoE-/- mice fed a high-fat diet as compared with controls...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184201/long-term-high-fat-diet-treatment-an-appropriate-approach-to-study-the-sex-specificity-of-the-autonomic-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-obesity-in-mice
#19
Thiago Bruder-Nascimento, Obioma J Ekeledo, Ruchi Anderson, Huy B Le, Eric J Belin de Chantemèle
Obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) involves increased sympathetic activity in men and male animals. Although women exhibit increased visceral fat, metabolic disorders, inflammation and CVD with obesity, whether body weight gain affects autonomic control of cardiovascular function in females remain unknown. Due to the lack of adequate model to mimic the human pathology, this study aimed to develop a murine model, which would allow studying the sex-specificity of the response of the autonomic nervous system to obesity and identifying the origin of potential sex-differences...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184199/oxidative-modification-in-the-salivary-glands-of-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistant-rats
#20
Urszula Kołodziej, Mateusz Maciejczyk, Agnieszka Miąsko, Jan Matczuk, Małgorzata Knaś, Piotr Żukowski, Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska, Jan Borys, Anna Zalewska
Still little is known about the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of the salivary gland dysfunction in the course of insulin resistance (IR). To induce IR rats was fed with a high fat diet (HFD) during 8 weeks. Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rate, total protein, as well as oxidative damage markers: 4-HNE protein adduct, 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), 8-hydroxy-D-guanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), and protein carbonyls (PC) were determined in the plasma and submandibular and parotid glands of IR and control rats...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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