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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550108/hypothalamic-ventromedial-lin28a-enhances-glucose-metabolism-in-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Jung Dae Kim, Chitoku Toda, Cristina M Ramírez, Carlos Fernández-Hernando, Sabrina Diano
The Lin28a/Let-7 axis has been studied in peripheral tissues for its role in metabolism regulation. However, its central function remains unclear. Here we found that Lin28a is highly expressed in the hypothalamus compared to peripheral tissues. Its expression is positively correlated with positive energy balance, suggesting a potential central role for Lin28a in metabolism regulation. Thus, we targeted the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH) to selectively overexpress (Lin28aKI(VMH) ) or downregulate (Lin28aKD(VMH) ) Lin28a expression in mice...
May 26, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549781/nucleostemin-dysregulation-contributes-to-ischemic-vulnerability-of-diabetic-hearts-role-of-ribosomal-biogenesis
#2
Shihao Zhao, Yunlong Xia, Fuyang Zhang, Zhenyu Xiong, Yueyang Li, Wenjun Yan, Xiyao Chen, Wei Wang, Helin Wang, Erhe Gao, Yan Lee, Congye Li, Shan Wang, Ling Zhang, Ling Tao
Diabetes is a major health problem worldwide. As well-known, diabetes greatly increases cardiac vulnerability to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein that controls ribosomal biogenesis and exerts cardioprotective effects against I/R injury. However, whether NS-mediated ribosomal biogenesis regulates ischemic vulnerability of diabetic hearts remains unanswered. Utilizing myocardial I/R mouse models, we found that cardiac NS expression significantly increased in response to I/R in normal diet (ND)-fed mice...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548560/microalgal-oil-from-schizochytrium-sp-prevents-hfd-induced-abdominal-fat-accumulation-in-mice
#3
Jinhui Yu, Yong Ma, Jie Sun, Liyuan Ran, Youwei Li, Ning Wang, Tao Yu, Wenting Gao, Wenbin Jia, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Yuping Bi, Yingjie Wu
OBJECTIVE: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are proved to be effective in obesity reduction. Microalgal oil (MO) is an important alternative source of n-3 PUFAs that effectively alleviates obesity. The aim of the present study was to explore the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil from Schizochytrium sp. (SMO) and to compare the effects of 2 SMOs (SMO1 and SMO2) with different levels of purity of n-3 PUFAs on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546423/overexpression-of-kinase-dead-mtor-impairs-glucose-homeostasis-by-regulating-insulin-secretion-and-not-%C3%AE-cell-mass
#4
Emilyn U Alejandro, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Michelle Ann Wasan, Lynda Elghazi, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Leslie Satin, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
Regulation of glucose homeostasis by insulin depends on β-cell growth and function. Nutrients and growth factors stimuli converge on the conserved protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), existing in two complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2. To understand the functional relevance of mTOR enzymatic activity in β-cell development and in glucose homeostasis, we generated mice overexpressing either one or two copies of a kinase-dead mTOR mutant (KD-mTOR) transgene exclusively in β-cells. We examined glucose homeostasis and β-cell function of these mice in control chow and in high-fat diet (HFD)...
May 25, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545248/ephedra-treated-donor-derived-gut-microbiota-transplantation-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#5
Jing-Hua Wang, Bong-Soo Kim, Kyungsun Han, Hojun Kim
Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543181/loss-of-l-selectin-guided-cd8-but-not-cd4-cells-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-steatotic-liver
#6
Vasantha L Kolachala, Sirish Palle, Ming Shen, Alayna Feng, Dmitry Shayakhmetov, Nitika A Gupta
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Steatotic liver responds with increased hepatocellular injury when exposed to an ischemic-reperfusion insult. Increasing evidence supports the role of immune cells as key mediators of this injury in a normal (lean) state, but data about their role in a steatotic liver are practically non-existent. The objective of the current study was to delineate contribution of specific phenotypes of T cells and adhesion molecules in exacerbated cell death in steatotic liver injury...
May 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539670/simvastatin-and-bezafibrate-ameliorate-emotional-disorder-induced-by-high-fat-diet-in-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Hui Wang, Jia Zhou, Qiong Zhen Liu, Lu Lu Wang, Jing Shang
High fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorders may lead to emotional disorders. This study aimed to explore the effect of simvastatin (SMV) and bezafibrate (BZ) on improving HFD-induced emotional changes, and tried to identify their different mechanisms. The intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was used to evaluate glucose control ability; and behavior tests including open field tests (OFT), forced swimming tests (FST), tail suspension tests (TST) and sucrose preference (SPT), were then performed to evaluate emotional changes...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539530/active-form-of-vitamin-d-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-alleviating-oxidative-stress-in-a-high-fat-diet-rat-model
#8
Chong-Gui Zhu, Ya-Xin Liu, Hao Wang, Bao-Ping Wang, Hui-Qi Qu, Bao-Li Wang, Mei Zhu
The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment using the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) could protect against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and ameliorate oxidative stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and treated with standard chow, HFD, or HFD plus intraperitoneal injection of 1,25(OH)2D3 (5 μg/kg body weight, twice per week), respectively, for 16 weeks. Serum lipid profiles, hepatic function, intrahepatic lipid, and calcium levels were determined...
May 23, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539390/mfn2-deletion-in-brown-adipose-tissue-protects-from-insulin-resistance-and-impairs-thermogenesis
#9
Kiana Mahdaviani, Ilan Y Benador, Shi Su, Raffi A Gharakhanian, Linsey Stiles, Kyle M Trudeau, Maria Cardamone, Violeta Enríquez-Zarralanga, Eleni Ritou, Tamar Aprahamian, Marcus F Oliveira, Barbara E Corkey, Valentina Perissi, Marc Liesa, Orian S Shirihai
BAT-controlled thermogenic activity is thought to be required for its capacity to prevent the development of insulin resistance. This hypothesis predicts that mediators of thermogenesis may help prevent diet-induced insulin resistance. We report that the mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in BAT is essential for cold-stimulated thermogenesis, but promotes insulin resistance in obese mice. Mfn2 deletion in mice through Ucp1-cre (BAT-Mfn2-KO) causes BAT lipohypertrophy and cold intolerance. Surprisingly however, deletion of Mfn2 in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) results in improved insulin sensitivity and resistance to obesity, while impaired cold-stimulated thermogenesis is maintained...
May 24, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539257/propranolol-treatment-lowers-blood-pressure-reduces-vascular-inflammatory-markers-and-improves-endothelial-function-in-obese-mice
#10
Nathalia da Silva Franco, Camila Lubaczeuski, Daniele M Guizoni, Jamaira A Victorio, Junia C Santos-Silva, Patricia C Brum, Everardo M Carneiro, Ana P Davel
Obesity-associated hypertension is accompanied by a number of cardiovascular risk factors including vascular insulin resistance (IR) and higher sympathetic nervous activity. Therefore, autonomic blockade was demonstrated to reverse hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and IR in obese individuals. We hypothesized that β-AR blockade with propranolol would restore endothelial function and vascular insulin signaling in obesity, associated with an anti-inflammatory effect. Body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma biochemical parameters and aortic endothelial function were analyzed in mice fed standard diet (control group) or a high fat diet (HFD) that were treated with vehicle (water) or propranolol (10mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks...
May 21, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537659/metformin-improves-the-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-via-influencing-the-level-of-serum-total-bile-acids-in-rats-with-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
X-M Meng, X-X Ma, Y-L Tian, Q Jiang, L-L Wang, R Shi, L Ding, S-G Pang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of metformin on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar male rats were divided into two groups: standard diet (SD, n = 20) group and high-fat diet (HFD, n = 80) group. Twenty rats in HFD group were randomly treated with metformin (EI group). After 6 weeks, among rats in HFD group, 20 rats were intraperitoneally injected with citrate buffered saline (IR group), 20 rats treated with metformin per day for 4 weeks (LI group), and 20 rats were given nothing (DM group)...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536937/effects-of-hypericum-scabrum-extract-on-learning-and-memory-and-oxidant-antioxidant-status-in-rats-fed-a-long-term-high-fat-diet
#12
Ahmad Ganji, Iraj Salehi, Masoumeh Nazari, Masoumeh Taheri, Alireza Komaki
A high-fat diet (HFD) causes deficits in learning and memory by increasing oxidative stress. Antioxidants are known to improve learning and memory. Since Hypericum scabrum (H. scabrum) extract is rich in antioxidants, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the administration of H. scabrum extract on passive avoidance learning (PAL), novel object recognition (NOR), and locomotor activity in male rats on a HFD. Fifty-four male Wistar rats (weighing 220 ± 10 g) were divided into the following six groups: (1) Control (standard diet), (2) Ext100 (standard diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg extract once/day), (3) Ext300 (standard diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg extract once/day), (4) HFD (high-fat diet), (5) HFD + Ext100, and (6) HFD + Ext300...
May 24, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536634/microrna-210-induces-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-by-directly-targeting-pdk1-in-the-setting-of-atherosclerosis
#13
Ying Li, Chunyan Yang, Lili Zhang, Ping Yang
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronically inflammatory disease and one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Endothelial cell apoptosis plays a crucial role in its development. Several microRNAs (miRNAs) are reportedly involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation, including miRNA-210 (miR-210). However, the underlying mechanism of its role in endothelial cell apoptosis during atherosclerosis is still largely unknown. METHODS: A mouse model with atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) was built in ApoE (-/-) mice...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536471/caffeic-acid-attenuates-diabetic-kidney-disease-via-modulation-of-autophagy-in-a-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rat
#14
Marwa Matboli, Sanaa Eissa, Doaa Ibrahim, Marwa G A Hegazy, Shalabia S Imam, Eman K Habib
The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-diabetic nephropathy effect of Caffeic acid and to prove our hypothesis for its mechanism of action that it may occur by reactivation of autophagy pathway via suppression of autophagy regulatory miRNAs. In vivo, high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced (HFD-STZ) diabetic rats were treated with Caffeic acid once per day for 12 weeks before and after development of diabetic nephropathy. Blood and urine biochemical parameters, autophagy transcripts and their epigenetic regulators together with renal tissue morphology were investigated...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536285/gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#15
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536108/inflammatory-stress-promotes-the-development-of-obesity-related-chronic-kidney-disease-via-cd36-in-mice
#16
Ping Yang, Yayun Xiao, Xuan Luo, Yunfei Zhao, Lei Zhao, Yan Wang, Tingting Wu, Li Wei, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Ectopic fat located in the kidney has emerged as a novel cause of obesity-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether inflammatory stress promotes ectopic lipid deposition in the kidney and causes renal injury in obese mice and whether the pathological process is mediated by the fatty acid translocase CD36. HFD feeding alone resulted in obesity, hyperlipidemia and slight renal lipid accumulation in mice, which nevertheless had normal kidney function. HFD-fed mice with chronic inflammation had severe renal steatosis and obvious glomerular and tubular damage, which was accompanied by increased CD36 expression...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534956/effects-of-octreotide-on-hepatic-glycogenesis-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet%C3%A2-induced-obesity
#17
Xiao-Xia Wang, Ting Ye, Mao Li, Xian Li, Ou Qiang, Cheng-Wei Tang, Rui Liu
Reduced hepatic glycogenesis is one of the most important causes of metabolic abnormalities in non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been demonstrated to promote weight loss and improve metabolic disorders in mice with high fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity. However, whether octreotide affects hepatic glycogenesis is unknown. The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of octreotide on hepatic glycogenesis in rats with HFD‑induced obesity. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were fed a standard diet or a HFD for 24 weeks...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533555/scopolin-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-potential-involvement-of-sirt1-mediated-signaling-cascades-in-the-liver
#18
Ahyoung Yoo, Vikram P Narayan, Eun Young Hong, Wan Kyunn Whang, Taesun Park
The present study aimed to investigate whether scopolin exhibits beneficial effects on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. The involvement of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) as a molecular target for scopolin was also explored. Scopolin decreased the Km of SIRT1 for p53 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide without altering Vmax in a cell-free system. Scopolin alleviated oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation and downregulation of SIRT1 activity in HepG2 cells, and these beneficial effects of scopolin were abolished in the presence of SIRT1 inhibitor...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531807/high-post-natal-mortality-associated-with-defects-in-lung-maturation-and-reduced-adiposity-in-mice-with-gestational-exposure-to-high-fat-and-n-acetylcysteine
#19
Lyda Williams, Maureen J Charron, Rani S Sellers
Studies have demonstrated that maternal consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) increases offspring susceptibility to metabolic disease. This study was initiated to identify the mechanistic contribution of oxidative stress on this phenomenon. Two weeks prior to mating, dams were fed either HFD or Control diet with or without supplementation with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Pups born to HFD dams had reduced crown rump length (CRL) at birth and higher neonatal mortality compared to pups from Control dams...
May 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529127/antioxidant-peroxiredoxin-3-expression-is-regulated-by-17beta-estradiol-in-rat-white-adipose-tissue
#20
Marco Bauza-Thorbrügge, M Bel Galmés-Pascual, Miquel Sbert-Roig, J Francisco García-Palmer, Magdalena Gianotti, M Ana Proenza, Isabel Lladó
Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) plays a role as a regulator of the adipocyte mitochondrial function due to its antioxidant activity. We have previously reported the existence of a sexual dimorphism in the mitochondrial oxidative stress status of many rat tissues such as white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues. The aim was to elucidate whether sex hormones may play a role in PRX3 expression in the adipose tissues of rats. In in vivo experiments, male and female standard diet fed rats, high fat diet (HFD) fed rats and rosiglitazone-supplemented HFD (HDF+Rsg) fed rats, as well as ovariectomized (OVX) and 17beta-estradiol-supplemented OVX (OVX+E2) female rats were used...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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