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extrapulmonary tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660820/human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-patients-with-tuberculous-meningitis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Ali Pormohammad, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Fatemeh Fallah
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected individuals are at increased risk for all forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), including tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The current study aimed to investigate the frequency of HIV in TBM patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for articles including relevant data. Stata version 14.0 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA) was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Twenty studies were identified...
April 16, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656530/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-review-of-more-than-2000-cases
#2
Cybele Lara R Abad, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a common pathogen worldwide, and it may cause significant infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed all reported TB cases to provide an update on its epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome after SOT. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID were reviewed from January 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2016 using key words tuberculosis and solid organ transplant or transplantation. RESULTS: There were 187 publications reporting 2082 cases of TB among kidney (n=1719), liver (n=253), heart (n=77), lung (n=25), and kidney-pancreas (n=8) recipients...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601557/-the-diagnostic-algorithm-of-practice-in-pulmonary-and-extrapulmonary-sarcoidosis
#3
REVIEW
Anna Dubaniewicz
Sarcoidosis (SA) is a granulomatous multisystem disease of unknown ethiology. Pulmonary, lymphadenopathy, liver, spleen, skin, and bone sarcoidosis are more frequent but also SA of the heart, central nervous system, eye, and hypercalcemia with following kidney failure also occur. Sarcoidosis may co-exist with extrapulmonary forms, which may overtake or precede each other. SA may occur as acute or chronic with the possibility of complete remission in the early stages of disease. Due to frequent occurrence of asymptomatic SA in threatening vital organs a diagnostic algorithm of practice in pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis has been proposed by the author of the article...
March 27, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580818/tuberculosis-advances-and-challenges-in-development-of-new-diagnostics-and-biomarkers
#4
REVIEW
Gerhard Walzl, Ruth McNerney, Nelita du Plessis, Matthew Bates, Timothy D McHugh, Novel N Chegou, Alimuddin Zumla
Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis and detection of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis is essential for achieving global tuberculosis control. Despite the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as the first-line rapid tuberculosis diagnostic test, the gap between global estimates of incidence and new case notifications is 4·1 million people. More accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests are needed to improve case detection...
March 23, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579423/modalities-to-monitor-the-treatment-response-in-tuberculosis
#5
REVIEW
Ujjwala N Gaikwad, Nitin R Gaikwad
Considering the global epidemic of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, early and accurate diagnosis as well as prompt initiation of antitubercular therapy (ATT) forms the mainstay of tuberculosis control programs. Patients on ATT may develop treatment failure due to diverse reasons including emergence of drug resistance in the host during the course of therapy. Monitoring the timely response to treatment in such cases has a significant role in rapid identification of drug resistant strains and institution of change of regimen to further decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571116/the-critically-ill-patient-with-tuberculosis-in-intensive-care-clinical-presentations-management-and-infection-control
#6
REVIEW
Akaninyene Otu, Madiha Hashmi, Ahmed M Mukhtar, Arthur Kwizera, Simon Tiberi, Bruce Macrae, Alimudin Zumla, Martin W Dünser, Mervyn Mer
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. In 2016, there were 490,000 cases of multi-drug resistant TB globally. Over 2 billion people have asymptomatic latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. TB represents an important, but neglected management issue in patients presenting to intensive care units. Tuberculosis in intensive care settings may present as the primary diagnosis (active drug sensitive or resistant TB disease). In other patients TB may be an incidental co-morbid finding as previously undiagnosed sub-clinical or latent TB which may re-activate under conditions of stress and immunosuppression...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545423/disseminated-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-presenting-as-cervical-mass-in-patient-with-hiv-infection-worsening-after-antiretroviral-initiation-diagnosis-and-treatment-challenges
#7
Alain Bruno Tagne Nouemssi
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to represent an important public health challenge in the world and the USA, especially given its association with HIV infection and population migration. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis represents the most common extrapulmonary presentation of TB in the USA. Considerations for other causes of neck mass often contribute to delay in diagnosis. In this report, we describe the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with painful swelling of the neck and was diagnosed with tuberculous lymphadenitis, complicated by HIV therapy-associated immune reconstitution syndrome...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543305/mortality-of-patients-hospitalized-for-active-tuberculosis-in-king-abdulaziz-university-hospital-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#8
Ahmed A Aljohaney
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529901/evaluation-of-risk-factors-for-false-negative-results-with-an-antigen-specific-peripheral-blood-based-quantitative-t-cell-assay-t-spot-%C3%A2-tb-in-the-diagnosis-of-active-tuberculosis-a-large-scale-retrospective-study-in-china
#9
Chi Yang, Shaojun Zhang, Lan Yao, Lin Fan
Objective To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of an interferon-γ release assay, T-SPOT® . TB, for diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB) and to identify risk factors for false-negative results. Methods This retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with active TB and with non-TB respiratory diseases to evaluate the risk factors for false-negative results when using the T-SPOT® . TB assay for the diagnosis of active TB. Patients with active TB were categorized as having confirmed pulmonary TB, clinically diagnosed pulmonary TB or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525794/prevalence-of-diabetes-mellitus-dm-in-tuberculosis-tb-patients-clinical-and-radiologic-features-in-the-tb-dm-association-based-on-a-five-year-hospital-study
#10
Jovana M Pavlović, Aleksandar D Pavlovic, Milica V Bulajić, Dragica P Pešut
A previously known association of tuberculosis (TB), now a global emergency, with diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease of increasing prevalence worldwide, has resurfaced. DM is a recognised TB risk factor and M. tuberculosis infection usually disturbs glycoregulation. We aimed to estimate DM prevalence among TB patients and to analyse clinical and radiologic manifestations of TB in this group. The cross-sectional study included 1017 patients discharged with a TB diagnosis from a tertiary level facility in a five-year period...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516002/treatment-outcomes-of-tuberculosis-at-asella-teaching-hospital-ethiopia-ten-years-retrospective-aggregated-data
#11
Ketema Tafess, Teresa Kisi Beyen, Adugna Abera, Geremew Tasew, Shimelis Mekit, Solomon Sisay, Legesse Tadesse, Gilman K H Siu
Background: Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) has been one of the major strategies to combat the epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) globally. This study aimed to evaluate TB treatment outcomes between September 2004 and July 2014 under the DOTS program at one of the largest public hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective data of TB patients registered at Asella Teaching Hospital between September 2004 and July 2014 were obtained from hospital registry...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515555/cytokine-biomarkers-associated-with-human-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-clinical-strains-and-symptoms
#12
Paulo Ranaivomanana, Mihaja Raberahona, Sedera Rabarioelina, Ysé Borella, Alice Machado, Mamy J De Dieu Randria, Rivo A Rakotoarivelo, Voahangy Rasolofo, Niaina Rakotosamimanana
Background: The primary site of infection for Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) is the alveolar macrophages. However, Mtb can disseminate into other organs and causes extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). The diagnosis of EPTB is challenging due to relatively inaccessible infectious sites that may be paucibacillary and with clinical symptoms varying by site that are similar to those seen in other diseases. Hence, we sought to identify the expression patterns of a variety of cytokines that may be specific to EPTB from in vitro infections and in the plasma of TB patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514556/tuberculous-sacroiliitis-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
E Calle, L A González, C H Muñoz, D Jaramillo, A Vanegas, G Vásquez
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at higher risk of developing opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB), especially extrapulmonary forms like osteoarticular TB, compared to the general population. However, tuberculous sacroiliitis has been scarcely reported in these patients. We present a 34-year-old woman with SLE who developed articular tuberculosis simultaneously affecting the right sacroiliac joint and the left knee. The patient was successfully treated with antituberculosis therapy for nine months...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506574/fever-with-pancytopenia-unusual-presentation-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-a-case-report
#14
Chamara Dalugama, Indika Bandara Gawarammana
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major health problem in the developing world. Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is delayed because the presentation is nonspecific. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis can present with various hematological manifestations, including pancytopenia. Pancytopenia could be due to hypersplenism, maturation arrest, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, or infiltration of the bone marrow by caseating or noncaseating granulomas causing reversible or irreversible fibrosis...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490627/utility-of-dominant-epitopes-derived-from-cell-wall-protein-lppz-for-immunodiagnostic-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#15
Jinjing Tan, Xiaoguang Wu, Suting Chen, Meng Gu, Hairong Huang, Wentao Yue
BACKGROUND: Serological antibodies tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. They appear to have some advantages- faster, simple and could be used for extrapulmonary TB. However, most of current commercial TB serological tests are failed to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Improved serological biomarkers were essential. In this study, we present an approach using peptide array to discover new immunodiagnostic biomarkers based on immunodominant epitopes of TB antigens...
March 1, 2018: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486527/thoracoscopic-pleural-biopsy-improves-yield-of-xpert-mtb-rif-for-diagnosis-of-pleural-tuberculosis
#16
Devasahayam J Christopher, Sridevi Dinakaran, Richa Gupta, Prince James, Barney Isaac, Balamugesh Thangakunam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) accounts for ~15% of all TB patients, and TB pleural effusion is the second most common site of EPTB. The diagnosis of pleural TB is challenging due to the pauci-bacillary nature of the disease. Histopathology of thoracoscopically obtained pleural biopsy provides the highest diagnostic yield. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) is a PCR test that can identify both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance. Currently, there is a lack of clarity regarding the value of Xpert on pleural tissue...
February 27, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484749/rpob-gene-mutations-among-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-extrapulmonary-sites
#17
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Hossein Meghdadi, Ata A Ghadiri, Ameneh Alami, Amir Hossein Sina, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
The aim of this study was to analyze mutations occurring in the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from clinical samples of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and fresh tissue samples from confirmed EPTB cases were analyzed. Nested PCR based on the rpoB gene was performed on the extracted DNAs, combined with cloning and subsequent sequencing. Sixty-seven (95.7%) samples were positive for nester PCR. Sequence analysis of the 81 bp region of the rpoB gene demonstrated mutations in 41 (61...
March 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459859/next-generation-vaccines-based-on-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#18
REVIEW
Natalie E Nieuwenhuizen, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major health threat. A live, attenuated mycobacterium known as Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), derived from the causative agent of cattle TB, Mycobacterium bovis , has been in clinical use as a vaccine for 90 years. The current incidence of TB demonstrates that BCG fails to protect sufficiently against pulmonary TB, the major disease manifestation and source of dissemination. The protective efficacy of BCG is on average 50% but varies substantially with geographical location and is poorer in those with previous exposure to mycobacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452616/tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Alfred O Ankrah, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Alex Maes, Christophe Van de Wiele, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Mariza Vorster, Mike M Sathekge
Tuberculosis (TB) is currently the world's leading cause of infectious mortality. Imaging plays an important role in the management of this disease. The complex immune response of the human body to Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in a wide array of clinical manifestations, making clinical and radiological diagnosis challenging.18 F-FDG-PET/CT is very sensitive in the early detection of TB in most parts of the body; however, the lack of specificity is a major limitation.18 F-FDG-PET/CT images the whole body and provides a pre-therapeutic metabolic map of the infection, enabling clinicians to accurately assess the burden of disease...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451594/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-milk-from-positive-cows-in-the-intradermal-comparative-cervical-tuberculin-test-implications-for-human-tuberculosis-infections
#20
Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños, Marília Masello Junqueira Franco, Antonio Francisco Souza Filho, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Edith Mariela Burbano-Rosero, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Rodrigo Garcia Motta, Carolina Lechinski de Paula, Amanda Bonalume Cordeiro de Morais, Simony Trevizan Guerra, Ana Carolina Alves, Fernando José Paganini Listoni, Márcio Garcia Ribeiro
Although the tuberculin test represents the main in vivo diagnostic method used in the control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis, few studies have focused on the identification of mycobacteria in the milk from cows positive to the tuberculin test. The aim of this study was to identify Mycobacterium species in milk samples from cows positive to the comparative intradermal test. Milk samples from 142 cows positive to the comparative intradermal test carried out in 4,766 animals were aseptically collected, cultivated on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media and incubated for up to 90 days...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
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