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extrapulmonary tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329590/concomitant-metastatic-cutaneous-tuberculous-abscesses-and-pott-disease-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#1
Ana Marcos-Pinto, Tiago Marques, António Pedro Machado, Luís Soares-de-Almeida, Paulo Filipe
Tuberculosis affects one-third of the world's population. The incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis including cutaneous and skeletal manifestations has increased in the last decades. The authors report a clinical case of concomitant metastatic cutaneous abscesses and Pott disease in an immunocompetent patient, a rare presentation of tuberculosis.
October 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327423/characterization-of-an-extracellular-protein-rv1076-from-m-tuberculosis-with-a-potential-role-in-humoral-response
#2
Gurkamaljit Kaur, Bandana Kumari, Jagdeep Kaur
Many mycobacterial proteins involved in lipid metabolism are reported to be essential for survival and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. Rv1076 of M. tuberculosis has been annotated as a putative esterase/lipase based on the consensus sequence 'GXSXG'. It is conserved in all the mycobacterial species. Therefore, in the present study we have characterized Rv1076 gene product in detail. The gene rv1076 was expressed in E. coli and purified from inclusion bodies with approx. 40% yield. The protein showed high specific activity with pNP- butyrate as preferred substrate...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317811/performance-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#3
Pascal Polepole, Mwila Kabwe, Mpanga Kasonde, John Tembo, Aaron Shibemba, Justin O'Grady, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which accounts for 10%-40% of the global burden of TB, with the highest incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa, is strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosing EPTB is challenging, and recently, there has been a concerted effort to evaluate the latest molecular diagnostics for diagnosing TB in a range of specimen types. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is one such technology, which simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315657/magnitude-and-determinants-of-adverse-treatment-outcomes-among-tuberculosis-patients-registered-under-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-program-in-a-tuberculosis-unit-wardha-central-india-a-record-based-cohort-study
#4
Anuj Mundra, Pradeep R Deshmukh, Ajay Dawale
INTRODUCTION: Deaths, defaults, relapses, and treatment failures have made the control of TB difficult across the globe. METHODOLOGY: This study is a record-based follow-up of a cohort of patients registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in the year 2014 in Wardha Tuberculosis Unit, India. Data were collected from the records available at the District Tuberculosis Office. RESULTS: Data of 510 patients were analyzed. The sputum conversion rate was 88%...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303821/detection-of-ofloxacin-resistance-by-nitrate-reductase-assay-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#5
Neeta Shrivastava, Reena Set, Sheetal Bankar, Jayanthi Shastri
CONTEXT: Increased use of fluoroquinolones to treat community-acquired infections has led to the decreased susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is a paucity of data on ofloxacin (OFX) resistance detection by nitrate reductase assay (NRA). Hence, the present study was carried out to find the efficacy of NRA for detection of OFX resistance in M. tuberculosis isolated from extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases. AIMS: (1) To compare sensitivity, specificity and median time required to obtain results by NRA with economic variant proportion method (PM) for detection of OFX resistance...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302234/tuberculous-dactylitis-with-concomitant-thyroid-involvement-a-rare-presentation-of-childhood-tuberculosis
#6
Sobia Qamar, Farrah Naz, Samia Naz, Iftikhar Ejaz
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis rarely presents as thyroid involvement along with other manifestations, and poses a diagnostic challenge on account of paucibacillary nature of disease. In general, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is based on epidemiological risk factors, clinical features, imaging studies, in addition to a positive skin testing or Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). A 14-year boy presented with history of fever and weight loss for one year. On examination, he had painful swelling of fingers and toes along with a painless thyroid nodule and squint...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294485/structure-of-the-complex-between-a-heparan-sulfate-octasaccharide-and-mycobacterial-heparin-binding-hemagglutinin
#7
Teng-Yi Huang, Deli Irene, Medel Manuel L Zulueta, Tzu-Jui Tai, Shih-Han Lain, Cheng-Po Cheng, Ping-Xi Tsai, Shu-Yi Lin, Zhi-Geng Chen, Chiao-Chu Ku, Chwan-Deng Hsiao, Chia-Lin Chyan, Shang-Cheng Hung
Heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) is a 199 amino acid virulence factor at the envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that contributes to latent tuberculosis. The binding of HBHA to respiratory epithelial cells, which leads to extrapulmonary dissemination of the pathogen, is mediated by cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS). We report the structural characterization of the HBHA/HS complex by NMR spectroscopy. To develop a model for the molecular recognition, the first chemically synthesized uniformly (13) C- and (15) N-labeled HS octasaccharide and a uniformly (13) C- and (15) N-labeled form of HBHA were prepared...
March 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286903/the-risk-of-tuberculosis-in-sle-patients-from-an-asian-tertiary-hospital
#8
Yong Yang, Julian Thumboo, Ban Hock Tan, Thuan Tong Tan, Chern Hui Jeffrey Fong, Han Seong Ng, Kok Yong Fong
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been associated with increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). However, little is known about the extent and risk factors for TB among Asian patient with SLE. We aimed to assess the rate of TB in patients with SLE, and investigate the risk of SLE on TB development using hospital administrative database. This is an historical cohort study of hospital discharge database from 2004 to 2011 to identify cases with SLE and TB using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 9th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-9-AM) codes...
March 12, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278283/enhanced-control-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-extrapulmonary-dissemination-in-mice-by-an-arabinomannan-protein-conjugate-vaccine
#9
Rafael Prados-Rosales, Leandro Carreño, Tingting Cheng, Caroline Blanc, Brian Weinrick, Adel Malek, Todd L Lowary, Andres Baena, Maju Joe, Yu Bai, Rainer Kalscheuer, Ana Batista-Gonzalez, Noemi A Saavedra, Leticia Sampedro, Julen Tomás, Juan Anguita, Shang-Cheng Hung, Ashish Tripathi, Jiayong Xu, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Williams R Jacobs, John Chan, Steven A Porcelli, Jacqueline M Achkar, Arturo Casadevall
Currently there are a dozen or so of new vaccine candidates in clinical trials for prevention of tuberculosis (TB) and each formulation attempts to elicit protection by enhancement of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). In contrast, most approved vaccines against other bacterial pathogens are believed to mediate protection by eliciting antibody responses. However, it has been difficult to apply this formula to TB because of the difficulty in reliably eliciting protective antibodies. Here, we developed capsular polysaccharide conjugates by linking mycobacterial capsular arabinomannan (AM) to either Mtb Ag85b or B...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275564/two-cases-of-tuberculous-spondylodiscitis-a-rare-manifestation-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
José Antonio de Jesús Batún-Garrido, Marisol Salas-Magaña, Oscar Alejandro García-Padrón, Nicolás Valencia-Serrano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273983/primary-extrapulmonary-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-of-the-hip-in-an-immunocompetent-female-a-case-report
#11
Sankalp Yadav, Gautam Rawal
The problem of drug resistant Tuberculosis (TB) is looming large in the developing countries. TB of the skeletal system is rare and the primary extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) of the hip joint has never been reported in the medical literature so far. The present case is a very rare case of primary XDR-TB of right hip joint in an immunocompetent Indian female. The present case is an important addition to the medical literature, as it will serve as a valuable source of information to the medical and surgical fraternity...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264670/examining-the-quality-of-childhood-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-cambodia-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Julia B Frieze, Rajendra-Prasad Yadav, Khann Sokhan, Song Ngak, Team Bak Khim
BACKGROUND: Cambodia is one of the 22 countries with the highest TB burden. While childhood TB is estimated to make up 10-20% of total TB cases in high-burden settings, this proportion ranges from 1.3 to 39.4% throughout Cambodia's provinces, suggesting potential under- and over-diagnosis of childhood TB, subnationally. The proportion of case notifications classified as extrapulmonary TB out of total TB case notifications in children is 87%, greatly exceeding the expected global range of 20-30%...
March 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260468/tuberculosis-after-renal-transplant
#13
Samia Barbouch, Meriam Hajji, Imed Helal, Mondher Ounissi, Mohammed Mongi Bacha, Fathi Ben Hamida, Ezzedine Abderrahim, Taieb Ben Abdallah
Tuberculosis is one of the leading infections after renal transplant, particularly in developing countries where the incidence and prevalence in the general population are high. Diagnosis requires bacteriologic and histologic confirmation. Interactions among the antitubercular drugs and the immunosuppressive agents have to be considered while prescribing, and surveillance for adverse effects is required. Although rare, case reports are available on extrapulmonary tuberculosis in allograft recipients. Here, we present a 25-year-old kidney transplant recipient who was diagnosed with lymph node tuberculosis under uncommon circumstances but who had a good outcome...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248057/-tuberculosis-of-the-prostate
#14
O S Streltsova, V N Krupin, K E Yunusova, M V Mamonov
Genitourinary tract is the second most common site where extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) occurs. Genitourinary TB is notable for a latent clinical course and difficult diagnosis. The paper presents clinical observations of two patients treated in a urology department of a general public hospital. One of them was diagnosed with tuberculosis of the prostate, MTB+. In the other, TB of the prostate was suspected based on pathologic assessment of the surgical specimen after surgery for prostate cancer.
December 2016: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248046/-the-epidemiological-situation-of-urogenital-tuberculosis-in-siberia-and-the-far-east
#15
S Yu Shevchenko, E V Kulchavenya, T V Alekseeva
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains one of the most important problems of our time. Late diagnosis of urogenital tuberculosis (UGT) results from a lack of a clinician awareness, paucity of pathognomonic symptoms and suboptimal therapy for urinary tract infections while UGT often manifests under their disguise. AIM: To determine the incidence of urogenital tuberculosis and its structure in an epidemiologically unfavorable region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study compared the temporal changes in the structure of UGT morbidity from 1999 to 2015 in the Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts and analyzed outpatient medical records of 456 UGT patients...
December 2016: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242663/factors-influencing-tuberculosis-treatment-outcome-in-adult-patients-treated-with-thrice-weekly-regimens-in-india
#16
Geetha Ramachandran, A K Hemanth Kumar, V Chandrasekaran, T Kannan, R Vijayalakshmi, V N Azger Dusthackeer, K Ramesh, J Lavanya, Soumya Swaminathan
The Indian Revised National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme uses thrice-weekly treatment with standard drug dosages. The role of plasma drug levels and other factors in determining TB treatment outcomes is not well understood. We aimed to determine factors influencing 2-hour post-dosing concentrations of rifampicin (RMP), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) in adult TB patients and to study factors impacting TB treatment outcome. We recruited 1912 adult TB patients (new and re-treatment) with pulmonary/extrapulmonary TB, receiving anti-TB treatment (ATT) in the RNTCP in Chennai city...
February 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217593/validity-of-tuberculous-pleuritis-diagnosed-in-a-resource-constrained-setting-in-dindigul-district-of-tamil-nadu
#17
Baranidharan Chennaiyan, Arun N Bhatt, Roopa Kancherla, Cijoy K Kuriakose, Anand Vimal Dev, George A Philip
CONTEXT: Majority of the Indians live in rural areas where resource constrained settings depend on cheaper and less invasive tests to diagnose extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The decline in prevalence of TB in the country could affect the validity of the diagnosis. The aim was to measure validity of the pleural fluid study of proteins, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cell counts in diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a 300 bedded secondary care hospital in rural Tamil Nadu...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197023/genitourinary-sarcoidosis-an-essential-review-for-the-practicing-clinician
#18
REVIEW
Norman L Block, Bruce R Kava
INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease that commonly involves the lungs, but may also present with extrapulmonary manifestations. Genitourinary (GU) tract involvement has been traditionally thought to be rare, but that view may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease due to the often, silent presentation thereof. METHODS: The literature pertaining to sarcoidosis from the general systemic point of view, etiology and therapy and with regard to specific organs was reviewed by identifying key words in a PubMed search...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187753/survival-of-people-living-with-hiv-who-defaulted-from-tuberculosis-treatment-in-a-cohort-recife-brazil
#19
R Cunha, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos, I Coimbra, D de B Miranda-Filho, M de F Albuquerque, H R Lacerda, Raa Ximenes
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem worldwide. It is the leading cause of death amongst people living with HIV, and default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment in people living with HIV increases the probability of death. The aim of this study was to estimate the survival probability of people living with HIV who default treatment for TB compared to those who complete the treatment. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort study of people living with HIV, from June 2007 to December 2013 with two components: a retrospective (for those who started tuberculosis treatment before 2013 for whom failure (death) or censoring occurred before 2013), and prospective (those who started tuberculosis treatment at any time between 2007 and June 2013 and for whom death or censoring occurred after the beginning of 2013), at two referral hospitals for people living with HIV (Correia Picanço Hospital - HCP and at Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz - HUOC), in Recife/PE...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185617/mycobacterium-kansasii
#20
James C Johnston, Leslie Chiang, Kevin Elwood
The incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii varies widely over time and by region, but this organism remains one of the most clinically relevant isolated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. In contrast to other common nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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