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extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Talia Robledo-Gil, Kaoru Harada, Ichiro Ikuta, Merceditas Villanueva
BACKGROUND Paradoxical reactions to tuberculosis (TB) are clinical or radiological worsening of prior tuberculous lesions or the development of new lesions upon treatment with appropriate anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). This phenomenon has been described in both HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients. Although historically estimated to occur in 6-30% of HIV-seronegative patients with TB, the phenomenon is often under-recognized in the current era, particularly in countries of low TB prevalence. We describe a case of a TB paradoxical reaction affecting the CNS and spine in an HIV-seronegative individual who received clinical care in the U...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Jitendra Singh, Anju Dinkar
Tuberculosis (TB) is known to cause a wide variety of complications and atypical presentations. It usually presents with typical symptoms. Here, we present the unusual case of pulmonary TB with the involvement of lungs, brain, liver, spleen, vertebra, skin, left cervical lymph nodes, bone marrow, and heart. It is unique with this case of disseminated TB presenting in squall and decimating manner involving many different organs simultaneously in an immunocompetent patient who was treated successfully with antitubercular treatment...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Kareen A Atekem, Nicoline Fri Tanih, Roland Ndip Ndip, Lucy Mande Ndip
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) has been ranked as one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In Cameroon, the National Tuberculosis Control Program aims to fight TB through the implementation of international directives (Directly Observed Treatment Short course [DOTS]). TB control program must reach global targets for detection (70%) and treatment success (85%) as stated by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Implementing DOTS in Cameroon has not met the MDGs of 85% success rate...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Deependra Kumar Rai, Sanjay Pandey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Marcio Roberto Silva, Adalgiza da Silva Rocha, Flábio Ribeiro Araújo, Antônio Augusto Fonseca-Júnior, Andrea Padilha de Alencar, Philip Noel Suffys, Ronaldo Rodrigues da Costa, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo Moreira, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified human zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis as a neglected issue in the developing world. In a recent cross-sectional study in Brazil, three of 189 TB patients presented with a coinfection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis and were selected as cases for this study. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate risk factors (RF) for zoonotic TB in an urban area of Brazil in order to guide preventive programmes...
June 11, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Stephanie Gati, Rhoda Chetty, Douglas Wilson, Jacqueline M Achkar
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), one of the deadliest infectious diseases globally. The high mortality associated with the disease can be reduced by early diagnosis and prompt antituberculous treatment initiation. Facilities in TB-endemic regions are increasing the use of nucleic acid amplification (e.g., GeneXpert), which provides rapid results but may have suboptimal sensitivity in HIV-associated TB. Our objective was to evaluate the current practices for TB diagnosis at Edendale Hospital, a large regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-a TB-endemic region with high HIV prevalence...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sarita Sanke, Ram Chander, Keemi Dalal, Shilpi Agarwal
Tubercular gummas and splenic tuberculomas are rare forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, usually occurring in immunocompromised individuals. We hereby report a rare combination of multiple tubercular gummas and splenic tuberculoma secondary to TB lymphadenitis in an immunocompetent individual. The patient responded to antitubercular therapy. Thus, in a developing country like ours, tuberculosis can present in a wide clinical spectrum even in an immunocompetent individual.
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Mahmut Sunnetcioglu, Ali Irfan Baran, Irfan Binici, Fatih Esmer, Bilge Gultepe
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there were any changes in demographic and clinical features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey, and comprised records of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients treated between January 2009 and July 2014 at the tuberculosis control dispensary. Descriptive and clinical data, including age, gender, site of involvement, diagnostic method and coexisting systemic diseases, were noted...
May 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Alemayehu Gonie, Kebebe Bekele
Background: Gastrointestinal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for 3% of extrapulmonary TB. Tuberculous appendicitis is a rare type of abdominal TB and is seen in only 0.1%-0.3% of cases. Diagnosis is usually made after histopathologic examination of the appendectomy specimen. In Ethiopia, there had been no previous report of perforated appendicular TB, and to our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with perforated tuberculous appendicitis to be presented. Case report: A 22-year-old male patient presented with complaints of severe abdominal cramp, periumbilical pain, nausea, 2 episodes of nonbilious vomiting, as well as high-grade fever...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Mayara Oliveira, Clarissa Vita-Campos, Thiago Jeunon
Tuberculosis (TB) is a common condition with increasing incidence worldwide. Cutaneous TB represents a small portion of extrapulmonary TB. Health care professionals must be aware of cutaneous forms of TB to avoid delay in diagnosis and treatment. We present a case of a 59-year-old woman with vulvar TB cutis orificialis in association with pulmonary TB without any other involvement of genitourinary system. We discuss epidemiological aspects, classification, treatment, range of histopathological patterns, and use of ancillary techniques for diagnosis...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Xu Qian, Duc T Nguyen, Jianxin Lyu, Andreas E Albers, Xiaohong Bi, Edward A Graviss
Many environmental, host, and microbial characteristics have been recognized as risk factors for dissemination of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). However, there are few population-based studies investigating the association between the primary sites of tuberculosis (TB) infection and mortality during TB treatment. De-identified population-based surveillance data of confirmed TB patients reported from 2009 to 2015 in Texas, USA, were analyzed. Regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors for EPTB, as well as its subsite distribution and mortality...
June 6, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Christine Tedijanto, Sabine Hermans, Frank Cobelens, Robin Wood, Jason R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Seasonality in tuberculosis incidence has been widely observed across countries and populations; however, its drivers are poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting seasonal patterns in tuberculosis to identify demographic and ecologic factors associated with timing and magnitude of seasonal variation. METHODS: We identified studies reporting seasonal variation in tuberculosis incidence through PubMed and EMBASE and extracted incidence data and population metadata...
June 4, 2018: Epidemiology
Feng Wang, Jing Yu, Yu Zhou, Ying Luo, Shiji Wu, Min Huang, Botao Yin, Jing Huang, Liyan Mao, Ziyong Sun
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) has become more common in recent years; however, the diagnosis of EPTB remains a challenge. In this study, we analyzed the performance of the ratio of TB-specific antigen (TBAg) to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (TBAg/PHA ratio) in T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT) assay for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of EPTB. Between 2012 and 2017, 734 EPTB patients were diagnosed and recruited from Tongji hospital, and 1,137 suspected EPTB patients who had other diagnoses were recruited as non-EPTB controls...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Soichiro Sawamura, Takamitsu Makino, Takamitsu Johno, Junji Yamashita, Daisuke Niimori, Satoshi Fukushima, Hironobu Ihn
Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are effective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an increased risk of infections often becomes a serious problem. It is well known that TNF-α inhibitors increase the risk of tuberculosis, but extrapulmonary tuberculosis often induced by them is difficult to diagnose using routine imaging examinations. We described a case of delayed diagnosis of a tuberculous lymphadenitis in a patient with RA treated with TNF-α inhibitor because of the complications of severe bacterial sepsis...
May 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Shaofang Wu, Wu Wang, Huan Chen, Wen Xiong, Xin Song, Xinmin Yu
RATIONALE: Ulcerative skin tuberculosis (TB) is a rare form of extrapulmonary TB. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 65-year-old patient with perianal ulcer, which had been present for 1 year. Anamnesis revealed he had been persistently coughing for the same period of time. Histological examination of perianal skin showed necrotizing granulomatous lesions, acid-fast staining in sputum samples was ++++, TB antibody in the blood was positive, TB DNA test was positive, and chest scan that showed secondary pulmonary TB accompanied by possible pulmonary cavity formation in the 2 upper lungs...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Abhishek Bhurwal, Muhammad Masoodul Haq, Sunil Sapru, Matthew Tortora, Dhanasekaran Ramasamy
Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis is an exceedingly rare condition, even in areas of the world where the disease is highly prevalent. Abdominal tuberculosis is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis but involvement of the pancreas is very rare. We report a case of isolated pancreatic tuberculosis presenting as a pancreatic mass in a patient with persistent abdominal pain and jaundice. Clinically and radiologically, the mass mimicked a malignant pancreatic tumor with a vastly different prognostic implication and therapeutic approach...
2018: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Neha Gupta, Bineeta Kashyap, Pooja Dewan, Puneeta Hyanki, N P Singh
Aim and objectives: The paucibacillary nature of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) makes diagnosis difficult. The aim of the study was to correlate the clinical spectrum of pediatric TB with microbiological diagnosis. Materials and methods: Specimens from clinically suspected pediatric TB cases were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium and cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CB-NAAT) for TB. Results: Pulmonary TB was the predominant form affecting 36 of 62 (58%) patients...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Bright Varghese, Mushira Enani, Mohammed Shoukri, Sameera AlJohani, Hawra Al Ghafli, Sahar AlThawadi, Sahal Al Hajoj
BACKGROUND: Incidences of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) causing pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases are reportedly increasing globally and the current epidemiologic situation in Saudi Arabia remains unclear. To study such trend, we carried out a nationwide systematic epidemiological study focusing on NTM diseases for the first time in the country. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: A nationwide collection of NTM isolates with clinical and demographical data was conducted for a period of 24 months...
May 25, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
W Chris Buck, Nádia Manjate, Joyce Ventura, Cristina Nhassengo, Ajunta Navaia, Piedade João, Beatriz Elias
The presentation of congenital tuberculosis (TB) is varied, with frequent extrapulmonary disease, but congenital spinal TB has been rarely reported. We present two cases of spinal TB (one confirmed, one clinical diagnosis) in HIV-exposed infants with likely congenital transmission. Increased vigilance for congenital TB, including uncommon presentations, is needed, particularly in countries with high HIV and TB prevalence.
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kiran Thakur, Mitashee Das, Kelly E Dooley, Amita Gupta
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe manifestation of TB and accounts for approximately 5 to 10% of all extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases and approximately 1% of all TB cases. TB meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS TB, though other forms occur, often in conjunction with TBM, including intracranial tuberculomas, tuberculous brain abscesses, and spinal tubercular arachnoiditis. CNS TB often presents with nonspecific clinical features that mimic symptoms of other neurological conditions, often making diagnosis difficult...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
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