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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227043/the-association-of-air-pollutants-and-allergic-and-nonallergic-rhinitis-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#1
Leila J Mady, Hannah L Schwarzbach, John A Moore, Robert M Boudreau, Thomas M Kaffenberger, Thomas J Willson, Stella E Lee
BACKGROUND: There has been little investigation regarding air quality and rhinitis in the pathophysiology of upper airway disease. In this study, we assessed the impact of inhalant pollutants (particulate matter 2.5 [PM2.5 ] and black carbon [BC]) on allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) disease severity. METHODS: CRS patients with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and without polyps (CRSsNP) were identified. Spatial modeling from pollutant monitoring sites was used to estimate exposures for patients meeting the inclusion criteria (total, n = 125; CRSsNP, n = 67; CRSsNP, n = 58)...
December 11, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210519/air-pollutants-may-be-environmental-risk-factors-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-disease-progression
#2
Leila J Mady, Hannah L Schwarzbach, John A Moore, Robert M Boudreau, Thomas J Willson, Stella E Lee
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of environmental exposures in the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this study, we measured the impact of air pollutants (particulate matter 2.5 [PM2.5 ] and black carbon [BC]) on CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP). METHODS: Spatial modeling from pollutant monitoring sites was used to estimate exposures surrounding residences for patients meeting inclusion criteria (total patients, n = 234; CRSsNP, n = 96; CRSwNP, n = 138)...
December 6, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145783/ntp-niehs-global-contributions-to-toxicologic-pathology
#3
Robert Sills, Amy Brix, Mark Cesta, Sheba R Churchill, Michelle C Cora, Darlene Dixon, Michael Dykstra, Gordon Flake, Ron Herbert, Ramesh Kovi, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Angela King-Herbert, David Malarkey, Arun Pandiri, Greg Travlos, Cynthia Willson, Susan A Elmore
National Toxicology Program (NTP) pathologists are engaged in important initiatives that have significant global impact. These initiatives build on its leadership in pathology peer review and publications in the areas of toxicologic pathology, clinical pathology, and laboratory animal medicine. Over the past decade, NTP/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research initiatives have focused on cancer and noncancer hazard identification, with the goal of understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082518/bisphosphonates-and-other-bone-agents-for-breast-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Brent O'Carrigan, Matthew Hf Wong, Melina L Willson, Martin R Stockler, Nick Pavlakis, Annabel Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Bone is the most common site of metastatic disease associated with breast cancer (BC). Bisphosphonates inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and novel targeted therapies such as denosumab inhibit other key bone metabolism pathways. We have studied these agents in both early breast cancer and advanced breast cancer settings. This is an update of the review originally published in 2002 and subsequently updated in 2005 and 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of bisphosphonates and other bone agents in addition to anti-cancer treatment: (i) in women with early breast cancer (EBC); (ii) in women with advanced breast cancer without bone metastases (ABC); and (iii) in women with metastatic breast cancer and bone metastases (BCBM)...
October 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072804/identification-and-optimization-of-4-anilinoquinolines-as-inhibitors-of-cyclin-g-associated-kinase
#5
Christopher R M Asquith, Tuomo Laitinen, James M Bennett, Paulo H Godoi, Michael P East, Graham J Tizzard, Lee M Graves, Gary L Johnson, Ronna E Dornsife, Carrow I Wells, Jonathan M Elkins, Timothy M Willson, William Zuercher
4-Anilinoquinolines were identified as potent and narrow spectrum inhibitors of the cyclin G associated kinase (GAK), an important regulator of viral and bacterial entry into host cells. Optimization of the 4-anilino group and the 6,7-quinoline substituents produced GAK inhibitors with nanomolar activity, over 50,000-fold selectivity relative to other members of the numb-associated kinase (NAK) sub-family, and a compound (49) with a narrow spectrum kinome profile. These compounds may be useful tools to explore the therapeutic potential of GAK in prevention of a broad range of infectious and systemic diseases...
October 26, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805660/prolyl-hydroxylase-2-inactivation-enhances-glycogen-storage-and-promotes-excessive-neutrophilic-responses
#6
Pranvera Sadiku, Joseph A Willson, Rebecca S Dickinson, Fiona Murphy, Alison J Harris, Amy Lewis, David Sammut, Ananda S Mirchandani, Eilise Ryan, Emily R Watts, A A Roger Thompson, Helen M Marriott, David H Dockrell, Cormac T Taylor, Martin Schneider, Patrick H Maxwell, Edwin R Chilvers, Massimilliano Mazzone, Veronica Moral, Chris W Pugh, Peter J Ratcliffe, Christopher J Schofield, Bart Ghesquiere, Peter Carmeliet, Moira Kb Whyte, Sarah R Walmsley
Fully activated innate immune cells are required for effective responses to infection, but their prompt deactivation and removal are essential for limiting tissue damage. Here, we have identified a critical role for the prolyl hydroxylase enzyme Phd2 in maintaining the balance between appropriate, predominantly neutrophil-mediated pathogen clearance and resolution of the innate immune response. We demonstrate that myeloid-specific loss of Phd2 resulted in an exaggerated inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumonia, with increases in neutrophil motility, functional capacity, and survival...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661973/determinants-of-antibiotic-tailoring-in-pediatric-intensive-care-a-national-survey
#7
Patricia S Fontela, Caroline Quach, Mohammad E Karim, Douglas F Willson, Elaine Gilfoyle, James Dayre McNally, Milagros Gonzales, Jesse Papenburg, Steven Reynolds, Jacques Lacroix
OBJECTIVES: To describe the criteria that currently guide empiric antibiotic treatment in children admitted to Canadian PICUs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Canadian PICUs. SUBJECTS: Pediatric intensivists and pediatric infectious diseases specialists. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We used focus groups and literature review to design the survey questions and its four clinical scenarios (sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, and intra-abdominal infections)...
September 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643430/platinum-containing-regimens-for-metastatic-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Sam J Egger, Melina L Willson, Jenna Morgan, Harriet S Walker, Sue Carrick, Davina Ghersi, Nicholas Wilcken
BACKGROUND: Studies have reported high tumour response rates for platinum-containing regimens in the treatment of women with metastatic breast cancer. Most of these studies were conducted prior to the 'intrinsic subtype' era, and did not specifically focus on metastatic triple-negative breast cancers (mTNBCs). OBJECTIVES: To identify and review the evidence from randomised trials comparing platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens with regimens not containing platinum in the management of women with metastatic breast cancer...
June 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600025/creating-a-sustainable-collaborative-consumer-health-application-for-chronic-disease-self-management
#9
Constance M Johnson, Steve McIlwain, Oliver Gray, Bradley Willson, Allison Vorderstrasse
As the prevalence of chronic diseases increase, there is a need for consumer-centric health informatics applications that assist individuals with disease self-management skills. However, due to the cost of development of these applications, there is also a need to build a disease agnostic architecture so that they could be reused for any chronic disease. This paper describes the architecture of a collaborative virtual environment (VE) platform, LIVE©, that was developed to teach self-management skills and provide social support to those individuals with type 2 diabetes...
July 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396209/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-virus-like-particles-and-recombinant-fiber-proteins-in-broiler-breeder-vaccination-against-fowl-adenovirus-fadv-8b
#10
Ashish Gupta, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Lisanework E Ayalew, Shelly Popowich, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Kalhari Goonewardene, Thushari Gunawardana, Ruwani Karunarathna, Davor Ojkic, Suresh K Tikoo, Philip Willson, Susantha Gomis
Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is an economically important diseases in broiler chicken industry. Several serotypes of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) can cause IBH, among them, serotype FAdV-8b is associated with the majority of the IBH cases in Canada. Here, we evaluated FAdV-8b virus-like particles (VLPs) and recombinant FAdV-8b fiber proteins (expressed in E. coli) as potential broiler-breeder vaccines against IBH. For assessing the immunogenicity of vaccines, we investigated both humoral and cellular immunity. The humoral immune response was evaluated by determining total IgY and virus-neutralizing antibody in serum at 14, 28, 35 and 60days post-immunization (dpi)...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366482/monoclonal-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-nasal-polyps
#11
REVIEW
Thomas J Willson, Robert M Naclerio, Stella E Lee
Biologics are novel therapeutic medications developed for the targeted therapy for a variety of inflammatory conditions. The biologics currently investigated for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps modulate specific inflammatory pathways involved in the pathogenesis of disease. Investigations have focused on the most severe form of the disease, namely, CRS with nasal polyps. It is hoped that specific targeted therapies using these biologics can significantly modulate the immune system, offering both disease control and symptomatic relief...
May 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137490/comparative-effectiveness-of-mepolizumab-and-omalizumab-in-severe-asthma-an-indirect-treatment-comparison
#12
Sarah M Cockle, Gillian Stynes, Necdet B Gunsoy, Daniel Parks, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Jaro Wex, Eric S Bradford, Frank C Albers, Jenny Willson
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease. Patients with both eosinophilic and allergic asthma phenotypes may be eligible for treatment with mepolizumab and omalizumab. Evidence on the relative effectiveness of these treatments in this 'overlap' population would be informative for clinical and payer decision making. METHODS: A systematic literature review and indirect treatment comparison (Bayesian framework) were performed to assess the comparative effectiveness and tolerability of mepolizumab and omalizumab, as add-ons to standard of care...
February 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089549/modified-live-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-ibdv-vaccine-delays-infection-of-neonatal-broiler-chickens-with-variant-ibdv-compared-to-turkey-herpesvirus-hvt-ibdv-vectored-vaccine
#13
Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Kalhari Goonewardene, Ashish Gupta, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Shelly Popowich, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Chickens are commonly processed around 35-45days of age in broiler chicken industry hence; diseases that occur at a young age are of paramount economic importance. Early age infection with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) results in long-lasting immunosuppression and profound economic losses. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing the protection efficacy of modified live (MdLV) IBDV and herpesvirus turkey (HVT)-IBDV vaccines against early age variant IBDV (varIBDV) infection in chicks. Experiments were carried out in IBDV maternal antibody (MtAb) positive chicks (n=330), divided into 6 groups (n=50-60/group), namely Group 1 (saline), Group 2 (saline+varIBDV), Group 3 (HVT-IBDV), Group 4 (HVT-IBDV+varIBDV), Group 5 (MdLV) and Group 6 (MdLV+varIBDV)...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828898/pediatric-ventilator-associated-infections-the-ventilator-associated-infection-study
#14
Douglas F Willson, Michelle Hoot, Robinder Khemani, Christopher Carrol, Aileen Kirby, Adam Schwarz, Rainer Gedeit, Sholeen T Nett, Simon Erickson, Heidi Flori, Spencer Hays, Mark Hall
OBJECTIVE: Suspected ventilator-associated infection is the most common reason for antibiotics in the PICU. We sought to characterize the clinical variables associated with continuing antibiotics after initial evaluation for suspected ventilator-associated infection and to determine whether clinical variables or antibiotic treatment influenced outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study conducted in 47 PICUs in the United States, Canada, and Australia...
January 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748040/maternal-factors-and-the-risk-of-birth-defects-after-ivf-and-icsi-a-whole-of-population-cohort-study
#15
M J Davies, A R Rumbold, J L Marino, K Willson, L C Giles, M J Whitrow, W Scheil, L J Moran, J G Thompson, M Lane, V M Moore
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of maternal factors to major birth defects after in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and natural conception. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in South Australia for the period January 1986 to December 2002. SETTING: A whole of population study. POPULATION: A census of all IVF and ICSI linked to registries for births, pregnancy terminations, and birth defects (diagnosed before a child's fifth birthday)...
September 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733779/a-5-year-study-of-the-incidence-and-economic-impact-of-variant-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-on-broiler-production-in-saskatchewan-canada
#16
Tara Zachar, Shelly Popowich, Bob Goodhope, Tennille Knezacek, Davor Ojkic, Philip Willson, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Susantha Gomis
While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663370/circulating-strains-of-variant-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-may-pose-a-challenge-for-antibiotic-free-chicken-farming-in-canada
#17
Shanika Kurukulsuriya, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Ashish Gupta, Kalhari Goonewardene, Ruwani Karunaratne, Shelly Popowich, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Antibiotic-free and safe animal products are most desirable among consumers. However, ensuring safe poultry products is a challenging task when the chicken immune system is compromised. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression and predisposes chickens to secondary infections. Breeder vaccination against IBDV is routinely practiced for producing chicks with maternally-derived antibody (MAb) to prevent infection in newly hatched chicks. The majority of IBDV circulating in Canadian farms are variant strains (vIBDV)...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355525/impact-of-weight-extremes-on-clinical-outcomes-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Shan L Ward, Virginia Gildengorin, Stacey L Valentine, Anil Sapru, Martha A Q Curley, Neal Thomas, Douglas F Willson, Heidi R Flori
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether weight extremes impact clinical outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a cohort created by combining five multicenter pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome studies. SETTING: Forty-three academic PICUs worldwide. PATIENTS: A total of 711 subjects prospectively diagnosed with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTION: Subjects more than 2 years were included and categorized by Center for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index z score criteria: underweight (< -1...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083413/persistent-effects-of-libby-amphibole-and-amosite-asbestos-following-subchronic-inhalation-in-rats
#19
Stephen H Gavett, Carl U Parkinson, Gabrielle A Willson, Charles E Wood, Annie M Jarabek, Kay C Roberts, Urmila P Kodavanti, Darol E Dodd
BACKGROUND: Human exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) asbestos increases risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma, and non-malignant respiratory disease. This study evaluated potency and time-course effects of LA and positive control amosite (AM) asbestos fibers in male F344 rats following nose-only inhalation exposure. METHODS: Rats were exposed to air, LA (0.5, 3.5, or 25.0 mg/m(3) targets), or AM (3.5 mg/m(3) target) for 10 days and assessed for markers of lung inflammation, injury, and cell proliferation...
April 15, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26513203/research-as-a-standard-of-care-in-the-picu
#20
REVIEW
Jerry J Zimmerman, Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Kathleen L Meert, Douglas F Willson, Christopher J L Newth, Rick Harrison, Joseph A Carcillo, John Berger, Tammara L Jenkins, Carol Nicholson, J Michael Dean
OBJECTIVES: Excellence in clinical care coupled with basic and applied research reflects the maturation of a medical subspecialty, advances that field, and provides objective data for identifying best practices. PICUs are uniquely suited for conducting translational and clinical research. In addition, multiple investigations have reported that a majority of parents are interested in their children's participation in clinical research, even when the research offers no direct benefit to their child...
January 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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