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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240743/potential-for-public-health-success-in-tackling-the-hepatitis-c-virus-epidemic
#1
Ian Sheerin
New Zealand and Australia both now have the potential for a major public health success in controlling the hepatitis C virus epidemic. The burden of advanced liver disease and drug-related harm is increasing. However, a new range of anti-viral therapies have become available which offer a potential cure for most people with few side-effects. The epidemic is potentially preventable and hepatitis C is now curable. Although public health strategies for blood-borne viruses have been updated, they fall short of what is needed and should be upgraded with more emphasis on prevention, in order to achieve control of this epidemic...
December 15, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240661/physical-restraint-use-with-elderly-patients-perceptions-of-nurses-and-nursing-assistants-in-spanish-acute-care-hospitals
#2
Emilio Fariña-López, Gabriel J Estévez-Guerra, M Luz Polo-Luque, Alica Hanzeliková Pogrányivá, Eva Penelo
BACKGROUND: Physical restraint is often used during the hospitalization of elderly people. However, this procedure is associated with adverse outcomes; therefore, it is necessary to be aware of the circumstances that promote restraint use, such as the perceptions of professionals who use it. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the research was to determine the situations in which nursing staff considered the use of physical restraint as most important and to evaluate the possible associations with the sociodemographic and professional variables...
January 2018: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240633/sexually-transmitted-infection-testing-of-hiv-positive-medicare-and-medicaid-enrollees-falls-short-of-guidelines
#3
Raphael J Landovitz, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men with HIV have high sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence. Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends at least yearly STI screening of HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: We calculated testing rates for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea among HIV-positive Californians with Medicare or Medicaid insurance in 2010. Logistic regressions estimated how testing for each bacterial STI relates to demographic and provider factors...
January 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240614/a-measure-of-the-potential-impact-of-hospital-community-health-activities-on-population-health-and-equity
#4
James W Begun, Linda M Kahn, Brooke A Cunningham, Jan K Malcolm, Sandra Potthoff
CONTEXT: Many hospitals in the United States are exploring greater investment in community health activities that address upstream causes of poor health. OBJECTIVE: Develop and apply a measure to categorize and estimate the potential impact of hospitals' community health activities on population health and equity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We propose a scale of potential impact on population health and equity, based on the cliff analogy developed by Jones and colleagues...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240572/preventing-falls-and-fall-related-injuries-in-state-veterans-homes-virtual-breakthrough-series-collaborative
#5
Lisa Zubkoff, Julia Neily, Patricia Quigley, Valarie Delanko, Yinong Young-Xu, Shoshana Boar, Peter D Mills
This article reports on improved processes and outcomes from a virtual breakthrough series quality improvement collaborative to reduce preventable falls and fall-related injuries in 23 State Veterans Homes. Participating teams implemented 24 interventions (process changes); the most common was the postfall huddle. Teams reduced falls and fall-related injuries. This project highlights the importance of leadership support, interdisciplinary team involvement, and collaboration as essential components of fall prevention work...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239994/effects-of-judo-training-on-bones-a-systematic-literature-review
#6
Simone Ciaccioni, Giancarlo Condello, Flavia Guidotti, Laura Capranica
The aim of this study was to provide a systematic literature review on the osteogenic effects of judo (PROSPERO: CRD42016041803). The online search was conducted according to the inclusion criteria: observational studies and clinical/interventional trials in English from inception to June 2016; bone health, mineral density (BMD), diameters, impact force and turnover markers (BTM) outcomes. Thirty-four studies were included and graded for their methodological quality ("fair" quality: 79.4%). The most used assessment method (44...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238883/increasing-parents-awareness-of-social-host-laws-a-pilot-study-of-coalition-efforts
#7
Mallie J Paschall, Bettina Friese, Kristen Law, Anna Lebedeff
States and municipalities across the U.S. are adopting social host ordinances (SHOs) to reduce alcohol use by underage youth in private settings. SHOs are most likely to be effective if parents and other adults are aware of them and they are enforced. We examined the association between a multi-media SHO awareness campaign in northern California municipalities and parents' awareness of SHOs and SHO enforcement. We collected survey data from 1798 parents in a northern California county in fall 2014; all municipalities within the county had SHOs...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238237/adolescent-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-current-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Daisy Maria Machado, Alexandre Machado de Sant'Anna Carvalho, Rachel Riera
Adolescents are a critical population that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. More than 2 million adolescents between the age group of 10 and 19 years are living with HIV, and millions are at risk of infection. HIV risks are considerably higher among girls, especially in high-prevalence settings such as eastern and southern Africa. In addition to girls, there are other vulnerable adolescent subgroups, such as teenagers, who use intravenous (IV) drugs, gay and bisexual boys, transgender youth, male sex workers, and people who fall into more than one of these categories...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238106/measures-and-effects-on-prevention-of-fall-the-role-of-a-fall-working-group-at-a-university-hospital
#9
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kei Ando, Yuko Inagaki, Yusuke Suzuki, Yoshimasa Nagao, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama
Fall in hospitalized patients can cause trauma and fractures, which can reduce ADL and QOL, whereas prevention of fall decreases medical expenses. The purpose of this study is to examine prevention of fall due to intervention from a fall working group established in our hospital. The working group focused on three main points. First, colored wrist bands for patients classified as grade 3 risk for fall are used to alert medical staff. Second, information on fall prevention was distributed to patients. Third, standardization of two bed fences and reduced use of slippers for inpatients have been introduced...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236379/alcohol-consumption-and-low-risk-drinking-guidelines-among-adults-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-alberta-s-tomorrow-project
#10
Darren R Brenner, Tiffany R Haig, Abbey E Poirier, Alianu Akawung, Christine M Friedenreich, Paula J Robson
INTRODUCTION: Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. Although cross-sectional data are available through national surveys, data on alcohol consumption in Alberta from a large prospective cohort were not previously available. The goal of these analyses was to characterize the levels of alcohol consumption among adults from the Alberta's Tomorrow Project in the context of cancer prevention guidelines. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and other high-risk or risk-related behaviours...
December 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235433/annual-prevalence-and-economic-burden-of-genital-warts-in-korea-health-insurance-review-and-assessment-hira-service-data-from-2007-to-2015
#11
Y J Park, J M Kim, B R Lee, T H Kim, E G Lee
This study evaluated the annual prevalence of anogenital warts (AGW) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and analysed the trend in annual per cent changes (APC) by using national claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment of Korea, 2007-2015. We also estimated the socio-economic burden and co-morbidities of AGW. All analyses were performed based on data for primary A63.0, the specific diagnosis code for AGW. The socio-economic cost of AGW was calculated based on the direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost and indirect cost...
December 13, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234768/3d-printed-seed-planter-and-well-array-for-high-throughput-seed-germination-screening
#12
Hui Hui Chai, Yao Lu, Can Fang, Ya Dan Li, Yue Jun Kang, Chang Ming Li, Ling Yu
Seed germination is an important means of evaluating seed quality. In the present study, a well array for a seed germination experiment was designed and fabricated by 3D printing for the first time. Each hollow cone-shaped well can hold one seed, which not only prevented the seed from falling out of the well but also ensured that part of the seed was fully exposed to the sublayer of wet filter paper, allowing it to receive water for germination. Coupled with a 3D-printed seed planter, single seeds can be quickly placed into arrayed wells...
December 13, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232671/predicting-trajectories-of-functional-decline-in-60-to-70-year-old-people
#13
Nini H Jonkman, Vieri Del Panta, Trynke Hoekstra, Marco Colpo, Natasja M van Schoor, Stefania Bandinelli, Luca Cattelani, Jorunn L Helbostad, Beatrix Vereijken, Mirjam Pijnappels, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Early identification of people at risk of functional decline is essential for delivering targeted preventive interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify and predict trajectories of functional decline over 9 years in males and females aged 60-70 years. METHODS: We included 403 community-dwelling participants from the InCHIANTI study and 395 from the LASA study aged 60-70 years at baseline, of whom the majority reported no functional decline at baseline (median 0, interquartile range 0-1)...
December 13, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232308/a-backward-walking-training-program-to-improve-balance-and-mobility-in-acute-stroke-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Dorian K Rose, Lou DeMark, Emily J Fox, David J Clark, Peter Wludyka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Strategies to address gait and balance deficits early poststroke are minimal. The postural and motor control requirements of Backward Walking Training (BWT) may provide benefits to improve balance and walking speed in this population. This pilot study (1) determined the feasibility of administering BWT during inpatient rehabilitation and (2) compared the effectiveness of BWT to Standing Balance Training (SBT) on walking speed, balance, and balance-related efficacy in acute stroke...
January 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231272/impact-of-fear-of-falling-and-fall-history-on-disability-incidence-among-older-adults-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Keitaro Makino, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Ryo Hotta, Sho Nakakubo, Takao Suzuki, Hiroyuki Shimada
OBJECTIVE: Fear of falling (FOF) is a major health problem for older adults, present not just in fallers, but also nonfallers. This study examined the impact of FOF and fall history on disability incidence among community-dwelling older adults from a prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 5104 older adults living in community settings participated in baseline assessment and were followed up for about 4 years (median 52 mo, range 49-55 mo). At baseline, participants were assessed the presence of FOF and their fall history, and divided into 4 groups: Fall (-) FOF (-), Fall (+) FOF (-), Fall (-) FOF (+), and Fall (+) FOF (+)...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230540/preventing-future-fractures-effectiveness-of-an-orthogeriatric-fracture-liaison-service-compared-to-an-outpatient-fracture-liaison-service-and-the-standard-management-in-patients-with-hip-fracture
#16
Antonio Naranjo, Sonia Fernández-Conde, Soledad Ojeda, Laura Torres-Hernández, Carolina Hernández-Carballo, Idoia Bernardos, Sinforiano Rodríguez, Pedro Laynez
An observational study was carried out in two hospitals in patients > 65 years admitted for hip fracture. At 6 months, 15% of patients in the hospital with orthogeriatric standard care and 75% in the hospital with fracture liaison service were receiving bisphosphonates. PURPOSE: Many patients with fractures are discharged without preventive therapy against further fractures. We sought to compare the effectiveness of an orthogeriatric fracture liaison service (FLS), outpatient FLS, and the standard care after hip fractures in prevention of future fractures...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230475/improving-decisions-about-transport-to-the-emergency-department-for-assisted-living-residents-who-fall
#17
Jefferson G Williams, Michael W Bachman, Michael D Lyons, Benjamin B Currie, Lawrence H Brown, A Wooten Jones, Jose G Cabanas, Alan K Kronhaus, J Brent Myers
Background: Residents of assisted living facilities who fall may not be seriously ill or injured, but policies often require immediate transport to an emergency department regardless of the patient's condition. Objective: To determine whether unnecessary transport can be avoided. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: One large county with a single system of emergency medical services. Participants: Convenience sample of residents in 22 assisted living facilities served by 1 group of primary care physicians...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229398/can-an-aversive-extinction-resistant-memory-trigger-impairments-in-walking-adaptability-an-experimental-study-using-adult-rats
#18
Filipe Mello Medeiros, Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw, Pedro Porto Alegre Baptista, Laura Tartari Neves, Lucas Athaydes Martins, Cristiane Regina Guerino Furini, Iván Izquierdo, Léder Leal Xavier, Kristen Hollands, Régis Gemerasca Mestriner
Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first part (n=16), the aversive, extinction-resistance memory paradigm was established using a fear-conditioning chamber...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228152/effectiveness-of-nutritional-interventions-addressed-to-elderly-persons-umbrella-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#19
Andrea Poscia, Sonja Milovanovic, Daniele Ignazio La Milia, Mariusz Duplaga, Marcin Grysztar, Francesco Landi, Umberto Moscato, Nicola Magnavita, Agnese Collamati, Walter Ricciardi
Background: The number of Europeans aged over 65 will double between 2010 and 2060, reaching 30% of the European population. Nutrition is emerging as a key element of healthy life since both obesity and malnutrition are established risk factors for morbidity and disability. The aim of this umbrella review (UR) is to summarize the findings of all current systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyzes (MAs) on the effectiveness of nutritional intervention designed to promote healthy aging in older individuals...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225936/comparative-analysis-of-gender-differences-in-outcomes-after-trauma-in-india-and-the-usa-case-for-standardised-coding-of-injury-mechanisms-in-trauma-registries
#20
Mohini Dasari, Siddarth D David, Elizabeth Miller, Juan Carlos Puyana, Nobhojit Roy
Introduction: While females generally have better outcomes than males after traumatic injury, higher mortality has been shown to occur in females after intentional trauma in lower-income countries. However, gender differences in trauma outcomes in different countries have not been previously compared. We conducted a two-country comparative analysis to characterise gender differences in mortality for different mechanisms of injury. Methods: Two urban trauma databases were analysed from India and the USA for fall, motor vehicle collision (MVC) and assault patients between 2013 and 2015...
2017: BMJ Global Health
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