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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821541/targeting-mir-423-5p-reverses-exercise-training-induced-hcn4-channel-remodeling-and-sinus-bradycardia
#1
Alicia D'Souza, Charles M Pearman, Yanwen Wang, Shu Nakao, Sunil Jit R Logantha, Charlotte Cox, Hayley J Bennett, Yu Zhang, Anne Berit Johnsen, Nora Linscheid, Pi C Poulsen, Jonathan Elliott, Jessica Coulson, Jamie S McPhee, Abigail C Robertson, Paula A da Costa Martins, Ashraf Kitmitto, Ulrik Wisloff, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Oliver Monfredi, Alicia Lundby, Halina Dobrzynski, Delvac Oceandy, Gwilym M Morris, Mark R Boyett
Rationale: Downregulation of the pacemaking ion channel, HCN4, and the corresponding ionic current, If, underlies exercise training-induced sinus bradycardia in rodents. If this occurs in humans, it could explain the increased incidence of bradyarrhythmias in veteran athletes and it will be important to understand the underlying processes. Objective: To test the role of HCN4 in the training-induced bradycardia in human athletes and investigate the role of micro-RNAs (miRs) in the repression of HCN4. Methods and Results: As in rodents, the intrinsic heart rate was significantly lower in human athletes than non-athletes and in all subjects the rate-lowering effect of the HCN selective blocker, ivabradine, was significantly correlated with the intrinsic heart rate, consistent with HCN repression in athletes...
August 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819333/expression-of-autophagy-related-proteins-in-h%C3%A3-rthle-cell-neoplasm-is-different-from-that-in-follicular-neoplasm
#2
Yoon Jin Cha, Hye Min Kim, Ja Seung Koo
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate expression of autophagy-related proteins in Hürthle cell neoplasm (HCN) and follicular neoplasm (FN) and assess the clinical implications. METHODS: 265 FNs (112 follicular carcinomas and 153 follicular adenomas) and 108 HCNs (27 Hürthle cell carcinomas and 81 Hürthle cell adenomas) were made into a tissue microarray. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot for autophagy-related proteins (beclin-1, light chain (LC) 3A, LC3B, p62, and BNIP3) were performed, and the results were statistically analyzed...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818840/hcn4-ion-channel-function-is-required-for-early-events-that-regulate-anatomical-left-right-patterning-in-a-nodal-and-lefty-asymmetric-gene-expression-independent-manner
#3
Vaibhav P Pai, Valerie Willocq, Emily J Pitcairn, Joan M Lemire, Jean-François Paré, Nian-Qing Shi, Kelly A McLaughlin, Michael Levin
Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811775/metformin-attenuate-ptz-induced-apoptotic-neurodegeneration-in-human-cortical-neuronal-cells
#4
Fehmida Bibi, Ikram Ullah, Myeong Ok Kim, Muhammad Imran Naseer
OBJECTIVE: Seizures are one of the neurodegenerative disorders of human being. Metformin has antioxidant properties and commonly used as an oral antidiabetic drug. The current study was aimed to observe the neuroprotective effect of metformin against PTZ-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in human cortical neuronal cell culture. METHODS: To observe that exposure of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) at the dose of (30mM) for 30 minutes induced neuronal cell death by activation of caspase-3 in human cortical neuronal 2 (HCN-2) cell line...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803146/reforming-sewage-sludge-pyrolysis-volatile-with-fe-embedded-char-minimization-of-liquid-product-yield
#5
Guotao Yu, Dezhen Chen, Umberto Arena, Zhen Huang, Xiaohu Dai
Obtaining high quality syngas from sewage sludge (SS) means transferring a low-grade SS into a high-grade fuel or raw materials for chemical products. In this study, Fe is added to SS in form of Fe2(SO4)3 to produce an effective and self-sufficient catalyst in order to obtain more syngas and minimize liquid products from SS pyrolysis. The Fe-embedded sewage sludge chars (SSCs) were used as catalysts for volatile reforming at 600°C. It has been found that the gas yield increases from 15.9 to 35.8wt% of the SS and that of liquids decreases from 31...
August 9, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801916/adenosine-and-dopamine-oppositely-modulate-a-hyperpolarization-activated-current-ih-in-chemosensory-neurons-of-the-rat-carotid-body-in-co-culture
#6
Min Zhang, Cathy Vollmer, Colin A Nurse
Adenosine and dopamine (DA) act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators at the carotid body (CB) chemosensory synapse, however, their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Using a functional co-culture model of rat CB chemoreceptor (type I) cell clusters and juxtaposed afferent petrosal neurons (PNs), we tested the hypothesis that adenosine and DA act postsynaptically to modulate a hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) cation current (Ih ). In whole-cell recordings from hypoxia-responsive PNs, cAMP mimetics enhanced Ih whereas the HCN blocker ZD7288 (2 μm) reversibly inhibited Ih ...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799372/matrix-isolation-and-ab-initio-study-on-hcn-co2-system-and-its-radiation-induced-transformations-spectroscopic-evidence-for-hcn%C3%A2-co2-and-trans-hcnh%C3%A2-co2-complexes
#7
Svetlana V Kameneva, Daniil A Tyurin, Kirill B Nuzhdin, Vladimir I Feldman
Spectroscopic characteristics and X-ray induced transformations of the HCN⋯CO2 complex in solid Ar and Kr matrices were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level. The complex was prepared by deposition of the HCN/CO2/Ng gas mixtures (Ng = Ar or Kr). The comparison of the experiment and calculations prove formation of a linear, H-bonded NCH⋯OCO complex with a substantial red shift of the C-H stretching band and a blue shift of the H-C-N bending band in respect to the monomer...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795443/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-with-or-without-resistance-training-on-muscle-mass-in-high-fat-diet-fed-middle-aged-mice
#8
Sang-Rok Lee, Andy V Khamoui, Edward Jo, Michael C Zourdos, Lynn B Panton, Michael J Ormsbee, Jeong-Su Kim
This study investigated the effects of 20 weeks of combined conjugated linoleic acid/omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) administration independently or combined with resistance exercise training (RET) muscle in middle-aged mice consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine-month-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (H: high-fat diet, HE: H + RET, HCN: H + CLA/n-3, and HECN: H + CLA/n3 + RET). Body composition and functional capacity were assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Muscle tissues were collected at 14 months of age...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791552/mechanism-for-the-coupled-photochemistry-of-ammonia-and-acetylene-implications-for-giant-planets-comets-and-interstellar-organic-synthesis
#9
Thomas C Keane
Laboratory studies provide a fundamental understanding of photochemical processes in planetary atmospheres. Photochemical reactions taking place on giant planets like Jupiter and possibly comets and the interstellar medium are the subject of this research. Reaction pathways are proposed for the coupled photochemistry of NH3 (ammonia) and C2H2 (acetylene) within the context Jupiter's atmosphere. We then extend the discussion to the Great Red Spot, Extra-Solar Giant Planets, Comets and Interstellar Organic Synthesis...
August 9, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789553/rrkm-and-master-equation-kinetic-analysis-of-parallel-addition-reactions-of-isomeric-radical-intermediates-in-hydrocarbon-flames
#10
Pierre M Winter, Michael Rheaume, Andrew L Cooksy
We have calculated the temperature-dependent rate coefficients of the addition reactions of butadien-2-yl (C4H5) and acroylyl (C3H3O) radicals with ethene (C2H4), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (H2CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and ketene (H2CCO), in order to explore the balance between kinetic and thermodynamic control in these combustion-related reactions. For the C4H5 radical, the 1,3-diene form of the addition products is more stable than the 1,2-diene, but the 1,2-diene form of the radical intermediate is stabilized by an allylic delocalization, which may influence the relative activation energies...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782641/nitric-oxide-cgmp-signaling-via-guanylyl-cyclase-isoform-1-modulates-glutamate-and-gaba-release-in-somatosensory-cortex-of-mice
#11
Qi Wang, Evanthia Mergia, Doris Koesling, Thomas Mittmann
In hippocampus, two guanylyl cyclases (NO-GC1 and NO-GC2) are involved in the transduction of the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on synaptic transmission. However, the respective roles of the NO-GC isoforms on synaptic transmission are less clear in other regions of the brain. In the present study, we used knock-out mice deficient for the NO-GC1 isoform (NO-GC1 KO) to analyze its role in the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission at pyramidal neurons in layers II/III of somatosensory cortex. NO-GC1 KO slices revealed reduced frequencies of miniature excitatory- and inhibitory-postsynaptic currents, increased paired-pulse ratios and decreased input-output curves of evoked signals, which indicated the reduction of glutamate and GABA release in NO-GC1 KO mice...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781902/study-on-lesion-assessment-of-cerebello-thalamo-cortical-network-in-wilson-s-disease-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#12
Anqin Wang, Hongli Wu, Chunsheng Xu, Lanfeng Tang, Jaeyoun Lee, Min Wang, Man Jiang, Chuanfu Li, Qi Lu, Chunyun Zhang
Wilson's disease (WD) is a genetic disorder of copper metabolism with pathological copper accumulation in the brain and any other tissues. This article aimed to assess lesions in cerebello-thalamo-cortical network with an advanced technique of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in WD. 35 WD patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited to accept diffusion-weighted images with 15 gradient vectors and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The DTI parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD), were calculated by diffusion kurtosis estimator software...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768741/theta-frequency-selectivity-in-the-somatic-spike-triggered-average-of-rat-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-is-dependent-on-hcn-channels
#13
Anindita Das, Rishikesh Narayanan
The ability to distill specific frequencies from complex spatiotemporal patterns of afferent inputs is a pivotal functional requirement for neurons residing in networks receiving frequency-multiplexed inputs. Although the expression of theta-frequency subthreshold resonance is established in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, it is not known if their spike initiation dynamics manifest spectral selectivity or if their intrinsic properties are tuned to process gamma-frequency inputs. Here, we measured the spike-triggered average (STA) of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons through electrophysiological recordings and quantified spectral selectivity in their spike initiation dynamics and their coincidence detection window (CDW)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767959/occupational-exposure-to-hydrogen-cyanide-during-large-scale-cassava-processing-in-alagoas-state-brazil
#14
Cyro Hauaji Zacarias, Claudia Esteban, Gilson Lucio Rodrigues, Elizabeth de Souza Nascimento
The cassava roots used for flour production contain high amounts of cyanogenic glycosides and are, therefore, potential hydrogen cyanide (HCN) releasers. This fact is the cause of an increasing health concern in the sector of cassava processing. Brazilian workers engaged in the flour production may be chronically exposed to HCN in levels above the safety limits. This hypothesis is based on the drastic reduction in cyanide content of cassava roots during a traditional Brazilian method of processing and in the physical properties of the compound, which makes it very susceptible to volatilization and air contamination...
July 27, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762726/intracellular-uncaging-of-cgmp-with-blue-light
#15
Hitesh K Agarwal, Shenyu Zhai, D James Surmeier, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
We have made a new caged cGMP that is photolyzed with blue light. Using our recently developed derivative of 7-diethylaminocourmarin (DEAC) called DEAC450, we synthesized coumarin phosphoester derivatives of cGMP with two negative charges appended to the DEAC450 moiety. DEAC450-cGMP is freely soluble in physiological buffer without the need for any organic cosolvents. With a photolysis quantum yield of 0.18 and an extinction coefficient of 43 000 M(-1) cm(-1) at 453 nm, DEAC450-cGMP is the most photosensitive caged cGMP made to date...
August 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747006/biotoxic-impact-of-heavy-metals-on-growth-oxidative-stress-and-morphological-changes-in-root-structure-of-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-and-stress-alleviation-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strain-cpsb1
#16
Asfa Rizvi, Mohd Saghir Khan
Rapid industrialization and uncontrolled metal discharge into environment is a global concern for crop production. Metal tolerant bacterium isolated from chilli rhizosphere was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa tolerated high concentrations of Cu (1400 μg ml(-1)), Cd (1000 μg ml(-1)) and Cr (1000 μg ml(-1)). Pseudomonas aeruginosa CPSB1 produced multiple plant growth promoting biomolecules in the presence and absence of metals. Strain CPSB1 solubilized P at 400 μg ml(-1) of Cd, Cr and Cu...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746826/electrophysiological-properties-of-neurons-and-synapses-in-the-lateral-habenular-complex-lhb
#17
REVIEW
Franziska Wagner, Torsten Weiss, Rüdiger W Veh
Animal including human behavior is highly sophisticated. Besides reflective actions it is largely based on the desire for magnificent internal feelings, which are provided by the reward system. Its counterpart an "anti-reward" system is mainly composed of the lateral habenular complex (LHb) and its extensive interconnections with the monoaminergic cell groups in the mid- and hindbrain. The present review focuses on the neuronal composition and the internal signaling in the LHb. Morphologically six distinct types of neurons (spherical, fusiform-1, fusiform-2, polymorphic, vertical, neurogliaform) can be identified...
July 23, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740207/high-energy-radical-chemistry-formation-of-hcn-rich-atmospheres-on-early-earth
#18
Martin Ferus, Petr Kubelík, Antonín Knížek, Adam Pastorek, John Sutherland, Svatopluk Civiš
Recent results in prebiotic chemistry implicate hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as the source of carbon and nitrogen for the synthesis of nucleotide, amino acid and lipid building blocks. HCN can be produced during impact events by reprocessing of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials from both the impactor and the atmosphere; it can also be produced from these materials by electrical discharge. Here we investigate the effect of high energy events on a range of starting mixtures representative of various atmosphere-impactor volatile combinations...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726858/pumping-and-probing-vibrational-modulated-coupled-electronic-coherence-in-hcn-using-short-uv-fs-laser-pulses-a-2d-quantum-nuclear-dynamical-study
#19
S van den Wildenberg, B Mignolet, R D Levine, F Remacle
The coupled electronic-nuclear coherent dynamics induced by a short strong VUV fs pulse in the low excited electronic states of HCN is probed by transient absorption spectroscopy with a second weaker fs UV pulse. The nuclear time-dependent Schrodinger equation is solved on a 2D nuclear grid with several electronic states with a Hamiltonian including the dipole coupling to the pump and the probe electric fields. The two internal nuclear coordinates describe the motion of the light H atom. There is a band of several excited electronic states at about 8 eV above the ground state (GS) that is transiently accessed by the pump pulse...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718926/ets-nocv-decomposition-of-the-reaction-force-the-hcn-cnh-isomerization-reaction-assisted-by-water
#20
Silvia Díaz, Mateusz Z Brela, Soledad Gutiérrez-Oliva, Alejandro Toro-Labbé, Artur Michalak
The partitioning of the reaction force based on the extended-transition-state natural orbital for chemical valence (ETS-NOCV) scheme has been proposed. This approach, together with the analysis of reaction electronic flux (REF), has been applied in a description of the changes in the electronic structure along the IRC pathway for the HCN/CNH isomerization reaction assisted by water. Two complementary ways of partitioning the system into molecular fragments have been considered ("reactant perspective" and "product perspective")...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
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