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Michele M Merten, M Regina Castro, Jun Zhang, Jolanta M Durski, Mabel Ryder
BACKGROUND: Cytologically defined indeterminate thyroid nodules are a diagnostic challenge. Surgical lobectomy remains gold standard for definitive diagnosis, however, 70-85% of nodules are ultimately benign. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission computed tomography (PET/CT) in excluding cancer among cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules within our institution using surgical pathology as a gold standard reference and to perform a systematic review of published prospective studies on the NPV of PET/CT in evaluating indeterminate thyroid nodules...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Sadegh Salehzadeh, Farahnaz Maleki
In this work, a new equation consist of A⋅⋅⋅B, B⋅⋅⋅C, A⋅⋅⋅BC, and AB⋅⋅⋅C interactions is proposed for calculating the total interaction energy of noncyclic ABC triads. New equations are also proposed for calculating the changes in values of A⋅⋅⋅B and B⋅⋅⋅C interactions on the formation of triad from the corresponding dyads. The advantages of equations proposed here in comparison with many-body interaction energy approach are discussed. All proposed equations were tested in F3 MLi⋅⋅⋅NCH⋅⋅⋅HLH and F3 MLi⋅⋅⋅HLH⋅⋅⋅HCN (M = C, Si; L = Be, Mg) as well as H3 N⋅⋅⋅XY⋅⋅⋅HF (X, Y = F, Cl, Br) noncyclic A⋅⋅⋅B⋅⋅⋅C triads...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Wei Sun, Fei Yang, Yan Wang, Han Fu, Yan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Xiao-Liang Wang, Qing Lin, Jun Chen
Under physiological state, small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are believed to mediate nociceptive behavioral responses to painful stimuli. However, recently it has been found that a number of large-sized neurons are also involved in nociceptive transmission under neuropathic conditions. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms that large-sized DRG neurons mediate nociception are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of large-sized neurons in bee venom (BV)-induced mechanical allodynia and the underlying mechanisms were investigated...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Zahra Gerivani, Elham Vashaee, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour, Mahnaz Aghdasi, Zahra-Sadat Shobbar, Majid Azimmohseni
Tree seed dormancy release by cold stratification accompanies with the embryo increased gluconeogenesis competence. Cyanide also breaks seed dormancy however, integrated information about its effects on carbon metabolism is lacking. Accordingly, the impacts of HCN on germination, lipid gluconeogenesis and sugar transport capacity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) kernels were investigated during 10-days period prior to radicle protrusion. HCN increased walnut kernel germination and within four days of kernel incubation, hastened the decline of starch, reducing and non-reducing sugars and led to greater activities of alkaline invertase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
J Manik Nava-Sedeño, Adrian Ortiz-Cervantes, Antígona Segura, Shawn D Domagal-Goldman
Lifeless planets with CO2 atmospheres produce CO by CO2 photolysis. On planets around M dwarfs, CO is a long-lived atmospheric compound, as long as UV emission due to the star's chromospheric activity lasts, and the sink of CO and O2 in seawater is small compared to its atmospheric production. Atmospheres containing reduced compounds, like CO, may undergo further energetic and chemical processing to give rise to organic compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. We calculated the yield of organic compounds from CO2-rich atmospheres of planets orbiting M dwarf stars, which were previously simulated by Domagal-Goldman et al...
October 4, 2016: Astrobiology
Bryan VanSchouwen, Giuseppe Melacini
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-modulated (HCN) ion channels control rhythmicity in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) modulates HCN activity through cAMP-dependent formation of a tetrameric gating ring spanning the intracellular region (IR) of HCN. In the absence of cAMP, the IR cAMP-binding domain (CBD) mainly samples its inactive conformation, resulting in steric clashes that destabilize the IR tetramer. Although these clashes with the inactive CBD are released through tetramer dissociation into monomers, functional mutagenesis suggests that the apo IR is not fully monomeric...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Pierre Hennebert, Ismahen Samaali, Pauline Molina
A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as "Release of an acute toxic gas": waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, 2014b). When the substances with the cited hazard statement codes react with water or an acid, they can release HCl, Cl2, HF, HCN, PH3, H2S, SO2 (and two other gases very unlikely to be emitted, hydrazoic acid HN3 and selenium oxide SeO2 - a solid with low vapor pressure)...
September 26, 2016: Waste Management
Loretta Fala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: American Health & Drug Benefits
Juergen Pauluhn
To characterize the accumulated hazards associated with the inhalation of gases typical of combustion products, a time-integrated value known as the fractional effective dose (FED) is used. This FED is maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and made publicly available as the Standard ISO 13571. The current FED calculation related to asphyxiant gases is based on non-human primate data to estimate the 50% probability of humans to be incapacitated or not being able to execute any escape paradigm from fires...
September 21, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Dennis R Tabuena, Allan Solis, Ken Geraldi, Christopher A Moffatt, Megumi Fuse
Many organisms respond to noxious stimuli with defensive maneuvers. This is noted in the hornworm, Manduca sexta, as a defensive strike response. After tissue damage, organisms typically display sensitized responses to both noxious or normally innocuous stimuli. To further understand this phenomenon, we used novel in situ and in vitro preparations based on paired extracellular nerve recordings and videography to identify central and peripheral nerves responsible for nociception and sensitization of the defensive behavior in M...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Munmun Nandi, Chrystal Berry, Ann Karen C Brassinga, Mark F Belmonte, W G Dilantha Fernando, Peter C Loewen, Teresa R de Kievit
: Pseudomonas brassicacearum DF41 is a biocontrol agent that suppresses disease caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum A number of exometabolites are produced by DF41 including the lipopeptide sclerosin, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level by quorum sensing (QS) and the Gac-two component regulatory system. In order to be successful, a biocontrol agent must persist in the environment at levels sufficient for pathogen control...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Donatella Contini, Steven D Price, Jonathan J Art
Fast neurotransmitters act in conjunction with slower modulatory effectors that accumulate in restricted synaptic spaces found at giant synapses such as the calyceal endings in the auditory and vestibular systems. Here, we use dual patch-clamp recordings from turtle vestibular hair cells and their afferent neurons to show that potassium ions accumulating in the synaptic cleft modulate membrane potentials and extend the range of information transfer. High-fidelity synaptic transmission is possible due to large conductances that minimize hair cell and afferent time constants in the presence of significant membrane capacitance...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Georg Ch Mellau, Alexandra A Kyuberis, Oleg L Polyansky, Nikolai Zobov, Robert W Field
The quantum mechanical description of isomerization is based on bound eigenstates of the molecular potential energy surface. For the near-minimum regions there is a textbook-based relationship between the potential and eigenenergies. Here we show how the saddle point region that connects the two minima is encoded in the eigenstates of the model quartic potential and in the energy levels of the [H, C, N] potential energy surface. We model the spacing of the eigenenergies with the energy dependent classical oscillation frequency decreasing to zero at the saddle point...
2016: Scientific Reports
Christoforos Tsantoulas, Elizabeth R Mooney, Peter A McNaughton
Nociception - the ability to detect painful stimuli - is an invaluable sense that warns against present or imminent damage. In patients with chronic pain, however, this warning signal persists in the absence of any genuine threat and affects all aspects of everyday life. Neuropathic pain, a form of chronic pain caused by damage to sensory nerves themselves, is dishearteningly refractory to drugs that may work in other types of pain and is a major unmet medical need begging for novel analgesics. Hyperpolarisation-activated cyclic nucleotide (HCN)-modulated ion channels are best known for their fundamental pacemaker role in the heart; here, we review data demonstrating that the HCN2 isoform acts in an analogous way as a 'pacemaker for pain', in that its activity in nociceptive neurons is critical for the maintenance of electrical activity and for the sensation of chronic pain in pathological pain states...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Chi-Shian Chen, Wen-Yann Yeh
Treatment of the open-cage fullerene C63 H4 NO2 (Ph)2 (Py)(N2 C6 H4 ) (1) with methanol at 150 °C results in an orifice-enlargement reaction to give C69 H8 NO(CO2 Me)(Ph)(Py)(N2 C6 H4 ) (2). The overall yield from C60 to isolated 2 is 6.1 % (four steps). Compound 2 contains a 24-membered elliptic orifice that spans 8.45 Å along the major axis and 6.37 Å along the minor axis. The skeleton of 2 resembles the hypothetic C60 H10 (5,5)-carbon nanotube endcap. The cup-shaped structure of 2 is able to include water, hydrogen cyanide, and acetylene, forming H2 O@2, HCN@2, and C2 H2 @2, respectively...
September 12, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jeremy Kua, Lauren M Sweet
Glycolic acid and glycine can potentially self-oligomerize or co-oligomerize in solution by forming ester and amide bonds. Using density functional theory with implicit solvent, we have mapped a baseline free energy landscape to compare the relative stabilities of monomers, dimers, and trimers in solution. We find that amide bond formation is favored over ester bond formation both kinetically and thermodynamically, although the differences decrease when zwitterionic species are taken into account. The replacement of ester linkages by amide bonds is favored over lengthening the oligomer, suggesting that one route to oligopeptide formation is utilizing oligoesters as a starting point...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Lingli Hu, Chunhua Liu, Minyan Dang, Bin Luo, Yiping Guo, Haitao Wang
The abundant forebrain serotonergic projections are believed to modulate the activities of cortical neurons. 5-HT2 receptor among multiple subtypes of serotonin receptors contributes to the modulation of excitability, synaptic transmissions and plasticity. In the present study, whole-cell patch-clamp recording was adopted to examine whether activation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors would have any impact on the excitability of cultured cortical neurons. We found that 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a selective 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, rapidly and reversibly depressed spontaneous action potentials mimicking the effect of serotonin...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Xiuchao Wang, Shan Wang, Wenting Wang, Jianhong Duan, Ming Zhang, Xiaohua Lv, Chunxiao Niu, Chao Tan, Yuanbin Wu, Jing Yang, Sanjue Hu, Junling Xing
Although conduction failure has been observed in nociceptive C-fibers, little is known regarding its significance or therapeutic potential. In a previous study, we demonstrated that C-fiber conduction failure, which is regarded as an intrinsic self-inhibition mechanism, was reduced in circumstances of painful diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we extend this finding in the complete Freund's adjuvant model of inflammatory pain and validate that the degree of conduction failure decreased and led to a greater amount of pain signals conveyed to the central nervous system...
October 2016: Pain
Rafael Zúñiga, Daniela González, Claudio Valenzuela, Nelson Brown, Leandro Zúñiga
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated pore loop channels. In mammals, this family consists of four different subunits (HCN1-4) and their ion channels activity have been proposed to play an essential role in regulating the membrane potential of excitable cells. Here, we describe the expression and relative abundances of HCN channels in cerebellum and primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). Quantitative determination of mRNA expression levels demonstrated the existence of an accumulation pattern of transcripts in cerebellum that encode HCN2 > HCN3 = HCN4 > HCN1 subunits...
September 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jeffery A Boychuk, Jordan S Farrell, Laura A Palmer, Anna C Singleton, Quentin J Pittman, G Campbell Teskey
The mechanisms by which distinct movements of a forelimb are generated from the same area of motor cortex have remained elusive. Here we examined a role for HCN channels, given their ability to alter synaptic integration, in the expression of forelimb movement responses during intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and movements of the forelimb on a skilled reaching task. We used short-duration high resolution ICMS to evoke forelimb movements following pharmacological (ZD7288), experimental (electrically induced cortical seizures) or genetic approaches that we confirmed with whole-cell patch clamp to substantially reduce Ih current...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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