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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525275/rh-catalyzed-anti-markovnikov-hydrocyanation-of-terminal-alkynes
#1
Fei Ye, Junting Chen, Tobias Ritter
We report the first highly stereo- and regioselective hydrocyanation of terminal alkynes to furnish E-configured alkenyl nitriles. Acrylonitriles can be accessed on gram scale with broad substrate scope and functional group tolerance. The hydrocyanation reaction employs acetone cyanohydrin as a practical alternative to HCN gas.
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524007/the-proinflammatory-cytokine-gitrl-contributes-to-trail-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-the-hcn-2-human-neuronal-cell-line
#2
Giulia Di Benedetto, Salvatore Saccone, Laurence Lempereur, Nicole Ronsisvalle, Giuseppe Nocentini, Rodolfo Bianchini, Carlo Riccardi, Renato Bernardini, Giuseppina Cantarella
Cytokines belonging to the TNF superfamily play a relevant role in neurodegenerative processes. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), released during neuronal injury, has proven to potently mediate and sustain neurotoxic processes leading to neuronal death. Similarly to TRAIL, the cytokine Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL) is able to transduce proapoptotic signals. In spite of the array of reports suggesting relationships between TRAIL and other cytokines, scanty data are, so far, available about a GITRL/TRAIL crosstalk...
May 18, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522878/the-photodissociation-of-hcn-and-hnc-effects-on-the-hnc-hcn-abundance-ratio-in-the-interstellar-medium
#3
Alfredo Aguado, Octavio Roncero, Alexandre Zanchet, Marcelino Agúndez, José Cernicharo
The impact of the photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers is analyzed in different astrophysical environments. For this purpose, the individual photodissociation cross section of HCN and HNC isomers have been calculated in the 7-13.6 eV photon energy range for a temperature of 10 K. These calculations are based on the ab initio calculation of three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 21 lower electronic states. The cross sections are then obtained using a quantum wave packet calculation of the rotational transitions needed to simulate a rotational temperature of 10 K...
March 20, 2017: Astrophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516303/erratum-to-theoretical-study-of-the-h-hcn-%C3%A2-h-hnc-process
#4
Eberth Correa, Washington Barbosa da Silva, Patricia R P Barreto, Alessandra F Albernaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489946/transformation-of-nitrogen-and-evolution-of-n-containing-species-during-algae-pyrolysis
#5
Wei Chen, Haiping Yang, Yingquan Chen, Mingwei Xia, Xu Chen, Hanping Chen
Transformation and evolution mechanisms of nitrogen during algae pyrolysis were investigated with in depth exploration of N-containing products. Results indicated nitrogen in algae is mainly in the form of protein-N (~90%) with a little inorganic-N. At 400~600°C, protein-N in algae cracked firstly with algae pyrolysis and formed pyridinic-N, pyrrolic-N and quaternary-N in char. The content of protein-N and pyridinic-N decreased significantly, while that of pyrrolic-N and quaternary-N increased gradually with temperature increasing...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475993/combustion-performance-of-biocrude-oil-from-solvolysis-liquefaction-of-chlorella-pyrenoidosa-by-thermogravimetry-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#6
Xiaowei Peng, Xiaoqian Ma, Yousheng Lin, Jingjing Wang, Xiaoyu Wei, Xinfei Chen
The kinetic behavior and evolution characteristics of gaseous products during the combustion of biocrude oil from solvolysis liquefaction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated by thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). The results indicated the biocrude oil obtained from different ethanol/water mixed ratio had obvious difference with each other. The ignition temperature of biocrude oil from ethanol-water co-solvent was lower than that from pure water solvent, which promoted the comprehensive combustion index...
April 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475227/re-evaluation-of-the-hydrogen-stable-isotopic-composition-of-keratin-calibration-standards-for-wildlife-and-forensic-science-applications
#7
David X Soto, Geoff Koehler, Leonard I Wassenaar, Keith A Hobson
RATIONALE: Determination of non-exchangeable hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ(2) H values) of bulk complex organic materials is difficult due to uncontrolled H isotope exchange between the organic material and ambient water vapor. A number of calibration keratinous materials with carefully measured hydrogen isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fraction were proposed to enable stable isotope laboratories to normalize their (2) H measurements. However, it was recently reported that high temperature carbon-reactor methods for measuring the hydrogen isotopic composition of nitrogenous organic materials is biased by the production of HCN in the reactor...
May 5, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471063/synthesis-of-layered-carbonitrides-from-biotic-molecules-for-photoredox-transformations
#8
Can Yang, Bo Wang, Linzhu Zhang, Ling Yin, Xinchen Wang
The construction of layered covalent carbon nitride polymers based on tri-s-triazine units has been achieved by using nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil) and urea to establish a two-dimensional semiconducting structure that allows band-gap engineering applications. This biomolecule-derived binary carbon nitride polymer enables the generation of energized charge carrier with light-irradiation to induce photoredox reactions for stable hydrogen production and heterogeneous organosynthesis of C-O, C-C, C-N and N-N bonds, which may enrich discussion on chemical reactions in prebiotic conditions by taking account of the photoredox function of conjugated carbonitride semiconductors that have long been considered to be stable HCN-derived organic macromolecules in space...
May 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469560/hcn-channel-modulation-of-synaptic-integration-in-gabaergic-interneurons-in-malformed-rat-neocortex
#9
Asher J Albertson, Andrew S Bohannon, John J Hablitz
Cortical malformations are often associated with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Alterations in hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, non-specific cation (HCN) channels have been shown to contribute to malformation associated hyperexcitability. We have recently demonstrated that expression of HCN channels and Ih current amplitudes are reduced in layer (L) 5 pyramidal neurons of rats with freeze lesion induced malformations. These changes were associated with an increased EPSP temporal summation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458102/ivabradine-attenuates-the-anticonvulsant-potency-of-lamotrigine-but-not-that-of-lacosamide-pregabalin-and-topiramate-in-the-tonic-clonic-seizure-model-in-mice
#10
Katarzyna M Sawicka, Katarzyna Załuska, Agnieszka Wawryniuk, Karolina Załuska-Patel, Michał Szczyrek, Bartłomiej Drop, Jadwiga Daniluk, Monika Szpringer, Dorota Żółkowska, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are involved not only in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability under physiological conditions, but also in seizure activity. To determine the influence of ivabradine (an HCN channel inhibitor) on the anticonvulsant potency of four novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: lacosamide, lamotrigine, pregabalin and topiramate) in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. Adult male albino Swiss mice were challenged with maximal electroconvulsions (electric current of 25mA delivered via auricular electrodes)...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455536/cation-and-voltage-dependence-of-lidocaine-inhibition-of-the-hyperpolarization-activated-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-hcn1-channel
#11
Igor Putrenko, Raymond Yip, Stephan K W Schwarz, Eric A Accili
Lidocaine is known to inhibit the hyperpolarization-activated mixed cation current (Ih) in cardiac myocytes and neurons, as well in cells transfected with cloned Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. However, the molecular mechanism of Ih inhibition by this drug has been limitedly explored. Here, we show that inhibition of Ih by lidocaine, recorded from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the HCN1 channel, reached a steady state within one minute and was reversible. Lidocaine inhibition of Ih was greater at less negative voltages and smaller current amplitudes whereas the voltage-dependence of Ih activation was unchanged...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451881/theoretical-study-of-the-h-hcn-%C3%A2-h-hcn-process
#12
Eberth Correa, Washington Barbosa da Silva, Patricia R P Barreto, Alessandra F Albernaz
We present a theoretical study on the detailed mechanism and kinetics of the H + HCN → H + HNC process. The potential energy surface was calculated at the complete basis set quantum chemical method, CBS-QB3. The vibrational frequencies and geometries for four isomers (H 2CN, cis-HCNH, trans-HCNH, CNH 2), and seven saddle points (TSn where n = 1 - 7) are very important and must be considered during the process of formation of the HNC in the reaction were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G(2d,d,p) level, within CBS-QB3 method...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442714/mitigating-herding-in-hierarchical-crowdsourcing-networks
#13
Han Yu, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Victor R Lesser, Qiang Yang
Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432096/interaction-between-dapg-and-hcn-producing-pseudomonas-brassicacearum-lbum300-and-clavibacter-michiganensis-subsp-michiganensis-in-the-rhizosphere-of-tomato
#14
Mélanie M Paulin, Amy Novinscak, Carine Lanteigne, Vijay J Gadkar, Martin Filion
We have previously demonstrated that inoculation of tomato plants with 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) producing Pseudomonas brassicacearum LBUM300 could significantly reduce bacterial canker symptoms caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). In this study, in order to better characterize the population dynamics of LBUM300 in the rhizosphere of tomato plants, we characterized the role played by DAPG and HCN production by LBUM300 on rhizosphere colonization of healthy and Cmm-infected tomato plants...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428632/cyclophosphamide-induced-hcn1-channel-upregulation-in-interstitial-cajal-like-cells-leads-to-bladder-hyperactivity-in-mice
#15
Qian Liu, Zhou Long, Xingyou Dong, Teng Zhang, Jiang Zhao, Bishao Sun, Jingzhen Zhu, Jia Li, Qingqing Wang, Zhenxing Yang, Xiaoyan Hu, Longkun Li
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are confirmed to be expressed in bladder interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICC-LCs), but little is known about their possible role in cystitis-associated bladder dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine the functional role of HCN channels in regulating bladder function under inflammatory conditions. Sixty female wild-type C57BL/6J mice and sixty female HCN1-knockout mice were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418703/radioresistance-of-adenine-to-cosmic-rays
#16
Gabriel S Vignoli Muniz, Christian F Mejía, Rafael Martinez, Basile Auge, Hermann Rothard, Alicja Domaracka, Philippe Boduch
The presence of nucleobases in carbonaceous meteorites on Earth is an indication of the existence of this class of molecules in outer space. However, space is permeated by ionizing radiation, which can have damaging effects on these molecules. Adenine is a purine nucleobase that amalgamates important biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and ATP. Adenine has a unique importance in biochemistry and therefore life. The aim of this work was to study the effects of cosmic ray analogues on solid adenine and estimate its survival when exposed to corpuscular radiation...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416809/perisomatic-changes-in-h-channels-regulate-depressive-behaviors-following-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#17
C S Kim, D H Brager, D Johnston
Chronic stress can be a precipitating factor in the onset of depression. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of HCN1 protein expression and reduction of functional Ih produce antidepressant behavior. However, whether h-channels are altered in an animal model of depression is not known. We found that perisomatic HCN1 protein expression and Ih-sensitive physiological measurements were significantly increased in dorsal but not in ventral CA1 region/neurons following chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a widely accepted model for major depressive disorder...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407178/phenotypic-diversity-of-starch-granules-in-cassava-germplasm
#18
L M Vasconcelos, A C Brito, C D Carmo, P H G A Oliveira, E J Oliveira
Demand for the development of cassava varieties with different native starches has guided the search for these characteristics in the germplasm of Manihot esculenta Crantz. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity of cassava accessions for root and starch granule characteristics to guide the future industrial application of this species. Starches from 56 accessions were evaluated for the number of granules in 1 g of starch (NTG), area (AG, μm(2)), length (LG, μm), width (WG, μm), starch granule roundness (Round), dry matter content in the roots (DMC, %), pulp color (PulCo), and cyanogenic compounds (HCN)...
April 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402665/kinetic-modeling-of-the-thermal-destruction-of-nitrogen-mustard-gas
#19
Juan-Carlos Lizardo-Huerta, Baptiste Sirjean, Laurent Verdier, René Fournet, Pierre-Alexandre Glaude
The destruction of stockpiles or unexploded ammunitions of nitrogen mustard (tris(2-chloroethyl)amine, HN-3) requires the development of safe processes. The thermal destruction of this kind of compound is one of the most efficient method of destruction. Because of the high-level of toxicity of this chemical, there is a considerable lack of knowledge on the chemical kinetics at high temperatures. In this study, a detailed chemical kinetic model for the pyrolysis of nitrogen mustard gas is developed based on a large number of thermokinetic parameters calculated with theoretical chemistry...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402122/structure-and-spectroscopy-of-c2hno-isomers
#20
Marcin Gronowski, Piotr Eluszkiewicz, Thomas Custer
Formyl cyanide has been detected toward Sgr B2 making this chemical and its potential isomers of astrophysical interest. We calculated the precise energies of the five most stable structural isomers of formyl cyanide and found that formyl isocyanide and 2H-azirin-2-one are less stable than formyl cyanide by 55 and 125 kJ/mol, respectively. We present our ab initio coupled cluster predictions of the spectroscopic parameters relevant to their gas-phase rotational and vibrational spectroscopy. Parameters include ground vibrational state rotational constants, centrifugal distortion parameters, equilibrium electric dipole moments, and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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