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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079220/facile-pentagon-formation-in-the-dissociation-of-polyaromatics
#1
Arjen J de Haas, Jos Oomens, Jordy Bouwman
Energetic processing of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) plays a pivotal role in the chemistries of inter- and circumstellar environments, certain planetary atmospheres, and also in the chemistry of combustion and soot formation. Although the precursor PAH species have been extensively characterized, the products from these gaseous breakdown reactions have received far less attention. It has been particularly challenging to accurately determine their molecular structure in gas-phase experiments, where comparisons against theoretical modeling are best made...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074902/a-reduced-mechanical-model-for-camp-modulated-gating-in-hcn-channels
#2
Stephanie Weißgraeber, Andrea Saponaro, Gerhard Thiel, Kay Hamacher
We developed an in silico mechanical model to analyze the process of cAMP-induced conformational modulations in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which conduct cations across the membrane of mammalian heart and brain cells. The structural analysis reveals a quaternary twist in the cytosolic parts of the four subunits in the channel tetramer. This motion augments the intrinsic dynamics of the very same protein structure. The pronounced differences between the cAMP bound and unbound form include a mutual interaction between the C-linker of the cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) and the linker between the S4 and S5 transmembrane domain of the channel...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071723/hcn1-channels-reduce-the-rate-of-exocytosis-from-a-subset-of-cortical-synaptic-terminals
#3
Zhuo Huang, Gengyu Li, Carolina Aguado, Rafael Lujan, Mala M Shah
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN1) channels are predominantly located in pyramidal cell dendrites within the cortex. Recent evidence suggests these channels also exist pre-synaptically in a subset of synaptic terminals within the mature entorhinal cortex (EC). Inhibition of pre-synaptic HCN channels enhances miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) onto EC layer III pyramidal neurons, suggesting that these channels decrease the release of the neurotransmitter, glutamate...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065805/genetic-perturbations-suggest-a-role-of-the-resting-potential-in-regulating-the-expression-of-the-ion-channels-of-the-kcna-and-hcn-families-in-octopus-cells-of-the-ventral-cochlear-nucleus
#4
Xiao-Jie Cao, Donata Oertel
Low-voltage-activated K(+) (gKL) and hyperpolarization-activated mixed cation conductances (gh) mediate currents, IKL and Ih, through channels of the Kv1 (KCNA) and HCN families respectively and give auditory neurons the temporal precision required for signaling information about the onset, fine structure, and time of arrival of sounds. Being partially activated at rest, gKL and gh contribute to the resting potential and shape responses to even small subthreshold synaptic currents. Resting gKL and gh also affect the coupling of somatic depolarization with the generation of action potentials...
January 5, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064429/structural-insight-into-the-gene-expression-profiling-of-the-hcn-operon-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
Nilkanta Chowdhury, Angshuman Bagchi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic human pathogen. It generally attacks immunosuppressed patients like AIDS, cancer, cystic fibrosis, etc. The virulence of P. aeruginosa is mediated by various virulence factors. One of such potential virulence factors is HCN synthesized by HCN synthase enzyme, which is encoded by the hcnABC operon. The expressions of the genes of this operon are regulated by three transcriptional regulators, viz., LasR, ANR, and RhlR. In our previous work, we analyzed the molecular details of the functionalities of LasR...
January 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063921/tricalcium-phosphate-solubilization-and-nitrogen-fixation-by-newly-isolated-aneurinibacillus-aneurinilyticus-ckmv1-from-rhizosphere-of-valeriana-jatamansi-and-its-growth-promotional-effect
#6
Anjali Chauhan, Shiwani Guleria, Praveen P Balgir, Abhishek Walia, Rishi Mahajan, Preeti Mehta, Chand Karan Shirkot
Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 was isolated from rhizosphere of Valeriana jatamansi and possessed multiple plant growth promoting traits like production of phosphate solubilization (260mg/L), nitrogen fixation (202.91nmolethylenemL(-1)h(-1)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (8.1μg/mL), siderophores (61.60%), HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production and antifungal activity. We investigated the ability of isolate CKMV1 to solubilize insoluble P via mechanism of organic acid production. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) study showed that isolate CKMV1 produced mainly gluconic (1...
December 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054154/interstitial-cell-modulation-of-pyeloureteric-peristalsis-in-the-mouse-renal-pelvis-examined-using-fibsem-tomography-and-calcium-indicators
#7
Hikaru Hashitani, Michael J Nguyen, Haruka Noda, Retsu Mitsui, Ryuhei Higashi, Keisuke Ohta, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Richard J Lang
Typical and atypical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs and ASMCs, respectively) and interstitial cells (ICs) within the pacemaker region of the mouse renal pelvis were examined using focused ion beam scanning electron (FIB SEM) tomography, immunohistochemistry and Ca(2+) imaging. Individual cells within 500-900 electron micrograph stacks were volume rendered and associations with their neighbours established. 'Ribbon-shaped', Ano1 Cl(-) channel immuno-reactive ICs were present in the adventitia and the sub-urothelial space adjacent to the TSMC layer...
January 4, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049318/frequency-analysis-of-the-laser-driven-nonlinear-dynamics-of-hcn
#8
A Lopez-Pina, J C Losada, R M Benito, F Borondo
We study the vibrational dynamics of a model for the HCN molecule in the presence of a monochromatic laser field. The variation of the structural behavior of the system as a function of the laser frequency is analyzed in detail using the smaller alignment index, frequency maps, and diffusion coefficients. It is observed that the ergodicity of the system depends on the frequency of the excitation field, especially in its transitions from and into chaos. This provides a roadmap for the possibility of bond excitation and dissociation in this molecule...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004489/asymmetric-strecker-reaction-arising-from-the-molecular-orientation-of-an-achiral-imine-at-the-single-crystal-face-enantioenriched-l-and-d-amino-acids
#9
Shinobu Miyagawa, Koji Yoshimura, Yusuke Yamazaki, Naoya Takamatsu, Tetsuya Kuraishi, Shohei Aiba, Yuji Tokunaga, Tsuneomi Kawasaki
Strecker synthesis has long been considered one of the prebiotic reactions for the synthesis of α-amino acids. However, the correlation between the origin of chirality and highly enantioenriched α-amino acids through this method remains a puzzle. In the reaction, it may be conceivable that the handedness of amino acids has been determined at the formation stage of the chiral intermediate α-aminonitrile, that is, the enantioselective addition of hydrogen cyanide to an imine. Herein, an enantiotopic crystal surface of an achiral imine acted as an origin of chirality for the enantioselective formation of α-aminonitriles by the addition of HCN...
December 22, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003685/further-alma-observations-and-detailed-modeling-of-the-red-rectangle
#10
V Bujarrabal, A Castro-Carrizo, J Alcolea, M Santander-García, H Van Winckel, C Sánchez Contreras
AIMS: We aim to study the rotating and expanding gas in the Red Rectangle, which is a well known object that recently left the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. We analyze the properties of both components and the relation between them. Rotating disks have been very elusive in post-AGB nebulae, in which gas is almost always found to be in expansion. METHODS: We present new high-quality ALMA observations of C(17)O J=6-5 and H(13)CN J=4-3 line emission and results from a new reduction of already published (13)CO J=3-2 data...
September 2016: Astronomy and Astrophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001448/following-the-interstellar-history-of-carbon-from-the-interiors-of-stars-to-the-surfaces-of-planets
#11
L M Ziurys, D T Halfen, W Geppert, Y Aikawa
The chemical history of carbon is traced from its origin in stellar nucleosynthesis to its delivery to planet surfaces. The molecular carriers of this element are examined at each stage in the cycling of interstellar organic material and their eventual incorporation into solar system bodies. The connection between the various interstellar carbon reservoirs is also examined. Carbon has two stellar sources: supernova explosions and mass loss from evolved stars. In the latter case, the carbon is dredged up from the interior and then ejected into a circumstellar envelope, where a rich and unusual C-based chemistry occurs...
December 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998371/the-global-regulator-anr-is-essential-for-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-strain-pa23-biocontrol
#12
Munmun Nandi, Carrie Selin, Gabriel Brawerman, W G Dilantha Fernando, Teresa R de Kievit
Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is a biocontrol agent capable of protecting canola from stem rot disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The focus of the current study was to elucidate the role of the transcriptional regulator ANR in the biocontrol capabilities of this bacterium. An anr mutant was created, PA23anr, that was devoid antifungal activity. In other pseudomonads, ANR is essential for regulating HCN production. Characterization of PA23anr revealed that, in addition to HCN, ANR controls phenazine (PHZ), pyrrolnitrin (PRN), protease and autoinducer (AHL) signal molecule production...
December 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974729/secondary-metabolites-production-and-plant-growth-promotion-by-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-and-p-aurantiaca-strains-isolated-from-cactus-cotton-and-para-grass
#13
Izzah Shahid, Muhammad Rizwan, Deeba Noreen Baig, Rahman Shahzaib Saleem, Kauser Abdullah Malik, Samina Mehnaz
Fluorescent pseudomonads have been isolated from halophytes, mesophytes and xerophytes of Pakistan. Among these, eight isolates, GS-1, GS-3, GS-4, GS-6, GS-7, FS-2 (cactus), ARS-38 (cotton) and RP-4 (para grass) showed antifungal activity and selected for detailed study. Based on biochemical tests and 16SrRNA gene sequences, these were identified as strains of P. chlororaphis subspp. chlororaphis and aurantiaca. Secondary metabolites of these strains were analyzed by LC-MS. PCA, 2-OH-PHZ, cyclic lipopeptide (WLIP) and Lahorenoic acid A were detected in variable amounts in these strains...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965425/essential-roles-of-ampa-receptor-glua1-phosphorylation-and-presynaptic-hcn-channels-in-fast-acting-antidepressant-responses-of-ketamine
#14
Ke Zhang, Ting Xu, Zhongmin Yuan, Zhisheng Wei, Vitor Nagai Yamaki, Mingfa Huang, Richard L Huganir, Xiang Cai
Although the molecular mechanism is not clear, the clinically tested drug ketamine has rapid antidepressant action that does not require the multiple weeks of treatment needed for other antidepressant drugs to have an effect. We showed that ketamine potentiated Schaffer collateral-CA1 cell excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal slice preparations from rodents and enhanced the phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit on Ser(845) of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor in the hippocampal area CA1. These effects persisted when γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were pharmacologically blocked...
December 13, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942887/predictions-of-the-contribution-of-hcn-half-maximal-activation-potential-heterogeneity-to-variability-in-intrinsic-adaptation-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#15
Jason Boulet, Ian C Bruce
Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) exhibit a wide range in their strength of intrinsic adaptation on a timescale of 10s to 100s of milliseconds in response to electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant (CI). The purpose of this study was to determine how much of that variability could be caused by the heterogeneity in half-maximal activation potentials of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels, which are known to produce intrinsic adaptation. In this study, a computational membrane model of cat type I SGN was developed based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model plus HCN and low-threshold potassium (KLT) conductances in which the half-maximal activation potential of the HCN channel was varied and the response of the SGN to pulse train and paired-pulse stimulation was simulated...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938859/cyanogenic-pseudomonas-spp-strains-are-concentrated-in-the-rhizosphere-of-alpine-pioneer-plants
#16
Tomaž Rijavec, Aleš Lapanje
HCN producing bacteria have previously been isolated from alpine mineral soil and their ecophysiology was presumed to be associated with mineral weathering. Nevertheless, the high ecological patchiness of the alpine environment calls for an extensive and detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of HCN producing bacterial populations and their associated weathering traits. Our results of such an analysis showed that primarily the rhizosphere of pioneer plants was rich in HPPs, harbouring the most potent HCN producers...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930653/characterisation-of-development-and-electrophysiological-mechanisms-underlying-rhythmicity-of-the-avian-lymph-heart
#17
Sajjida Jaffer, Petr Valasek, Graham Luke, Munirah Batarfi, Benjamin Jason Whalley, Ketan Patel
Despite significant advances in tissue engineering such as the use of scaffolds, bioreactors and pluripotent stem cells, effective cardiac tissue engineering for therapeutic purposes has remained a largely intractable challenge. For this area to capitalise on such advances, a novel approach may be to unravel the physiological mechanisms underlying the development of tissues that exhibit rhythmic contraction yet do not originate from the cardiac lineage. Considerable attention has been focused on the physiology of the avian lymph heart, a discrete organ with skeletal muscle origins yet which displays pacemaker properties normally only found in the heart...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921176/two-feet-on-the-membrane-uptake-of-clostridial-neurotoxins
#18
Andreas Rummel
The extraordinary potency of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is mediated by their high neurospecificity, targeting peripheral cholinergic motoneurons leading to flaccid and spastic paralysis, respectively, and successive respiratory failure. Complex polysialo gangliosides accumulate BoNT and TeNT on the plasma membrane. The ganglioside binding in BoNT/A, B, E, F, G, and TeNT occurs via a conserved ganglioside-binding pocket within the most carboxyl-terminal 25 kDa domain HCC, whereas BoNT/C, DC, and D display here two different ganglioside binding sites...
December 1, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920428/mitigating-herding-in-hierarchical-crowdsourcing-networks
#19
Han Yu, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Victor R Lesser, Qiang Yang
Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917154/hydrogen-cyanide-in-the-rhizosphere-not-suppressing-plant-pathogens-but-rather-regulating-availability-of-phosphate
#20
Tomaž Rijavec, Aleš Lapanje
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produce chemical compounds with different benefits for the plant. Among them, HCN is recognized as a biocontrol agent, based on its ascribed toxicity against plant pathogens. Based on several past studies questioning the validity of this hypothesis, we have re-addressed the issue by designing a new set of in vitro experiments, to test if HCN-producing rhizobacteria could inhibit the growth of phytopathogens. The level of HCN produced by the rhizobacteria in vitro does not correlate with the observed biocontrol effects, thus disproving the biocontrol hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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