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Zhanmin Sun, Kaixuan Zhang, Cheng Chen, Yanmin Wu, Yixiong Tang, Milen I Georgiev, Xinquan Zhang, Min Lin, Meiliang Zhou
The natural products cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) are present in various forage plant species including Sorghum spp., Trifolium spp., and Lotus spp. The release of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from endogenous CNglcs, which is known as cyanogenesis, leads to a serious problem for animal consumption while as defensive secondary metabolites, CNglcs play multiple roles in plant development and responses to adverse environment. Therefore, it is highly important to fully uncover the molecular mechanisms of CNglc biosynthesis and regulation to manipulate the contents of CNglcs in forage plants for fine-tuning the balance between defensive responses and food safety...
October 12, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Naoya Takamatsu, Shohei Aiba, Takuya Yamada, Yuji Tokunaga, Tsuneomi Kawasaki
2-Methylbenzhydrylamine is a chiral variant of achiral benzhydrylamine, however, the chirality formed from the small difference between the phenyl and o-tolyl groups is not expected to induce sufficient stereoselectivity in conventional homogeneous reactions. Initiated by the spontaneous formation and asymmetric amplification of the enantioenriched N-benzhydryl-α-aminonitrile forming conglomerate, we here report that (S)- and (R)-configured title amine, upon the Strecker reaction with achiral aldehydes and HCN, afford corresponding -aminonitriles with up to >99...
October 5, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Natan-Haim Kalson, David Furman, Yehuda Zeiri
Despite decades of research, how life began on Earth remains one of the most challenging scientific conundrums facing modern science. It is agreed that the first step was synthesis of organic compounds essential to obtain amino acids and their polymers. Several possible scenarios that could accomplish this step, using simple inorganic molecules, have been suggested and studied over the years. The present study examines, using atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations, the long-standing suggestion that natural cavitation in primordial oceans was a dominant mechanism of organic molecule synthesis...
September 27, 2017: ACS Central Science
Sebastian Bemme, Michael Weick, Tim Gollisch
Purpose: Phosphene perception is a characteristic side effect of heart rate-reducing medication that acts on hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels. It is hypothesized that these phosphenes are caused by blocking HCN channels in photoreceptors and neurons of the retina, yet the underlying changes in visual signal processing in the retina caused by the HCN channel block are still unknown. Methods: We examined the effects of pharmacologic HCN channel block on the encoding of visual signals in retinal ganglion cells by recording ganglion cell spiking activity from isolated mouse retinas mounted on multielectrode arrays...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Abid Hussain, Nils Huse, Oriol Vendrell
Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations have been performed to probe the influence of hydrogen bonding on the electronic structure of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Our calculations determine the origin of nitrogen-specific Raman spectral features from resonant inelastic X-ray scattering occurring in the presence of a water molecule and an electric dipole field. The similarity of the two interactions in altering the electronic structure of the nitrogen atom differs only in the covalent contributions from the water molecule...
September 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
Lucíola Vilarim Ferraz, Adriana Guim, Robson Magno Liberal Véras, Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho, Marciela Thais Dino de Freitas
The effects of corn replacement by cassava dreg in diets of crossbred goat kids were evaluated. We tested the impacts of 0, 33, 66 and 100% replacement on intake, digestibility, feeding behaviour, performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-six goat kids, aged between 4 and 5 months and with initial body weights of 17.61 ± 1.98 kg, were used in a completely randomised design. Analysis of regression revealed a negative linear effect on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake and a positive linear effect on non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and hydrocyanic acids (HCN) intake...
September 30, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Chandong Ding, Cuicui Yang, Quanxia Cao, Xiaoxia Zhu, Jianming Zhang, Wen Zhang, Yongping Wang, Long Li
Currently, the mechanism of the chronotropic ability of stem cells modified to express the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) gene remains to be elucidated. The present study assessed the effects of mouse (m)HCN2 gene modification on the expression of chronotropic relevant receptors, adrenergic receptor β1 (Adrb1) and cholinergic receptor muscarinic M2 (Chrm2), in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) co-cultured with atrial myocytes. BMSCs were divided into the following four groups: i) BMSCs transfected with the mHCN2 gene and co-cultured with atrial myocytes for 48 h (TF + CO); ii) respective transfection (TF); iii) respective co-culture (CO); and iv) the control group without treatment (CTL)...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jon M Resch, Henning Fenselau, Joseph C Madara, Chen Wu, John N Campbell, Anna Lyubetskaya, Brian A Dawes, Linus T Tsai, Monica M Li, Yoav Livneh, Qingen Ke, Peter M Kang, Géza Fejes-Tóth, Anikó Náray-Fejes-Tóth, Joel C Geerling, Bradford B Lowell
Sodium deficiency increases angiotensin II (ATII) and aldosterone, which synergistically stimulate sodium retention and consumption. Recently, ATII-responsive neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) and aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS(HSD2) neurons) were shown to drive sodium appetite. Here we investigate the basis for NTS(HSD2) neuron activation, identify the circuit by which NTS(HSD2) neurons drive appetite, and uncover an interaction between the NTS(HSD2) circuit and ATII signaling...
September 27, 2017: Neuron
S Shabanamol, J Sreekumar, M S Jisha
The present study tried to explore the possible in vitro biocontrol mechanisms of Lysinibacillus sphaericus, a diazotrophic endophyte from rice against the rice sheath blight pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The in vivo biocontrol potential of the isolate and the induction of systemic resistance under greenhouse conditions have also been experimented employing different treatments with positive control carbendazim, the chemical fungicide. The endophytic isolate showed 100% growth inhibition of the fungal pathogen via volatile organic compound production and was positive for the production of siderophores, biosurfactants, HCN, and ammonia...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Hasnain Sajid, Tariq Mahmood, Khurshid Ayub
An accurate comparison of the interaction of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene with different gaseous analytes is vital not only for understanding the sensing mechanism of corresponding polymers but also for rational design of new materials. In the present study, DFT calculations at (M05-2X/Aug-cc-PVDZ) have been performed to investigate the interaction behavior of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene (as models for their corresponding polymers) with different analytes (NH3, CO2, CO, N2H4, HCN, H2O2, H2S, CH4, CH3OH, SO2, SO3, H2O)...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Limao Huang, Candie Xie, Jingyong Liu, Xiaochun Zhang, KenLin Chang, Jiahong Kuo, Jian Sun, Wuming Xie, Li Zheng, Shuiyu Sun, Musa Buyukada, Fatih Evrendilek
Effects of the three metal carbonates (K2CO3, Na2CO3, and MgCO3) were quantified on catalytic co-combustion of the sewage sludge and water hyacinth (SW) blend using a thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis and kinetics modeling. The main dominating steps of the catalysts were the organic volatile matter release and combustion stage. Weighted mean values of activation energy (Em) were estimated at 181.18KJ·mol(-1), 199.76KJ·mol(-1), 138.76KJ·mol(-1), and 177.88KJ·mol(-1) for SW, SW+5% K2CO3, SW+5% Na2CO3, and SW+5% MgCO3, respectively...
September 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Sebastien Hayoz, Purushottam B Tiwari, Grzegorz Piszczek, Aykut Üren, Tinatin I Brelidze
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels control cardiac and neuronal rhythmicity. HCN channels contain cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) in their C-terminal region linked to the pore-forming transmembrane segment with a C-linker. The C-linker couples the conformational changes caused by the direct binding of cyclic nucleotides to the HCN pore opening. Recently, cyclic dinucleotides were shown to antagonize the effect of cyclic nucleotides in HCN4 but not in HCN2 channels...
2017: PloS One
Paul Murphy, Scott J Dalgarno, Martin J Paterson
The efficacy of calixarenes for the storage and/or detection of small guest molecules at the upper rim is well known. As part of our continuing efforts to investigate the ability to fine-tune the structure and hence host-guest binding characteristics of calixarenes, we present a systematic investigation of the effect of methylation of the lower rim tetraphenolic pocket of calix[4]arene (C[4]) on the binding at the upper rim for a test-suite of guest molecules consisting of H2, O2, N2, H2O, CO2, NH3, H2S, N2O, HCN and SO2...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Fen Gao, Rui Hao, Xue-Mei Qin, Zhen-Hong Lei, Yu-Long Wang, Meng-Liang Wang
The antagonistic effect of Bacillus spp. against Fusarium solani was evaluated by living body dual culture and Oxford cup method. The plant growth promoting properties of those strains that had obvious and stable antifungal activity were then tested. The results showed that the living body and bacteria-free fermentation filtrate of strain G10 both had obvious and stable antifungal effect to F. solani. Besides, the strain possessed such growth promoting properties as phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, and production of IAA, amylase and HCN...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Yasunari Kanda, Yuji Nakamura, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Takeshi Wada, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T Naito, Yuko Sekino, Atsushi Sugiyama
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have been used in many studies to assess proarrhythmic risks of chemical compounds. In those studies, field potential durations (FPD) of hiPSC-CMs have been corrected by clinically used Fridericia's and/or Bazett's formulae, however, the rationale for the use of these formulae has not been well established. In the present study, we developed a correction formula for experiments using hiPSC-CMs. First, we analyzed the effect of beating rate on FPD in the hiPSC-CMs sheets with electrical stimuli and a HCN channel inhibitor zatebradine...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Susan M DeLeon, Jason D Downey, Diane M Hildenberger, Melissa O Rhoomes, Lamont Booker, Gary A Rockwood, Kelly A Basi
CONTEXT: Cyanide (CN) is a metabolic poison, halting ATP synthesis by inhibiting complex IV of the electron transport chain. If exposed at high enough concentrations, humans and most animals can die within minutes. Because time is a crucial factor in survival of CN poisoning, a rapidly bioavailable, nontoxic, easy to administer CN medical countermeasure could improve morbidity/mortality in a mass CN exposure scenario. The most likely route of exposure to CN is via inhalation. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the efficacy of a new formulation for dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), a countermeasure which has shown promise as a treatment for CN poisoning, using both inhalation and injection models of CN exposure...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Sramana Kundu, Vaibhav S Prabhudesai, E Krishnakumar
We demonstrate the efficient formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds starting from CH4 and NH3 on a metal surface at cryogenic temperatures. Electrons in the energy range of 1-90 eV are used to initiate chemical reactions in mixed molecular films of CH4 and NH3 at ∼15 K, and the products are detected by performing temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Extensive dehydrogenation occurs at all energies giving the products CH2NH and HCN in preference to CH3NH2. This is likely to do with the energetics of the reactions and the subsequent stability of these species in the condensed film...
September 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dinushi Weerasinghe, Parvathi Menon, Steve Vucic
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated (HCN) channels mediate differences in sensory and motor axonal excitability at different thresholds in animal models. Importantly, HCN channels are responsible for voltage-gated inward rectifying (Ih) currents activated during hyperpolarization. The Ih currents exert a crucial role in determining the resting membrane potential and have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, including neuropathic pain. In humans, differences in biophysical properties of motor and sensory axons at different thresholds remain to be elucidated and could provide crucial pathophysiological insights in peripheral neurological diseases...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Anumita Sarkar, Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Krishnendu Pramanik, Soumik Mitra, Tithi Soren, Sanjeev Pandey, Monohar Hossain Mondal, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Agricultural productivity is proven to be hampered by the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of stress-induced ethylene under salinity stress. One-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the direct precursor of ethylene synthesized by plants. Bacteria possessing ACC deaminase activity can use ACC as a nitrogen source preventing ethylene production. Several salt-tolerant bacterial strains displaying ACC deaminase activity were isolated from rice fields, and their plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties were determined...
September 9, 2017: Research in Microbiology
Kyle A Lyman, Ye Han, Robert J Heuermann, Xiangying Cheng, Jonathan E Kurz, Reagan E Lyman, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Dane M Chetkovich
Tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains are ubiquitous structural motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions. For example, the TPR domains in the peroxisomal import receptor PEX5 enable binding to a range of type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) motifs. A homolog of PEX5, tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b interacting protein (TRIP8b), binds to and functions as an auxiliary subunit of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. Given the similarity between TRIP8b and PEX5, this difference in function raises the question of what mechanism accounts for their binding specificity...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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