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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635619/on-the-importance-of-accurate-quantification-of-individual-volatile-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#1
David Smith, Patrik Spanel
It is argued that shortcomings of certain approaches to breath analysis research based on superficial interpretation of non-quantitative data are inadvertently inhibiting the progression of non-invasive breath analysis into clinical practice. The objective of this perspective is to suggest more clinically profitable approaches to breath research. Thus, following a discourse on the challenges and expectations in breath research, a brief indication is given of the analytical techniques currently used for the analysis of very humid exhaled breath...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623610/a-singular-role-of-ik1-promoting-the-development-of-cardiac-automaticity-during-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-by-ik1-induced-activation-of-pacemaker-current
#2
Yu Sun, Valeriy Timofeyev, Adrienne Dennis, Emre Bektik, Xiaoping Wan, Kenneth R Laurita, Isabelle Deschênes, Ronald A Li, Ji-Dong Fu
The inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) is generally thought to suppress cardiac automaticity by hyperpolarizing membrane potential (MP). We recently observed that IK1 could promote the spontaneously-firing automaticity induced by upregulation of pacemaker funny current (If) in adult ventricular cardiomyocytes (CMs). However, the intriguing ability of IK1 to activate If and thereby promote automaticity has not been explored. In this study, we combined mathematical and experimental assays and found that only IK1 and If, at a proper-ratio of densities, were sufficient to generate rhythmic MP-oscillations even in unexcitable cells (i...
June 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599084/on-the-importance-of-nonbonding-donor-acceptor-interactions-involving-po2-radical-an-ab-initio-study
#3
Antonio Frontera, Antonio Bauza
In this study several σ-type and π-hole bonding complexes between PO2· radical and electron rich entities have been optimized at the RI-MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory. We have used Cl-, Br-, I- anions, and ethene, ethyne, HCN, HF and H2O as Lewis Bases. In addition, we have performed NBO and Mulliken spin density analyses, highlighting the donor-acceptor nature of the interaction. Moreover, an interesting retro-donation from the single electron lone pair of the PO2· radical to the Lewis base also contributes to the stabilization of the complexes studied herein...
June 9, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580477/-11-c-cyanation-of-arylboronic-acids-in-aqueous-solutions
#4
Longle Ma, Michael S Placzek, Jacob M Hooker, Neil Vasdev, Steven H Liang
A copper-mediated (11)C-cyanation method employing arylboronic acids and [(11)C]HCN has been developed. This method was applied to the radiochemical synthesis of a wide range of aromatic (11)C-nitriles in aqueous solutions. The use of readily accessible arylboronic acids as precursors makes this method complementary to the well-established (11)C-cyanation methods that utilize aryl halide precursors.
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569901/rates-and-equilibrium-constants-of-the-ligand-induced-conformational-transition-of-an-hcn-ion-channel-protein-domain-determined-by-deer-spectroscopy
#5
Alberto Collauto, Hannah A DeBerg, Royi Kaufmann, William N Zagotta, Stefan Stoll, Daniella Goldfarb
Ligand binding can induce significant conformational changes in proteins. The mechanism of this process couples equilibria associated with the ligand binding event and the conformational change. Here we show that by combining the application of W-band double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy with microfluidic rapid freeze quench (μRFQ) it is possible to resolve these processes and obtain both equilibrium constants and reaction rates. We studied the conformational transition of the nitroxide labeled, isolated carboxy-terminal cyclic-nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) of the HCN2 ion channel upon binding of the ligand 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)...
June 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560710/hcn-channel-targets-for-novel-antidepressant-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Stacy M Ku, Ming-Hu Han
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic and potentially life threatening illness that carries a staggering global burden. Characterized by depressed mood, MDD is often difficult to diagnose and treat owing to heterogeneity of syndrome and complex etiology. Contemporary antidepressant treatments are based on improved monoamine-based formulations from serendipitous discoveries made > 60 years ago. Novel antidepressant treatments are necessary, as roughly half of patients using available antidepressants do not see long-term remission of depressive symptoms...
May 30, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535451/a-novel-carbohydrate-labeling-method-utilizing-transfer-hydrogenation-mediated-reductive-amination
#7
Zsuzsanna Kovács, Gábor Papp, Henrietta Horváth, Ferenc Joó, András Guttman
One of the most frequently used high-resolution glycan analysis methods in the biopharmaceutical and biomedical fields is capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection. Glycans are usually labeled by reductive amination with a charged fluorophore containing a primary amine, which reacts with the aldehyde group at the reducing end of the glycan structures. In this reaction, first a Schiff base is formed that is reduced to form a stable conjugate by a hydrogenation reagent, such as sodium cyanoborohydride...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525275/rh-catalyzed-anti-markovnikov-hydrocyanation-of-terminal-alkynes
#8
Fei Ye, Junting Chen, Tobias Ritter
We report the first highly stereo- and regioselective hydrocyanation of terminal alkynes to furnish E-configured alkenyl nitriles. Acrylonitriles can be accessed on gram scale with broad substrate scope and functional group tolerance. The hydrocyanation reaction employs acetone cyanohydrin as a practical alternative to HCN gas.
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524007/the-proinflammatory-cytokine-gitrl-contributes-to-trail-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-the-hcn-2-human-neuronal-cell-line
#9
Giulia Di Benedetto, Salvatore Saccone, Laurence Lempereur, Nicole Ronsisvalle, Giuseppe Nocentini, Rodolfo Bianchini, Carlo Riccardi, Renato Bernardini, Giuseppina Cantarella
Cytokines belonging to the TNF superfamily play a relevant role in neurodegenerative processes. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), released during neuronal injury, has proven to potently mediate and sustain neurotoxic processes leading to neuronal death. Similarly to TRAIL, the cytokine Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL) is able to transduce proapoptotic signals. In spite of the array of reports suggesting relationships between TRAIL and other cytokines, scanty data are, so far, available about a GITRL/TRAIL crosstalk...
May 18, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522878/the-photodissociation-of-hcn-and-hnc-effects-on-the-hnc-hcn-abundance-ratio-in-the-interstellar-medium
#10
Alfredo Aguado, Octavio Roncero, Alexandre Zanchet, Marcelino Agúndez, José Cernicharo
The impact of the photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers is analyzed in different astrophysical environments. For this purpose, the individual photodissociation cross section of HCN and HNC isomers have been calculated in the 7-13.6 eV photon energy range for a temperature of 10 K. These calculations are based on the ab initio calculation of three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 21 lower electronic states. The cross sections are then obtained using a quantum wave packet calculation of the rotational transitions needed to simulate a rotational temperature of 10 K...
March 20, 2017: Astrophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516303/erratum-to-theoretical-study-of-the-h-hcn-%C3%A2-h-hnc-process
#11
Eberth Correa, Washington Barbosa da Silva, Patricia R P Barreto, Alessandra F Albernaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489946/transformation-of-nitrogen-and-evolution-of-n-containing-species-during-algae-pyrolysis
#12
Wei Chen, Haiping Yang, Yingquan Chen, Mingwei Xia, Xu Chen, Hanping Chen
Transformation and evolution mechanisms of nitrogen during algae pyrolysis were investigated in depth with exploration of N-containing products under variant temperature. Results indicated nitrogen in algae is mainly in the form of protein-N (∼90%) with some inorganic-N. At 400-600 °C, protein-N in algae cracked first with algae pyrolysis and formed pyridinic-N, pyrrolic-N, and quaternary-N in char. The content of protein-N decreased significantly, while that of pyrrolic-N and quaternary-N increased gradually with temperature increasing...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475993/combustion-performance-of-biocrude-oil-from-solvolysis-liquefaction-of-chlorella-pyrenoidosa-by-thermogravimetry-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#13
Xiaowei Peng, Xiaoqian Ma, Yousheng Lin, Jingjing Wang, Xiaoyu Wei, Xinfei Chen
The kinetic behavior and evolution characteristics of gaseous products during the combustion of biocrude oil from solvolysis liquefaction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated by thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). The results indicated the biocrude oil obtained from different ethanol/water mixed ratio had obvious difference with each other. The ignition temperature of biocrude oil from ethanol-water co-solvent was lower than that from pure water solvent, which promoted the comprehensive combustion index...
August 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475227/re-evaluation-of-the-hydrogen-stable-isotopic-composition-of-keratin-calibration-standards-for-wildlife-and-forensic-science-applications
#14
David X Soto, Geoff Koehler, Leonard I Wassenaar, Keith A Hobson
RATIONALE: Determination of non-exchangeable hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ(2) H values) of bulk complex organic materials is difficult due to uncontrolled H isotope exchange between the organic material and ambient water vapor. A number of calibration keratinous materials with carefully measured hydrogen isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fraction were proposed to enable stable isotope laboratories to normalize their (2) H measurements. However, it was recently reported that high temperature carbon-reactor methods for measuring the hydrogen isotopic composition of nitrogenous organic materials is biased by the production of HCN in the reactor...
May 5, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471063/synthesis-of-layered-carbonitrides-from-biotic-molecules-for-photoredox-transformations
#15
Can Yang, Bo Wang, Linzhu Zhang, Ling Yin, Xinchen Wang
The construction of layered covalent carbon nitride polymers based on tri-s-triazine units has been achieved by using nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil) and urea to establish a two-dimensional semiconducting structure that allows band-gap engineering applications. This biomolecule-derived binary carbon nitride polymer enables the generation of energized charge carrier with light-irradiation to induce photoredox reactions for stable hydrogen production and heterogeneous organosynthesis of C-O, C-C, C-N and N-N bonds, which may enrich discussion on chemical reactions in prebiotic conditions by taking account of the photoredox function of conjugated carbonitride semiconductors that have long been considered to be stable HCN-derived organic macromolecules in space...
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469560/hcn-channel-modulation-of-synaptic-integration-in-gabaergic-interneurons-in-malformed-rat-neocortex
#16
Asher J Albertson, Andrew S Bohannon, John J Hablitz
Cortical malformations are often associated with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Alterations in hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, non-specific cation (HCN) channels have been shown to contribute to malformation associated hyperexcitability. We have recently demonstrated that expression of HCN channels and Ih current amplitudes are reduced in layer (L) 5 pyramidal neurons of rats with freeze lesion induced malformations. These changes were associated with an increased EPSP temporal summation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458102/ivabradine-attenuates-the-anticonvulsant-potency-of-lamotrigine-but-not-that-of-lacosamide-pregabalin-and-topiramate-in-the-tonic-clonic-seizure-model-in-mice
#17
Katarzyna M Sawicka, Katarzyna Załuska, Agnieszka Wawryniuk, Karolina Załuska-Patel, Michał Szczyrek, Bartłomiej Drop, Jadwiga Daniluk, Monika Szpringer, Dorota Żółkowska, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are involved not only in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability under physiological conditions, but also in seizure activity. To determine the influence of ivabradine (an HCN channel inhibitor) on the anticonvulsant potency of four novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: lacosamide, lamotrigine, pregabalin and topiramate) in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. Adult male albino Swiss mice were challenged with maximal electroconvulsions (electric current of 25mA delivered via auricular electrodes)...
July 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455536/cation-and-voltage-dependence-of-lidocaine-inhibition-of-the-hyperpolarization-activated-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-hcn1-channel
#18
Igor Putrenko, Raymond Yip, Stephan K W Schwarz, Eric A Accili
Lidocaine is known to inhibit the hyperpolarization-activated mixed cation current (Ih) in cardiac myocytes and neurons, as well in cells transfected with cloned Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. However, the molecular mechanism of Ih inhibition by this drug has been limitedly explored. Here, we show that inhibition of Ih by lidocaine, recorded from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the HCN1 channel, reached a steady state within one minute and was reversible. Lidocaine inhibition of Ih was greater at less negative voltages and smaller current amplitudes whereas the voltage-dependence of Ih activation was unchanged...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451881/theoretical-study-of-the-h-hcn-%C3%A2-h-hcn-process
#19
Eberth Correa, Washington Barbosa da Silva, Patricia R P Barreto, Alessandra F Albernaz
We present a theoretical study on the detailed mechanism and kinetics of the H + HCN → H + HNC process. The potential energy surface was calculated at the complete basis set quantum chemical method, CBS-QB3. The vibrational frequencies and geometries for four isomers (H 2CN, cis-HCNH, trans-HCNH, CNH 2), and seven saddle points (TSn where n = 1 - 7) are very important and must be considered during the process of formation of the HNC in the reaction were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G(2d,d,p) level, within CBS-QB3 method...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442714/mitigating-herding-in-hierarchical-crowdsourcing-networks
#20
Han Yu, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Victor R Lesser, Qiang Yang
Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
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