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Jong Yoon Yoo, Chang Ho Hwang, Hea Nam Hong
OBJECTIVE: To develop an in vitro model analogous to the environment of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), the authors evaluated change of astrogliosis following treatments with kainate and/or scratch, and degree of neurite outgrowth after treatment with a kainate inhibitor. METHODS: Astrocytes were obtained from the rat spinal cord. Then, 99% of the cells were confirmed to be GFAP-positive astrocytes. For chemical injury, the cells were treated with kainate at different concentrations (10, 50 or 100 µM)...
October 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Leonardo S de Araujo, Lea A I Vaas, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Robert Geffers, Fernanda C Q Mello, Alexandre S de Almeida, Adriana da S R Moreira, Afrânio L Kritski, José R Lapa E Silva, Milton O Moraes, Frank Pessler, Maria H F Saad
Lately, much effort has been made to find mRNA biomarkers for tuberculosis (TB) disease/infection with microarray-based approaches. In a pilot investigation, through RNA sequencing technology, we observed a prominent modulation of DOCK9, EPHA4, and NPC2 mRNA abundance in the blood of TB patients. To corroborate these findings, independent validations were performed in cohorts from different areas. Gene expression levels in blood were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (Brazil, n = 129) or reanalysis of public microarray data (UK: n = 96; South Africa: n = 51; Germany: n = 26; and UK/France: n = 63)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
D O Allina, Yu Yu Andreeva, L E Zavalishina, L V Moskvina, G A Frank
: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently detected malignancies in men. The gold standard for its diagnosis is morphological examination; at the same time the differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and benign conditions that are able to mimic the malignancies is tremendously difficult in a number of cases, this being so, the hyperdiagnosis rate of HGPIN requiring mandatory repeat biopsy is as high as 24%. The currently available differential diagnostic panel of antibodies is imperfect, which necessitates a search for novel markers...
2016: Arkhiv Patologii
Najet Serradj, John H Martin
Evidence suggests that motor experience plays a role in shaping development of the corticospinal system and voluntary motor control, which is a key motor function of the system. Here we used a mouse model with conditional forebrain deletion of the gene for EphA4 (Emx1-Cre:EphA4tm2Kldr), which regulates development of the laterality of corticospinal tract (CST). We combined study of Emx1-Cre:EphA4tm2Kldr with unilateral forelimb constraint during development to expand our understanding of experience-dependent CST development from both basic and translational perspectives...
2016: PloS One
Erika J Olson, Bernhard C Lechtenberg, Chunxia Zhao, Elena Rubio de la Torre, Ilaria Lamberto, Stefan J Riedl, Philip E Dawson, Elena B Pasquale
EphA4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase with a critical role in repulsive axon guidance and synaptic function. However, aberrant EphA4 activity can inhibit neural repair after injury and exacerbate neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's. We previously identified the cyclic peptide APY-d2 (APYCVYRβASWSC-nh2, containing a disulfide bond) as a potent and selective EphA4 antagonist. However, APY-d2 lacks sufficient plasma stability to be useful for EphA4 inhibition in vivo through peripheral administration...
September 8, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Priscila Guimarães de Marcondes, José Andrés Morgado-Díaz
Radiotherapy is widely used for advanced rectal tumors. However, refractory metastasis has become the major cause of therapy failure in rectal cancer patients. Understanding the molecular mechanism that controls the aggressive cellular response to this treatment is essential for developing new therapeutic applications and improving radiotherapy response in colorectal cancer patients. Using the progeny of cells that were submitted to irradiation, we have demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways as well as ERK1/2 downstream of EPHA4 receptor activation, play an important role in the regulation of events related with the EMT development, which may be associated with the therapeutic failure in rectal cancer after radiotherapy...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Benjamin Gaastra, Aleksey Shatunov, Sara Pulit, Ashley R Jones, William Sproviero, Alexandra Gillett, Zhongbo Chen, Janine Kirby, Isabella Fogh, John F Powell, P Nigel Leigh, Karen E Morrison, Pamela J Shaw, Christopher E Shaw, Leonard H van den Berg, Jan H Veldink, Cathryn M Lewis, Ammar Al-Chalabi
Our objective was to identify whether rare genetic variation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) candidate survival genes modifies ALS survival. Candidate genes were selected based on evidence for modifying ALS survival. Each tail of the extreme 1.5% of survival was selected from the UK MND DNA Bank and all samples available underwent whole genome sequencing. A replication set from the Netherlands was used for validation. Sequences of candidate survival genes were extracted and variants passing quality control with a minor allele frequency ≤0...
September 1, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Ayako Shiraki, Takeshi Tanaka, Yousuke Watanabe, Fumiyo Saito, Yumi Akahori, Nobuya Imatanaka, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
6-Propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism disrupts neuronal/glial development. This study sought to identify the sensitive immunohistochemical parameters of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) following PTU-exposure, as well as their responses in a 28-day toxicity study in adults. In the developmental exposure study, pregnant rats were treated with 0, 1, 3, and 10ppm PTU in drinking water from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 and pups were examined on PNDs 21 and 77. In the adult-stage exposure study, 5-week-old male rats were treated with 0, 0...
November 2, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Ghazal Efazat, Metka Novak, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Luigi De Petris, Lena Kanter, Therese Juntti, Per Bergman, Boris Zhivotovsky, Rolf Lewensohn, Petra Hååg, Kristina Viktorsson
Ephrin receptors (Ephs) are reported to control metastatic signaling of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other tumors. Here we show for the first time that blocking expression of the Eph ligand Ephrin B3 inhibits NSCLC cell migration and invasion. We demonstrate that Ephrin B3 directly binds the EphAs EphA2, EphA3, EphA4, and EphA5. EphA2 Ser897 was previously shown to drive migration propensity of tumor cells and our study reveals that EphA2 stays phosphorylated on Ser897 in the Ephrin B3/EphA2 complex in NSCLC cells of different histology...
August 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Tristan G Heintz, Richard Eva, James W Fawcett
Climbing fibres and parallel fibres compete for dendritic space on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Normally, climbing fibres populate the proximal dendrites, where they suppress the multiple small spines typical of parallel fibres, leading to their replacement by the few large spines that contact climbing fibres. Previous work has shown that ephrins acting via EphA4 are a signal for this change in spine type and density. We have used an in vitro culture model in which to investigate the ephrin effect on Purkinje cell dendritic spines and the role of integrins in these changes...
2016: PloS One
Qian Liu, Xu Gao, Shengshun Que, Xi Yang, Hongxia Fan, Min Liu, Xin Li, Hua Tang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can regulate gene expression at different levels and are widely participate in various physiological and pathological processes. Emerging evidences suggests that a number of differentially expressed lncRNAs are involved in tumorigenesis. However, the function and expression regulation of a vast majority of these unique RNAs is little known. Here, we found that the lncRNA Ras suppressor protein 1 pseudogene 2 (RSU1P2) is upregulateded in cervical cancer tissues and has a tumour-promoting role...
July 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Yuejun Sun, Jianzhong Qian, Min Lu, Hongming Xu
The expression of EphA4 has been well documented in the development of nerve and in certain types of human cancer. Few studies of EphA4, however, have focused on breast carcinoma. In this study, a set of breast carcinomas was subjected to immunohistochemical staining. In normal luminal cells, EphA4 was weakly detected in 11 (14.3 %), moderately detected in 15 (19.5 %) and highly detected in 51 out of 77 (66.2 %) samples, while in breast carcinoma cells, EphA4 was weakly detected in 42 (54.5 %), moderately detected in 19 (24...
September 2016: Pathology International
Benjamin Okyere, Kaavya Giridhar, Amanda Hazy, Miao Chen, David Keimig, Robert C Bielitz, Hehuang Xie, Jia-Qiang He, William R Huckle, Michelle H Theus
Leptomeningeal anastomoses play a critical role in regulating vascular re-perfusion following obstruction, however, the mechanisms regulating their development remains under investingation. Our current findings indicate that EphA4 receptor is a novel negative regulator of collaterogenesis. We demonstrate that EphA4 is highly expressed on pial arteriole collaterals at post-natal day (P) 1 and 7, then significantly reduced by P21. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific loss of EphA4, EphA4f/f/Tie2::Cre (KO), resulted in an increase in the density but not diameter of pial collaterals compared to WT mice...
2016: PloS One
Sonia Alonso-Martin, Anne Rochat, Despoina Mademtzoglou, Jessica Morais, Aurélien de Reyniès, Frédéric Auradé, Ted Hung-Tse Chang, Peter S Zammit, Frédéric Relaix
Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration require a population of muscle stem cells, the satellite cells, located in close contact to the myofiber. These cells are specified during fetal and early postnatal development in mice from a Pax3/7 population of embryonic progenitor cells. As little is known about the genetic control of their formation and maintenance, we performed a genome-wide chronological expression profile identifying the dynamic transcriptomic changes involved in establishment of muscle stem cells through life, and acquisition of muscle stem cell properties...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Siti W Mohd-Zin, Nor-Linda Abdullah, Aminah Abdullah, Nicholas D E Greene, Pike-See Cheah, King-Hwa Ling, Hadri Yusof, Ahmed I Marwan, Sarah M Williams, Kerri T York, Azlina Ahmad-Annuar, Noraishah M Abdul-Aziz
The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is involved in numerous cell-signalling activities during embryonic development. EphA4 has the ability to bind to both types of ephrin ligands, the ephrinAs and ephrinBs. The C57BL/6J-Epha4rb-2J/GrsrJ strain, denoted Epha4(rb-2J/rb-2J), is a spontaneous mouse mutant that arose at The Jackson Laboratory. These mutants exhibited a synchronous hind limb locomotion defect or "hopping gait" phenotype, which is also characteristic of EphA4 null mice. Genetic complementation experiments suggested that Epha4(rb-2J) corresponds to an allele of EphA4, but details of the genomic defect in this mouse mutant are currently unavailable...
July 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Christiane Peuckert, Bejan Aresh, Pavlo Holenya, Derek Adams, Smitha Sreedharan, Annika Porthin, Louise Andersson, Hanna Pettersson, Stefan Wölfl, Rüdiger Klein, Leif Oxburgh, Klas Kullander
A substantial portion of the human population is affected by urogenital birth defects resulting from a failure in ureter development. Although recent research suggests roles for several genes in facilitating the ureter/bladder connection, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Signaling via Eph receptor tyrosine kinases is involved in several developmental processes. Here we report that impaired Eph/Ephrin signaling in genetically modified mice results in severe hydronephrosis caused by defective ureteric bud induction, ureter maturation, and translocation...
August 2016: Kidney International
Ya-Chi Huang, Sue-Jane Lin, Kai-Min Lin, Ya-Ching Chou, Chung-Wu Lin, Shan-Chi Yu, Chi-Long Chen, Tang-Long Shen, Chi-Kuan Chen, Jean Lu, Mei-Ru Chen, Ching-Hwa Tsai
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic human virus, is associated with several lymphoproliferative disorders, including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). In vitro, EBV transforms primary B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Recently, several studies have shown that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play important roles in EBV-associated neoplasia. However, details of the involvement of RTKs in EBV-regulated B-cell neoplasia and malignancies remain largely unclear...
September 22, 2016: Blood
Priscila Guimarães de Marcondes, Lilian Gonçalves Bastos, Julio Cesar Madureira de-Freitas-Junior, Murilo Ramos Rocha, José Andrés Morgado-Díaz
Radiotherapy is widely used for advanced rectal tumors. However, tumor recurrence after this treatment tends to be more aggressive and is associated with a poor prognosis. Uncovering the molecular mechanism that controls this recurrence is essential for developing new therapeutic applications. In the present study, we demonstrated that radiation increases the EphA4 activation level of the survivor progeny of colorectal cancer cells submitted to this treatment and that such activation promoted the internalization of a complex E-cadherin-EphA4, inducing cell-cell adhesion disruption...
June 21, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Yufeng Wang, Zhikui Liu, Bowen Yao, Changwei Dou, Meng Xu, Yumo Xue, Linglong Ding, Yuli Jia, Hongyong Zhang, Qing Li, Kangsheng Tu, Yang Jiao, Qingguang Liu, Cheng Guo
Despite advances in the roles of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) tumor suppressor candidate 7 (TUSC7) in cancer biology, which has been identified as a tumor suppressor by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, cell cycle, and tumor growth, the function of TUSC7 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we observed that the expression of TUSC7 was immensely decreased in HCC. Clinically, the lower expression of TUSC7 predicted poorer survival and may be an independent risk factor for HCC patients...
August 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Stephanie E Boonk, Willem H Zoutman, Anne Marie-Cardine, Leslie van der Fits, Jacoba J Out-Luiting, Tracey J Mitchell, Isabella Tosi, Stephen L Morris, Blaithin Moriarty, Nina Booken, Moritz Felcht, Pietro Quaglino, Renata Ponti, Emanuela Barberio, Caroline Ram-Wolff, Kirsi Jäntti, Annamari Ranki, Maria Grazia Bernengo, Claus-Detlev Klemke, Armand Bensussan, Laurence Michel, Sean Whittaker, Martine Bagot, Cornelis P Tensen, Rein Willemze, Maarten H Vermeer
Differentiation between Sézary syndrome and erythrodermic inflammatory dermatoses can be challenging, and a number of studies have attempted to identify characteristic immunophenotypic changes and molecular biomarkers in Sézary cells that could be useful as additional diagnostic criteria. In this European multicenter study, the sensitivity and specificity of these immunophenotypic and recently proposed but unconfirmed molecular biomarkers in Sézary syndrome were investigated. Peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells from 59 patients with Sézary syndrome and 19 patients with erythrodermic inflammatory dermatoses were analyzed for cell surface proteins by flow cytometry and for copy number alterations and differential gene expression using custom-made quantitative PCR plates...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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