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Colorectal cancer chemoprevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782360/a-phase-ii-study-of-celecoxib-with-irinotecan-5-fluorouracil-and-leucovorin-in-patients-with-previously-untreated-advanced-or-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#1
Emerson Y Chen, Charles D Blanke, Daniel G Haller, Al B Benson, Tomislav Dragovich, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Carlos Robles, Hong Li, Motomi Mori, Nora Mattek, Rachel E Sanborn, Charles D Lopez
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression is associated with increased tumor invasiveness and proliferation in CRC, and COX-2 inhibition has demonstrated chemopreventive activity. This study investigated the addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, to the irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) regimen for patients with previously untreated metastatic CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients enrolled in this single-arm phase II study received celecoxib at 400 mg orally twice daily in combination with weekly irinotecan (125 mg/m), 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m), and leucovorin (20 mg/m) for 4 weeks every 6 weeks...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769213/chemopreventive-efficacy-of-the-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-inhibitor-celecoxib-is-predicted-by-adenoma-expression-of-cox-2-and-15-pgdh
#2
Jiping Wang, Nancy L Cho, Ann G Zauber, Meier Hsu, Dawn Dawson, Amitabh Srivastava, Kisha A Mitchell-Richards, Sanford D Markowitz, Monica M Bertagnolli
BACKGROUND: The APC trial showed that cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) inhibitor, celecoxib, decreased adenoma development in patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. A prospectively planned analysis of the APC trial tested the hypothesis that expression of target enzymes in adenomas removed before beginning study treatment would identify individuals at high risk of adenoma development, and/or predict response to Cox-2 inhibition. METHODS: Pre-treatment adenomas were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess expression of Cox-2 (high vs...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765532/chemopreventive-activity-of-celastrol-in-drug-resistant-human-colon-carcinoma-cell-cultures
#3
Helena Moreira, Anna Szyjka, Kazimierz Gąsiorowski
Celastrol (tripterine) a pentacyclic triterpenoid extracted from the roots of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., exhibits potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity and also exerts important anti-cancer effects, as induction of apoptosis and lowering the level of drug resistance of several cancers. Increased level of cellular resistance to cytostatic drugs is typical for colorectal cancers, and largely determines the failure of chemotherapy for this tumor. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of celastrol on cultures of colon cancer cells resistant to doxorubicin (LOVO/DX)...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761424/dietary-intake-of-total-polyphenol-and-polyphenol-classes-and-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-the-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-epic-cohort
#4
Raul Zamora-Ros, Valerie Cayssials, Mazda Jenab, Joseph A Rothwell, Veronika Fedirko, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Anne Tjønneland, Cecilie Kyrø, Kim Overvad, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Franck Carbonnel, Yahya Mahamat-Saleh, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Elissavet Valanou, Effie Vasilopoulou, Giovanna Masala, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Fulvio Ricceri, Elisabete Weiderpass, Marko Lukic, Torkjel M Sandanger, Cristina Lasheras, Antonio Agudo, Maria-Jose Sánchez, Pilar Amiano, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Emily Sonestedt, Bodil Ohlsson, Lena Maria Nilsson, Martin Rutegård, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H Peeters, Kay-Thee Khaw, Nicholas J Wareham, Kathryn Bradbury, Heinz Freisling, Isabelle Romieu, Amanda J Cross, Paolo Vineis, Augustin Scalbert
Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757351/m10-a-novel-derivative-of-myricetin-prevents-ulcerative-colitis-and-colorectal-tumor-through-attenuating-robust-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#5
Feng Wang, Zhi-Yu Song, Xian-Jun Qu, Feng Li, Liang Zhang, Wen-Bao Li, Shu-Xiang Cui
Chronic gut inflammation disposes to an increased risk of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Chemoprevention is an attractive complementary strategy. We aimed to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of M10, a novel derivative of Myricetin, in the murine azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model. Oral administration of M10 at 50-100 mg/kg once a day for consecutive 12 weeks significantly prevented ulcerative colitis and colorectal tumor. Pathological analysis of intestines showed that M10 reduced the degree of chronic inflammation and prevented the progression of colorectal tumorigenesis...
May 11, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756671/wasabi-6-methylsulfinyl-hexyl-isothiocyanate-induces-apoptosis-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-through-p53-independent-mitochondrial-dysfunction-pathway
#6
Satoshi Yano, Shusong Wu, Kozue Sakao, De-Xing Hou
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), a major bioactive compound in Wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsum.], has revealed the inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis in rat cancer model although the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53-/- ) to investigate the anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of 6-MSITC. Interestingly, 6-MSITC inhibited the cell proliferation in both types of cells with similar IC50 value although a light increase in the phosphorylation and accumulation of P53 protein was observed in HCT116 p53+/+ cells at 24 h after treatment...
May 14, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754265/resveratrol-analogue-e-n-2-4-methoxystyryl-phenyl-furan-2-carboxamide-induces-g-2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-through-the-activation-of-p53-p21-cip1-waf1-in-human-colorectal-hct116-cells
#7
Foo Kit Cheah, Kok Hoong Leong, Noel Francis Thomas, Hui Kee Chin, Azhar Ariffin, Khalijah Awang
Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenolic antioxidant, is a potential chemoprophylactic agent for various cancers, including colorectal cancer. Although emerging evidence continually suggests that a number of resveratrol derivatives may be better cancer chemopreventive candidates than resveratrol, studies on the mechanism of action of these derivatives are limited. This is the first study which investigates the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effect of a synthesized resveratrol analogue, (E)-N-(2-(4-methoxystyryl) phenyl) furan-2-carboxamide (CS) on colorectal cancer...
May 12, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744602/current-clinical-topics-of-lynch-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Kohji Tanakaya
Lynch syndrome (LS) is one of the most common genetic cancer syndromes, occurring at a rate of 1 per 250-1000 in the general population. This autosomal dominant disease is caused by a germline variant in one of the four mismatch repair genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2, or the EPCAM gene. LS develops at early ages in colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial cancer, and various other associated tumors. Accurate diagnosis of LS and utilization of various risk-reduction strategies such as surveillance, prophylactic surgery, and chemoprevention could improve clinical outcomes...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720901/updates-on-translational-research-on-prevention-of-polyps-and-colorectal-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Elena M Stoffel
Morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) can be effectively reduced through early detection and prevention. To date, strategies for managing CRC risk have focused primarily on secondary prevention, through screening asymptomatic individuals for colorectal neoplasia. In the United States, implementation of screening among individuals age ≥50 has led to not only decreased CRC-related mortality but also reduced CRC incidence through colonoscopic removal of precancerous polyps. In contrast to screening's endpoint of early detection, the goal of primary prevention of CRC is to arrest and/or reverse colorectal carcinogenesis...
May 2018: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716927/a-cohort-study-of-metformin-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-among-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Marie C Bradley, Assiamira Ferrara, Ninah Achacoso, Samantha F Ehrlich, Charles P Quesenberry, Laurel A Habel
Background: Several epidemiologic studies have reported strong inverse associations between metformin use and risk of colorectal cancer, although time-related biases, such as immortal time bias, may in part explain these findings. We reexamined this association using methods to minimize these biases. Methods: A cohort study was conducted among 47,351 members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California with diabetes and no history of cancer or metformin use. Follow-up for incident colorectal cancer occurred from January 1, 1997, until June 30, 2012...
May 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695380/association-between-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-colorectal-cancer-a-population-based-case-control-study
#11
Chun-Nan Kuo, Jen-Jung Pan, Ya-Wen Huang, Hui-Ju Tsai, Wei-Chiao Chang
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenes-2 overexpression may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) occurrence. Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce CRC recurrence, but the efficacy of primary prevention in Asian populations is still elusive. Thus, we examined the primary preventive efficacy of aspirin and NSAIDs on CRC incidence in Taiwan. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan...
April 25, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694938/short-chain-fatty-acids-administration-is-protective-in-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-development
#12
Yun Tian, Qing Xu, Liqun Sun, Ying Ye, Guozhong Ji
Reduced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis, and increased intake of dietary fiber has shown to be clinically beneficial for colitis. Whether SCFAs suppress tumorigenesis in colitis-associated colorectal cancer remains unknown. The chemopreventive effect of SCFAs in colitis-associated colorectal cancer was evaluated in this study. Model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer in male BALB/c mice was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693091/ginnalin-a-from-kujin-tea-acer-tataricum-subsp-ginnala-exhibits-a-colorectal-cancer-chemoprevention-effect-via-activation-of-the-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathway
#13
Wu Bi, Chun-Nian He, Xiao-Xiao Li, Liu-Ying Zhou, Rui-Jie Liu, Sai Zhang, Guo-Qing Li, Zhu-Chu Chen, Peng-Fei Zhang
Ginnalin A (also known as acertannin) is one of the most important phenolic compounds of several beverage Acer plants. In this study, it is reported for the first time that ginnalin A is an activator of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in human colon cancer cells. Ginnalin A, isolated from the leaves of Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala, exhibited promising preventive activity against colon cancer cells (HCT116, SW480 and SW620) with IC50 values of 24.8 μM, 22.0 μM and 39.7 μM, respectively. In addition, it significantly reduced the colony formation of these cells...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686976/microsatellite-instability-in-mouse-models-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
Nicola Currey, Joseph J Daniel, Dessislava N Mladenova, Jane E Dahlstrom, Maija R J Kohonen-Corish
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is caused by DNA mismatch repair deficiency and is an important prognostic and predictive biomarker in colorectal cancer but relatively few studies have exploited mouse models in the study of its clinical utility. Furthermore, most previous studies have looked at MSI in the small intestine rather than the colon of mismatch repair deficient Msh2 -knockout (KO) mice. Here we compared Msh2 -KO, p53 -KO, and wild type (WT) mice that were treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac or received no treatment...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675806/comparative-study-of-predominant-phytochemical-compounds-and-proapoptotic-potential-of-broccoli-sprouts-and-florets
#15
Paweł Paśko, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Agnieszka Galanty, Joanna Gdula-Argasińska, Paweł Żmudzki, Henryk Bartoń, Paweł Zagrodzki, Shela Gorinstein
The study compares lyophilized broccoli sprouts and florets in terms of their chemical composition, cytotoxic and proapoptotic potential against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, colorectal cancer SW480, and skin fibroblast BJ cells. Sinapic and isochlorogenic acids were predominant phenolics in the sprouts and florets, respectively. The amount of sulforaphane in the sprouts was significantly higher vs. florets. Oleic and linoleic acids dominated in the sprouts, while caproic, stearic and oleic acids in the florets...
April 19, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664536/-p-lynch-syndrome-is-a-major-cause-of-monogenetic-familial-colorectal-cancer-p
#16
Sophie Walton Bernstedt, Jan Björk, Ann-Sofie Backman, Miriam Mints, Erik Björck
Individuals with a history of colorectal or endometrial cancer younger than 50 years of age or with relatives younger than 50 years of age with a history of any of these malignances should be referred to clinical genetics for further diagnostic examinations and genetic counseling. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in mismatch repair genes and implicates an increased risk for colorectal cancer as well as endometrial cancer. Routine surveillance for this group of individuals regarding colorectal cancer by means of colonoscopy and endometrial cancer by means of transvaginal ultrasound as well as endometrial biopsies is recommended annually or biennially...
April 16, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617381/prevention-of-colonic-neoplasia-with-polyethylene-glycol-a-short-term-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blinded-trial
#17
Ramesh K Wali, Laura Bianchi, Sonia Kupfer, Mart De La Cruz, Borko Jovanovic, Christopher Weber, Michael J Goldberg, L M Rodriguez, Raymond Bergan, David Rubin, Mary Beth Tull, Ellen Richmond, Beth Parker, Seema Khan, Hemant K Roy
Chemoprevention represents an attractive modality against colorectal cancer (CRC) although widespread clinical implementation of promising agents (e.g. aspirin/NSAIDS) have been stymied by both suboptimal efficacy and concerns over toxicity. This highlights the need for better agents. Several groups, including our own, have reported that the over-the-counter laxative polyethylene glycol (PEG) has remarkable efficacy in rodent models of colon carcinogenesis. In this study, we undertook the first randomized human trial to address the role of PEG in prevention of human colonic neoplasia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617306/development-of-colorectal-targeted-dietary-supplement-tablets-containing-natural-purple-rice-bran-oil-as-a-colorectal-chemopreventive
#18
Busaban Sirithunyalug, Chalermpong Saenjum, Suporn Charumanee, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Jakkapan Sirithunyalug, Pratchaya Tipduangta
Colorectal cancer occurs due to various factors. The important risks are dietary lifestyle and inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. It has been found that the inhibitory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the colorectal region can potentially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study investigated rice bran oil from natural purple rice bran, which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactive compound content of natural purple rice bran oil (NPRBO) derived from native Thai purple rice and the anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO in colorectal cancer cells, and to develop a colorectal delivery platform in the form of film-coated tablets...
April 4, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616131/chemoprevention-with-phosphatidylcholine-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#19
Lenard M Lichtenberger, Tri Phan, Dexing Fang, Elizabeth J Dial
The chemopreventive activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, has been well demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the primary side effect from this class of drug is gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which has limited the widespread use of NSAIDs for the prevention of cancer. The development of GI-safer NSAIDs, which are associated with phosphatidylcholine (PC) may provide a solution to this therapeutic problem. In the present study, the efficacy of two NSAIDs, aspirin and indomethacin, were compared using murine colon cancer cell line MC-26...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607498/1-l-mt-an-ido-inhibitor-prevented-colitis-associated-cancer-by-inducing-cdc20-inhibition-mediated-mitotic-death-of-colon-cancer-cells
#20
Xiuting Liu, Wei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Yang Ding, Qianming Du, Rong Hu
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), known as IDO, catabolizes tryptophan through kynurenine pathway, whose activity is correlated with impaired clinical outcome of colorectal cancer. Here we showed that 1-L-MT, a canonical IDO inhibitor, suppressed proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells through inducing mitotic death. Our results showed that inhibition of IDO decreased the transcription of CDC20, which resulted in G2/M cycle arrest of HCT-116 and HT-29. Furthermore, 1-L-MT induced mitochondria injuries and caused apoptotic cancer cells...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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