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Colorectal cancer chemoprevention

Hilal Gungor, Nevin Ilhan, Hatice Eroksuz
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment of CRCs are of importance for improving the survival. In the present study, we studied the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced chemopreventive effects on tumor development incidence and angiogenesis in experimental CRC rats. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) was used as cancer-inducing agent and two NSAIDs (celecoxib and diclofenac) were given orally as chemopreventive agents...
March 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Gwang Hun Park, Hun Min Song, Su Bin Park, Ho-Jun Son, Yurry Um, Hyun-Seok Kim, Jin Boo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Because twigs of Cinnamomum cassia (TC) have been reported to exert anti-cancer activity, the mechanistic study for TC's anti-cancer activity is required. Thus, we elucidated the potential molecular mechanism of TC's anti-proliferative effect and the induction of apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: How water extracts form TC (TC-HW) was used in this study. Anti-cell proliferative effect of TC-HW was evaluated by MTT assay. The change of protein or mRNA level by TC-HW was evaluated by Western blot and RT-RCR, respectively...
January 25, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yuyi Wang, Chi Du, Nan Zhang, Mei Li, Yanyang Liu, Maoyuan Zhao, Feng Wang, Feng Luo
Previous studies have demonstrated that aspirin serves an important role in chemoprevention and the suppression of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the underlying mechanisms for this inhibition by aspirin remain unclear. Aspirin is capable of promoting apoptosis through prostaglandin-dependent orprostaglandin-independent signaling pathways. In the prostaglandin-dependent pathways, inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), particularly COX-2, is the primary mechanism known to be involved in aspirin-induced CRC suppression...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Xiaohong Ruby Xu, George M Yousef, Heyu Ni
Platelets have long been recognized as key players in hemostasis and thrombosis; however, growing evidence suggests that they are also significantly involved in cancer, the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that tumorigenesis and metastasis can be promoted by platelets through a wide variety of crosstalk between platelets and cancer cells. For example, cancer changes platelet behavior by directly inducing tumor-platelet aggregates, triggering platelet granule and extracellular vesicle release, altering platelet phenotype and platelet RNA profiles, and enhancing thrombopoiesis...
March 8, 2018: Blood
Seth D Crockett, Elizabeth L Barry, Leila A Mott, Dennis J Ahnen, Douglas J Robertson, Joseph C Anderson, Kristen Wallace, Carol A Burke, Robert S Bresalier, Jane C Figueiredo, Dale C Snover, John A Baron
OBJECTIVE: Serrated lesions such as sessile serrated adenomas or polyps (SSA/Ps) are important colorectal cancer precursors, but aetiological factors for these lesions are largely unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of serrated polyps (SPs) in general and hyperplastic polyps and SSA/Ps specifically. DESIGN: Participants with one or more adenoma at baseline were randomised to receive 1200 mg/day of elemental calcium, 1000 IU/day of vitamin D3 , both or neither agent...
March 1, 2018: Gut
Yun Yang, Y Nancy You
Lynch syndrome (LS) arises from germline mutations that lead to defective functioning of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. It is the most common cause of inherited colorectal cancer (CRC), and predisposes individuals to significantly elevated risks for extracolonic cancers. A sensitive and accurate diagnostic approach will enable proactive management of the proband and at-risk relatives in order to minimize their cancer burden. Comprehensive clinical genetics care should include personalized and tailored multidisciplinary oncologic care, with consideration for the extent of surgical resection, the choice of systemic agents, and the use of radiation...
February 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Chun-Wai Mai, Yew-Beng Kang, Vishna Devi Nadarajah, Ahmad Sazali Hamzah, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika
In this study, a series of 20 structurally similar vanilloids (Vn) were tested for their antiproliferative effects against 12 human cancer cells: human breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), cervical (HeLa), ovarian (Caov-3), lung (A549), liver (HepG2), colorectal (HT-29 and HCT116), nasopharyngeal (CNE-1 and HK-1), and leukemic (K562 and CEM-SS) cancer cells. Among all the tested vanilloids, Vn16 (6-shogaol) exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effects against human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29). The apoptotic induction effects exhibited by Vn16 on HT-29 cells were confirmed using dual staining fluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 21, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Shusuke Toden, Preethi Ravindranathan, Jinghua Gu, Jacob Cardenas, Madelaine Yuchang, Ajay Goel
Proanthocyanidins are a heterogeneous group of flavan-3-ol or flavan-3,4-diol oligomers present in various fruits and vegetables. In particular, the smaller oligomeric subset of proanthocyanidins, termed the oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) appear to have potent anti-tumorigenic properties, but the underlying mechanisms for their effectiveness remain unclear. Herein, we utilized a series of in vitro, in vivo and patient-derived organoid approaches to systematically investigate the chemoprotective role of OPCs in colorectal cancer...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sharada H Sharma, Jayasurya Suresh Kumar, David Raj Chellappan, Sangeetha Nagarajan
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. The development of effective, inexpensive and safe chemopreventive agents would be of great benefit as it involves use of natural products to prevent or suppress the progression of precursor lesions. Morin a flavonoid found in figs (Ficus carica) and other plants is shown to inhibit 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer progression in a short term and long term model of colon cancer rats; however, the molecular target for the colon cancer chemoprotective efficacy of morin is yet to be discovered...
February 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hirota Fujiki, Tatsuro Watanabe, Eisaburo Sueoka, Anchalee Rawangkan, Masami Suganuma
Cancer preventive activities of green tea and its main constituent, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been extensively studied by scientists all over the world. Since 1983, we have studied the cancer chemopreventive effects of EGCG as well as green tea extract and underlying molecular mechanisms. The first part of this review summarizes groundbreaking topics with EGCG and green tea extract: 1) Delayed cancer onset as revealed by a 10-year prospective cohort study, 2) Prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence by a double-blind randomized clinical phase II trial, 3) Inhibition of metastasis of B16 melanoma cells to the lungs of mice, 4) Increase in the average value of Young's moduli, i...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Harsh Sheth, Emma Northwood, Cornelia M Ulrich, Dominique Scherer, Faye Elliott, Jennifer H Barrett, David Forman, C Roland Wolf, Gillian Smith, Michael S Jackson, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Robert Haile, Graham Casey, Mark Jenkins, Aung Ko Win, John L Hopper, Loic Le Marchand, Noralane M Lindor, Stephen N Thibodeau, John D Potter, John Burn, D Timothy Bishop
Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Variation in aspirin's chemoprevention efficacy has been attributed to the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a meta-analysis using two large population-based case-control datasets, the UK-Leeds Colorectal Cancer Study Group and the NIH-Colon Cancer Family Registry, having a combined total of 3325 cases and 2262 controls. The aim was to assess 42 candidate SNPs in 15 genes whose association with colorectal cancer risk was putatively modified by aspirin use, in the literature...
2018: PloS One
Aysel Ahadova, Richard Gallon, Johannes Gebert, Alexej Ballhausen, Volker Endris, Martina Kirchner, Albrecht Stenzinger, John Burn, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, Hendrik Bläker, Matthias Kloor
Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR deficiency has long been regarded as a secondary event in the pathogenesis of Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. Recently, this concept has been challenged by the discovery of MMR-deficient crypt foci in the normal mucosa. We aimed to reconstruct colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome by collecting molecular and histology evidence from Lynch syndrome adenomas and carcinomas. We determined the frequency of MMR deficiency in adenomas from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers by immunohistochemistry and by systematic literature analysis...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Roberto Benelli, Roberta Venè, Nicoletta Ferrari
A plentiful literature has linked colorectal cancer (CRC) to inflammation and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS)2 expression. Accordingly, several nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been tested often successfully in CRC chemoprevention despite their different ability to specifically target PTGS2 and the low or null expression of PTGS2 in early colon adenomas. Some observational studies showed an increased survival for patients with CRC assuming NSAIDs after diagnosis, but no clinical trial has yet demonstrated the efficacy of NSAIDs against established CRC, where PTGS2 is expressed at high levels...
February 2, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Nicole LoGiudice, Linh Le, Irene Abuan, Yvette Leizorek, Sigrid C Roberts
The fluorinated ornithine analog α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, eflornithine, ornidyl) is an irreversible suicide inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. The ubiquitous and essential polyamines have many functions, but are primarily important for rapidly proliferating cells. Thus, ODC is potentially a drug target for any disease state where rapid growth is a key process leading to pathology. The compound was originally discovered as an anticancer drug, but its effectiveness was disappointing...
February 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Adriana Albini, Marco Gallo
Notwithstanding massive efforts and investment in improving cancer therapy, the limited progress made in reducing overall mortality has mostly been achieved through early diagnosis. Mortality rates for cardiovascular disease are in decline, a success attributable in large part to an active prevention approach coupled with identification of risk factors and biomarkers. Promising natural and synthetic molecules including numerous flavonoids have the potential to be used in diabetes care and in prevention of cardiovascular pathologies...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Mo Zhou, Jinkai Zheng, Jinfeng Bi, Xinye Wu, Jian Lyu, Kun Gao
Atorvastatin (ATST), a drug commonly used to reduce the levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, is a prospective agent for the prevention of colorectal cancer in patients with hyperlipidemia. ATST in combination with functional components is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, the growth inhibitory effect of ATST combined with phloretin (PT) on SW620 and HCT116 colon cancer cells was investigated. The results of MTT assays indicated that the combination of PT and ATST markedly reduced cell survival in both cell lines compared with PT or ATST treatment administered individually...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Gemma Ibáñez-Sanz, Anna Díez-Villanueva, Laura Vilorio-Marqués, Esther Gracia, Nuria Aragonés, Rocío Olmedo-Requena, Javier Llorca, Juana Vidán, Pilar Amiano, Pilar Nos, Guillermo Fernández-Tardón, Ricardo Rada, María Dolores Chirlaque, Elisabet Guinó, Verónica Dávila-Batista, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Benito Mirón-Pozo, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Jaione Etxeberria, Amaia Molinuevo, Begoña Álvarez-Cuenllas, Manolis Kogevinas, Marina Pollán, Victor Moreno
A safe and effective colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention agent remains to be discovered. We aim to evaluate the association between the use of glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulphate and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the MCC-Spain study, a case-control study performed in Spain that included 2140 cases of CRC and 3950 population controls. Subjects were interviewed on sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, family and medical history and regular drug use. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marjan Mansourian, Raheleh Karimi, Golnaz Vaseghi
Metformin and insulin differently affect the risk of colon cancer in type 2 diabetic patients, however their effects on colon adenoma is not clear. PubMed, ISI, Scopus and Cochrane databases were searched for studies reporting. The outcomes were total adenoma; advanced adenoma and recurrent adenoma. Traditional and Bayesian meta-analysis were conducted via random-effects models. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) / or credible intervals (CrI) were used to describe the ratio of different events...
2018: EXCLI Journal
Zhehui Zhu, Zubing Mei, Yuegui Guo, Guanghui Wang, Tingyu Wu, Ximao Cui, Zhenyu Huang, Yilian Zhu, Dongpeng Wen, Jinlve Song, Hailan He, Weimin Xu, Long Cui, Chenying Liu
Background & Aims: The association between thiopurines and colorectal neoplasia risk remains controversial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis examining this association. Methods: A comprehensive search of the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases was performed to identify relevant literature. Random-effects models were applied to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among case-control and cohort studies, respectively...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Lili Chen, Bowen Jiang, Chunge Zhong, Jun Guo, Lihao Zhang, Teng Mu, Qiuhua Zhang, Xiuli Bi
Freeze-dried black raspberry powder is considered as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. In this study, we fed AOM/DSS treated C57BL/6J mice with diet containing black raspberry anthocyanins for 12 weeks and this led to a reduction in colon carcinogenesis. These animals had consistently lower tumor multiplicity compared to AOM/DSS-treated mice not receiving BRB anthocyanins. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, the number of pathogenic bacteria, including Desulfovibriosp and Enterococcus spp, were increased significantly, whereas probiotics such as Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were dramatically decreased, but BRB anthocyanins supplement could reverse this imbalance in gut microbiota...
January 19, 2018: Carcinogenesis
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