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Colorectal cancer chemoprevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095263/chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Adam C Ehrlich, Shyam Patel, Andrew Mellier, Robin D Rothstein, Frank K Friedenberg
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at an increased risk of colorectal cancer when compared to the general population. Chronic inflammation is thought to be the underlying cause, and medications that reduce inflammation have the potential to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Areas covered: After conducting a PubMed search for relevant literature, we examined several classes of medications that have been studied as potential chemopreventive agents. These include 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, tumor necrosis factor antagonists, ursodeoxycholic acid, NSAIDs, and statins...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094560/systemic-metabolite-changes-in-wild-type-c57bl-6-mice-fed-black-raspberries
#2
Pan Pan, Chad W Skaer, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Michael A Kreiser, Steven M Stirdivant, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Matthew R Young, Li-Shu Wang
INTRODUCTION: Freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) elicit chemopreventive effects against colorectal cancer in humans and in rodents. The objective of this study was to investigate potential BRB-caused metabolite changes using wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: WT mice were fed either control diet or control diet supplemented with 5% BRBs for 8 wk. A nontargeted metabolomic analysis was conducted on colonic mucosa, liver, and fecal specimens collected from both diet groups...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089842/curbing-tumorigenesis-and-malignant-progression-through-the-pharmacological-control-of-the-wound-healing-process
#3
REVIEW
Melania Dovizio, Angela Sacco, Paola Patrignani
The prevention of cancer development and its progression is an urgent unmet medical need. Novel knowledge on the biology of cancer has evidenced that genetic changes occurring within cancer cells contribute, but are not sufficient, for tumor promotion and progression. The results of clinical studies and experimental animal models have suggested pursuing new avenues for the prevention of cancer development in the early stages, by using drugs that modulate platelet responses and those interfering with the synthesis and action of the mediators of inflammation...
January 12, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087343/calcium-remodeling-in-colorectal-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Carlos Villalobos, Diego Sobradillo, Miriam Hernández-Morales, Lucía Núñez
: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent form of cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Basic and clinical data indicate that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may prevent colon cancer but mechanisms remain unknown. Aspirin metabolite salicylate and other NSAIDs may inhibit tumor cell growth acting on store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), suggesting an important role for this pathway in CRC. Consistently, SOCE is emerging as a novel player in different forms of cancer, including CRC...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067282/gastroprotective-6-gingerol-aspirinate-as-a-novel-chemopreventive-prodrug-of-aspirin-for-colon-cancer
#5
Yingdong Zhu, Fang Wang, Yantao Zhao, Pei Wang, Shengmin Sang
A growing body of research suggests daily low-dose aspirin (ASA) reduces heart diseases and colorectal cancers. However, the major limitation to the use of aspirin is its side effect to cause ulceration and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Preclinical studies have shown that ginger constituents ameliorate ASA-induced gastric ulceration. We here report the design and synthesis of a novel prodrug of aspirin, [6]-gingerol aspirinate (GAS). Our data show that GAS exerts enhanced anti-cancer properties in vitro and superior gastroprotective effects in mice...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028358/thiopurines-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-current-evidence-and-a-historical-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Jordan E Axelrad, Abhik Roy, Garrett Lawlor, Burton Korelitz, Simon Lichtiger
The use of thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been examined in numerous prospective, controlled trials, with a majority demonstrating a clinical benefit. We conducted this review to describe the historical and current evidence in the use of thiopurines in IBD. A systematic search was performed on MEDLINE between 1965 and 2016 to identify studies on thiopurines in IBD. The most robust evidence for thiopurines in IBD includes induction of remission in combination with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents, and maintenance of remission and post-operative maintenance in Crohn's disease...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998883/unlocking-aspirin-s-chemopreventive-activity-role-of-irreversibly-inhibiting-platelet-cyclooxygenase-1
#7
Lenard M Lichtenberger, Dexing Fang, Roger J Bick, Brain J Poindexter, Tri Phan, Angela L Bergeron, Subhashree Pradhan, Elizabeth J Dial, K Vinod Vijayan
The mechanism by which aspirin consumption is linked to significant reductions in the incidence of multiple forms of cancer and metastatic spread to distant tissues, resulting in increased cancer patient survival is not well understood. In this study, using colon cancer as an example, we provide both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (chemically-induced mouse model of colon cancer) evidence that this profound anti-neoplastic action may be associated with aspirin's ability to irreversibly inhibit COX-1 mediated platelet activation, thereby blocking platelet-cancer cell interactions, which promote cancer cell number and invasive potential...
December 20, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995656/the-effects-of-aminosalicylates-or-thiopurines-on-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
F Carrat, P Seksik, J-F Colombel, L Peyrin-Biroulet, L Beaugerie
BACKGROUND: Whether aminosalicylates or thiopurines reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in inflammatory bowel (IBD) disease is controversial. AIM: To assess simultaneously the chemopreventive effect of aminosalicylates or thiopurines in a case-control study nested in the CESAME observational cohort that enrolled consecutive patients with IBD between May 2004 and June 2005. Patients were followed up to December 2007. METHODS: Study population comprised 144 case patients who developed CRC from the diagnosis of IBD (65 and 79 cases diagnosed, respectively, before and from 2004, starting year of the prospective observational period of CESAME) and 286 controls matched for gender, age, IBD subtype and year of diagnosis, and cumulative extent of colitis...
December 19, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990589/approach-to-lynch-syndrome-for-the-gastroenterologist
#9
REVIEW
Quan M Bui, David Lin, Wendy Ho
Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant hereditary cancer syndrome. Mutations in mismatch repair genes, including MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, are implicated in the pathogenesis of the syndrome through microsatellite instability (MSI) and a rapid adenoma-carcinoma sequence. The primary methodologies for diagnosis include clinical criteria (Amsterdam I/II, Revised Bethesda Guidelines), computational models, and genetic testing (MSI, immunohistochemistry, germline testing). Universal genetic testing of colorectal cancers has gained popularity as a method to identify high-risk individuals and to offer appropriate cancer surveillance, psychological reassurance, and family planning...
December 18, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989839/cilostazol-and-enzymatically-modified-isoquercitrin-attenuate-experimental-colitis-and-colon-cancer-in-mice-by-inhibiting-cell-proliferation-and-inflammation
#10
Yumi Kangawa, Toshinori Yoshida, Kiyoshi Maruyama, Minako Okamoto, Tohru Kihara, Michi Nakamura, Masako Ochiai, Yoshitaka Hippo, Shim-Mo Hayashi, Makoto Shibutani
We previously reported the anti-inflammatory effects of cilostazol, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3, and two antioxidants, enzymatically modified isoquercitrin and α-lipoic acid in a dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis mouse model. We further examined the chemopreventive effects of these substances in a murine azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate -induced colorectal carcinoma model and compared the effects with those of the well-known anticancer natural plant pigment, anthocyanin. In addition, the effects on cell proliferation activity were evaluated in colon cancer cell lines and mucosal epithelial cells in a model of acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis...
December 15, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957845/chemopreventive-potential-of-powdered-red-wine-pomace-seasonings-against-colorectal-cancer-in-ht-29-cells
#11
Raquel Del Pino-García, María D Rivero-Pérez, María L González-SanJosé, Miriam Ortega-Heras, Javier García Lomillo, Pilar Muñiz
This study evaluates the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic actions of powdered red wine pomace seasonings (Sk-S, seedless; W-S, whole; Sd-S, seeds). In vitro gastrointestinal digested and colonic fermented fractions of the seasonings were used as cell treatments. Phenolic acids from Sk-S showed the highest bioaccessibility in the small intestine, whereas polyphenols contained in Sd-S might be the most fermentable in the colon. Dietary fiber from Sk-S was the best substrate for short chain fatty acids production by gut microbiota...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919915/chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer-in-individuals-with-previous-colorectal-neoplasia-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#12
Parambir S Dulai, Siddharth Singh, Evelyn Marquez, Rohan Khera, Larry J Prokop, Paul J Limburg, Samir Gupta, Mohammad Hassan Murad
OBJECTIVE:  To assess the comparative efficacy and safety of candidate agents (low and high dose aspirin, non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), calcium, vitamin D, folic acid, alone or in combination) for prevention of advanced metachronous neoplasia (that is, occurring at different times after resection of initial neoplasia) in individuals with previous colorectal neoplasia, through a systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:  Medline, Embase, Web of Science, from inception to 15 October 2015; clinical trial registries...
December 5, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906680/chemopreventive-effects-of-5-aminosalicylic-acid-on-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-colorectal-cancer-and-dysplasia-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#13
Xinyun Qiu, Jingjing Ma, Kai Wang, Hongjie Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The chemopreventive effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been widely studied; however, the results remain conflicting. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature and update evidence concerning effects of 5-ASA on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and dysplasia (Dys) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). RESULTS: 5-ASA showed a chemopreventive effect against CRC/Dys in IBD patients (OR = 0...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902968/selenite-inhibits-glutamine-metabolism-and-induces-apoptosis-by-regulating-gls1-protein-degradation-via-apc-c-cdh1-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#14
Junzhang Zhao, Rui Zhou, Kaiyuan Hui, Yang Yang, QiuYue Zhang, Yali Ci, Lei Shi, Caimin Xu, Fang Huang, Yu Hu
Glutaminolysis is important for metabolism and biosynthesis of cancer cells, and GLS is essential in the process. Selenite is widely regarded as a chemopreventive agent against cancer risk. Emerging evidence suggests that it also has chemotherapeutic potential in various cancer types, but the mechanism remains elusive. We demonstrate for the first time that supranutritional dose of selenite suppresses glutaminolysis by promoting GLS1 protein degradation and apoptosis. Mechanistically, selenite promotes association of APC/C-CDH1 with GLS1 and leads to GLS1 degradation by ubiquitination, this process is related to induction of PTEN expression...
25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866157/loss-of-free-fatty-acid-receptor-2-enhances-colonic-adenoma-development-and-reduces-the-chemopreventive-effects-of-black-raspberries-in-apcmin-mice
#15
Pan Pan, Chad W Skaer, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Martha M Yearsley, Kimberle A Agle, William R Drobyski, Xiao Chen, Li-Shu Wang
We previously showed that black raspberries (BRBs) have beneficial effects in human colorectal cancer and a mouse model of colorectal cancer (Apc(Min/+)). The current study investigated the role of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) in colon carcinogenesis and whether the FFAR2 signaling pathway contributes to BRB-mediated chemoprevention in mice. FFAR2 (also named GPR43) is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family that is expressed in leukocytes and colon. Apc(Min/+) and Apc(Min/+)-FFAR2(-/-) mice were given a control diet or the control diet supplemented with 5% BRBs for 8 weeks...
January 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865352/plum-polyphenols-inhibit-colorectal-aberrant-crypt-foci-formation-in-rats-potential-role-of-the-mir-143-protein-kinase-b-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-axis
#16
Nivedita Banerjee, Hyemee Kim, Stephen T Talcott, Nancy D Turner, David H Byrne, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott
The nutritional prevention of aberrant crypt foci by polyphenols may be a crucial step to dietary cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties of plum (Prunus salicina L.) polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid, in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. The hypothesis was that plum polyphenolics suppress AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci formation through alterations in the protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and relative micro-RNA expressions...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823732/cancer-chemoprevention-by-dietary-phytochemicals-epidemiological-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Raúl Baena Ruiz, Pedro Salinas Hernández
BACKGROUND: In recent years, natural compounds called "phytochemicals", which are present in fruits, vegetables, and plants, have received special attention due to their potential to interfere with tumour formation and development. Many of these phytochemicals are being used in chemoprevention strategies. However, the scientific evidence regarding the modification of cancer risk continues to be debated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific evidence and the most relevant epidemiological studies regarding the consumption or use of phytochemicals and their effects on the incidence of cancer...
December 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798442/the-genetics-and-molecular-biology-of-colonic-neoplasia-practical-implications-for-the-clinician
#18
Sanjib Chowdhury, Hemant K Roy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the large investment of resources from screening, the fact that colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer deaths among Americans underscores the need for alternative strategies. Thus, a major clinical and research imperative is personalize clinical care, while focusing on risk stratification for screening, surveillance, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention. RECENT FINDINGS: A complicating factor that colorectal cancer is biologically heterogeneous for at least four consensus molecular subtypes presents clear challenges for developing robust molecular biomarkers...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789660/does-aspirin-use-reduce-the-risk-for-cancer
#19
Usman Iqbal, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Wen-Shan Jian, Yun Yen, Yu-Chuan Jack Li
Recently, studies have reported that aspirin has chemopreventive properties. In this study, we used the Taiwan NHI database, which covers a population of 23 million (99.99%) Taiwanese from 2001 to 2011. This was a case-control study which identified 601,733 patients using ICD-9-CM codes who were diagnosed with cancer. Each case with 4 eligible controls was matched for age, sex, and index date and adjusted for confounding factors. The observed overall cancer risk (adjusted OR (AOR), 0.95; 95% CI 0.94 to 0.96) reduced with aspirin use, specifically, colorectal (AOR, 0...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689688/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-increase-navy-bean-or-rice-bran-consumption-in-colorectal-cancer-survivors
#20
Erica C Borresen, Dustin G Brown, Greg Harbison, Lynn Taylor, Amanda Fairbanks, Joanne O'Malia, Marlon Bazan, Sangeeta Rao, Susan M Bailey, Melissa Wdowik, Tiffany L Weir, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Consumption of navy beans (NB) and rice bran (RB) have been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis. Given the overall poor diet quality in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and low reported intake of whole grains and legumes, practical strategies to increase consumption merit attention. This study determined feasibility of increasing NB or RB intake in CRC survivors to increase dietary fiber and examined serum inflammatory biomarkers and telomere lengths. Twenty-nine subjects completed a randomized controlled trial with foods that included cooked NB powder (35 g/day), heat-stabilized RB (30 g/day), or no additional ingredient...
November 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
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