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Colorectal cancer chemoprevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301746/cyclic-gmp-elevating-agents-suppress-polyposis-in-apc-min-mice-by-targeting-the-preneoplastic-epithelium
#1
Sarah K Sharman, Bianca N Islam, Yali Hou, Nagendra Singh, Franklin G Berger, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Wonsuk Yoo, Darren D Browning
The cGMP signaling axis has been implicated in the suppression of intestinal cancers but the inhibitory mechanism and the extent to which this pathway can be targeted remains poorly understood. The present study has tested the effect of cGMP-elevating agents on tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal cancer. Treatment of ApcMin/+ mice with the receptor guanylyl-cyclase C (GCC) agonist linaclotide, or the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil, significantly reduced the number of polyps per mouse (67% and 50% respectively)...
January 4, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298515/vitex-rotundifolia-fruit-suppresses-the-proliferation-of-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-through-down-regulation-of-cyclin-d1-and-cdk4-via-proteasomal-dependent-degradation-and-transcriptional-inhibition
#2
Hun Min Song, Gwang Hun Park, Su Bin Park, Hyun-Seok Kim, Ho-Jun Son, Yurry Um, Jin Boo Jeong
Viticis Fructus (VF) as the dried fruit from Vitex rotundifolia L. used as a traditional medicine for treating inflammation, headache, migraine, chronic bronchitis, eye pain, and gastrointestinal infections has been reported to have antiproliferative effects against various cancer cells, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which VF mediates the inhibitory effect of the proliferation of cancer cells have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of VF on the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 level associated with cancer cell proliferation...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278636/immunohystochemical-expression-of-vitamin-d-receptor-in-development-stages-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#3
Nikica Šutalo, Snježana Tomić, Milenko Bevanda, Vedran Dragišić, Inga Marijanović, Joško Petričević, Ivanka Mikulić
BACKGROUND: Chemo preventive and antitumor role of vitamin D is manifested through genetic and non genetic ways with a powerful antproliferatory and proapopoptic effect, which is proven by numerous epidemiologic studies. The genetic activity of vitamin D is determined through vitamin D receptors (VDR), a member of stero-thyreoidal family of nuclear receptors, which with vitamin D form a cell nucleus complex responsible for the chemo preventive and antitumor effect. VDR in tissue cells is present in the cytoplasm and the nucleus and manifests its genetic activity after transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275305/inhibition-of-formation-of-azoxymethane-induced-colonic-aberrant-crypt-foci-in-rats-by-edible-green-algae-capsosiphon-fulvescens-and-brown-algae-hizikia-fusiforme
#4
Young-Sook Son, H M Arif Ullah, Ahmed K Elfadl, Soong-Gu Ghim, Myung-Jin Chung, Yong Deuk Kim, Eun-Joo Lee, Kyung-Ku Kang, Kyu-Shik Jeong
Capsosiphon fulvescens (green seaweed) and Hizikia fusiforme (brown seaweed) are marine algae consumed as food supplements, especially in Japan, China and Korea, and are considered traditional medicinal tonics for certain ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. F344 male rats (5 weeks, 150 g) were divided into six groups as follows. Group 1: Injected with normal saline solution and fed control diet (untreated control)...
January 2018: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259703/prostaglandin-e2-ep2-signaling-as-a-node-of-chronic-inflammation-in-the-colon-tumor-microenvironment
#5
REVIEW
Tomohiro Aoki, Shuh Narumiya
Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer. Involvement of prostaglandin (PG) system in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer has been suggested from clinical studies demonstrating therapeutic effect of NSAIDs including aspirin or selective COX-2 inhibitors. However, mechanisms on how PG regulates inflammatory responses leading to colorectal cancer development remain obscure. Further, careful attention is needed to use these drugs for a long time because of adverse effects due to non-specific inhibition of physiological PG production in addition to pathological one, making the development of alternatives to aspirin important...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241109/pharmacokinetic-studies-of-naproxen-amides-of-some-amino-acid-esters-with-promising-colorectal-cancer-chemopreventive-activity
#6
Tarek Aboul-Fadl, Soliman S Al-Hamad, Ehab A Fouad
Naproxen (nap) is belonging to Non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) group of drugs that characterized by their free carboxylic group. The therapeutic activity of nap is usually accompanied by GI untoward side effects. Recently synthesized naproxen amides of some amino acid esters prodrugs to mask the free carboxylic group were reported. Those prodrugs showed a promising colorectal cancer chemopreventive activity. The current study aims to investigate the fate and hydrolysis of the prodrugs kinetically in different pH conditions, simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with pHs of 1...
December 2, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238715/chemopreventive-potential-of-2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-on-the-formation-of-aberrant-crypt-foci-in-azoxymethane-induced-colorectal-cancer-in-rats
#7
Chien-Liang Lin, Jiiang-Huei Jeng, Chih-Chung Wu, Shu-Ling Hsieh, Guan-Cheng Huang, Wan Leung, Chining-Ting Lee, Chung-Yi Chen, Chien-Hsing Lee
2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) has been shown to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidative and inflammatory reactions are related to the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In the present study, we characterized the preventive activities of THSG on colon carcinogenesis using the azoxymethane- (AOM-) mediated rat colon carcinogenesis model. F344 male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (untreated and AOM model rats treated with or without THSG at 30, 150, or 250 mg/kg) after which the numbers of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were assessed in the colon tissues of all rats...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235923/oncogenic-braf-mutation-induces-dna-methylation-changes-in-a-murine-model-for-human-serrated-colorectal-neoplasia
#8
Catherine E Bond, Cheng Liu, Futoshi Kawamata, Diane M McKeone, Winnie Fernando, Saara Jamieson, Sally-Ann Pearson, Alexandra Kane, Susan L Woods, Tamsin R M Lannagan, Roshini Somashekar, Young Lee, Troy Dumenil, Gunter Hartel, Kevin J Spring, Jennifer Borowsky, Lochlan Fennell, Mark Bettington, Jason Lee, Daniel L Worthley, Barbara A Leggett, Vicki L J Whitehall
Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death and approximately 20% arises within serrated polyps, which are under-recognized and poorly understood. Human serrated colorectal polyps frequently exhibit both oncogenic BRAF mutation and widespread DNA methylation changes, which are important in silencing genes restraining neoplastic progression. Here, we investigated whether in vivo induction of mutant Braf is sufficient to result in coordinated promoter methylation changes for multiple cancer-related genes...
December 13, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228651/dietary-feeding-of-freeze-dried-whole-cranberry-inhibits-intestinal-tumor-development-in-apcmin-mice
#9
Duochen Jin, Tianyu Liu, Wenxiao Dong, Yujie Zhang, Sinan Wang, Runxiang Xie, Bangmao Wang, Hailong Cao
It is increasingly perceived that dietary components have been linked with the prevention of intestinal cancer. Cranberry is a rich source of phenolic constituents and non-digestible fermentable dietary fiber, which shows anti-proliferation effect in colorectal cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the efficacy of long-term cranberry diet on intestinal adenoma formation in Apcmin/+ mice. Apcmin/+ mice were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 20% (w/w) freeze-dried whole cranberry powder for 12 weeks, and the number and size of tumors were recorded after sacrifice...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206907/a-novel-bioactive-derivative-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-suppresses-intestinal-tumor-development-in-apc%C3%AE-14-mice
#10
Masako Nakanishi, Matthew P Hanley, Ruochen Zha, Yuichi Igarashi, Mark A Hull, Gary Mathias, Frank Sciavolino, James J Grady, Daniel W Rosenberg
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of hundreds of polyps throughout the colon. Without prophylactic colectomy, most individuals with FAP develop colorectal cancer at an early age. Treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the free fatty acid form (EPA-FFA) has been shown to reduce polyp burden in FAP patients. Since high-purity EPA-FFA is subject to rapid oxidation, a stable form of EPA compound has been developed in the form of magnesium l-lysinate bis-eicosapentaenoate (TP-252)...
December 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199082/dact2-an-epigenetic-stimulator-exerts-dual-efficacy-for-colorectal-cancer-prevention-and-treatment
#11
Linlin Lu, Ying Wang, Rilan Ou, Qian Feng, Liyan Ji, Hongming Zheng, Yue Guo, Xiaoxiao Qi, Ah-Ng Tony Kong, Zhongqiu Liu
DACT2, a tumor suppressor gene in various tumors, is frequently down-regulated via hypermethylation. We found DACT2 gene expressions were dramatically silenced (P=0.002, n=8) in our clinical colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, and TCGA data revealed DACT2 hypermethylation correlated to CRC poor prognosis (P=0.0129, HR=0.2153, n=248). Thus, by screening twelve nutritional compounds, we aim to find out an effective DACT2 epigenetic stimulator to determine whether DACT2 epigenetic restoration could reverse CRC tumorigenesis...
November 30, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197069/polymethoxyflavones-prevent-benzo-a-pyrene-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colorectal-carcinogenesis-through-modulating-xenobiotic-metabolism-and-ameliorate-autophagic-defect-in-icr-mice
#12
Jia-Ching Wu, Mei-Ling Tsai, Ching-Shu Lai, Chih-Yu Lo, Chi-Tang Ho, Ying-Jan Wang, Min-Hsiung Pan
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental carcinogenic pollutants and they have become an important issue in food contamination. Dietary intake of PAHs has been recognized as a major route of human exposure. However, the mechanisms behind dietary PAH-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Several studies have shown that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are effective in preventing carcinogen-induced CRC or colitis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of PMFs on benzo[a]pyrene/dextran sulfate sodium (BaP/DSS)-induced colorectal tumorigenesis in ICR mice...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168653/utilizing-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer-an-interview-with-ajay-goel
#13
Ajay Goel
Ajay Goel, PhD, is a Professor and Director, Center for Gastrointestinal Research, and Director, Center for Translational Genomics and Oncology, at the Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. Dr Goel has spent more than 20 years researching cancer and has been the lead author or contributor to over 240 scientific articles published in peer-reviewed international journals and several book chapters. He is also a primary inventor on more than 15 international patents aimed at developing various biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of gastrointestinal cancers...
November 23, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162930/chemopreventive-effects-of-ku-jin-tea-against-aom-induced-precancerous-colorectal-lesions-in-rats-and-metabolomic-analysis
#14
Wu Bi, Haibo Liu, Jie Shen, Ling-Hua Zhang, Pei Li, Bing Peng, Li Cao, Pengfei Zhang, Chunnian He, Peigen Xiao
Ku-jin tea (KJT) is a health beverage prepared from the leaves of the plant Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala that has been consumed in some regions of China for thousands of years. KJT contains high levels of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative compounds such as ginnalins, but little is known about the chemopreventive effect of KJT on colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of KJT on colon carcinogenesis using the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced precancerous colorectal lesion model in rats...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144773/cancer-chemopreventive-antiproliferative-and-superoxide-anion-scavenging-properties-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-var-boulardii-cell-wall-components
#15
Olivier Fortin, Blanca Aguilar-Uscanga, Khanh Dang Vu, Stephane Salmieri, Monique Lacroix
This study investigated the cancer chemopreventive, the antiradical, and the antiproliferative properties of polysaccharides extracts from cell wall of Saccharomyces boulardii and Kluyveromyces marxianus. β-glucan, mannan, and chitin were also quantified to identify the most important extract responsible for these biological properties. Soluble and insoluble glucans as well as mannoprotein were extracted from cell wall using single hot-alkaline method. Superoxide anion scavenging (antiradical capacity), NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) (EC 1...
November 16, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136951/chemopreventive-effect-of-myricetin-a-natural-occurring-compound-on-colonic-chronic-inflammation-and-inflammation-driven-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#16
Mei-Jia Zhang, Han Su, Jing-Yue Yan, Na Li, Zhi-Yu Song, Huai-Jie Wang, Lian-Guang Huo, Feng Wang, Wan-Sheng Ji, Xian-Jun Qu, Mei-Hua Qu
Myricetin is a flavonoids compound extracted from edible myrica rubra. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Myricetin on colonic chronic inflammation and inflammation-driven tumorigenesis in mice. Myricetin was administrated by gavage for 4 consecutive weeks. Mice were sacrificed and the number of colonic polyps was counted. Myricetin significantly inhibited AOM/DSS-induced colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis. Myricetin prevented the incidence of colorectal tumorigenesis and reduced the size of colorectal polyps...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111351/chemoprevention-with-isothiocyanates-from-bench-to-bedside
#17
Carsten Gründemann, Roman Huber
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are naturally occurring hydrolization products from glucosinolates (GLSs) in brassicaceae and in epidemiological studies their intake has been weakly to moderately inversely correlated with the risk of colorectal cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. Numerous preclinical studies demonstrate chemopreventive mode of actions of ITCs, mainly related to a.) detoxification (induction of phase II enzymes), b.) anti-inflammatory properties by down-regulation of NFkappaB activity, c.) cyclin-mediated cell cycle arrest and d...
October 27, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075787/salicylic-acid-metabolites-and-derivatives-inhibit-cdk-activity-novel-insights-into-aspirin-s-chemopreventive-effects-against-colorectal-cancer
#18
Rakesh Dachineni, D Ramesh Kumar, Eduardo Callegari, Siddharth S Kesharwani, Ranjini Sankaranarayanan, Teresa Seefeldt, Hemachand Tummala, G Jayarama Bhat
Aspirin's potential as a drug continues to be evaluated for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple targets for aspirin and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been identified, no unifying mechanism has been proposed to clearly explain its chemopreventive effects. Our goal here was to investigate the ability of salicylic acid metabolites, known to be generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and its derivatives as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors to gain new insights into aspirin's chemopreventive actions...
December 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072082/chemoprevention-of-polyp-recurrence-with-curcumin-followed-by-silibinin-in-a-case-of-multiple-colorectal-adenomas
#19
Vicente Alfonso-Moreno, Antonio López-Serrano, Eduardo Moreno-Osset
Chemoprevention is a practical approach to reduce the risk of various cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). The goal is to reduce the incidence of pre-neoplastic adenomatous polyps and prevent its progression to CRC. Curcumin and silibinin prevent intestinal polyp formation in mice. Curcumin sensitizes silymarin to exert synergistic anticancer activity in colon cancer cells. Patients presenting with multiple colorectal adenomatous polyps (MCRA) have a high lifetime risk for CRC. We present a 57-year-old man with MCRA, without deleterious germline APC or MYH mutations...
October 23, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069290/potent-suppression-of-both-spontaneous-and-carcinogen-induced-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-in-mice-by-dietary-celastrol-supplementation
#20
Emily C Barker, Byung-Gyu Kim, Ji Hee Yoon, Gregory P Tochtrop, John J Letterio, Sung Hee Choi
Celastrol is an anti-inflammatory natural triterpenoid, isolated from the herb Tripterygium wilfordii or thunder god vine. Here we define mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory activity of celastrol and demonstrate efficacy of a dietary celastrol supplement for chemoprevention of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis in mice. Dietary celastrol (31.25 ppm in rodent diet from 8 weeks to 25 weeks of age) is well tolerated and protects against LPS-induced acute inflammation in C57BL/6 mice, potently suppressing LPS-induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, Interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β...
October 21, 2017: Carcinogenesis
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