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Colorectal cancer chemoprevention

Erica C Borresen, Dustin G Brown, Greg Harbison, Lynn Taylor, Amanda Fairbanks, Joanne O'Malia, Marlon Bazan, Sangeeta Rao, Susan M Bailey, Melissa Wdowik, Tiffany L Weir, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Consumption of navy beans (NB) and rice bran (RB) have been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis. Given the overall poor diet quality in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and low reported intake of whole grains and legumes, practical strategies to increase consumption merit attention. This study determined feasibility of increasing NB or RB intake in CRC survivors to increase dietary fiber and examined serum inflammatory biomarkers and telomere lengths. Twenty-nine subjects completed a randomized controlled trial with foods that included cooked NB powder (35 g/day), heat-stabilized RB (30 g/day), or no additional ingredient...
September 30, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Amanda M Pattison, Dante J Merlino, Erik S Blomain, Scott A Waldman
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. While improved treatments have enhanced overall patient outcome, disease burden encompassing quality of life, cost of care, and patient survival has seen little benefit. Consequently, additional advances in CRC treatments remain important, with an emphasis on preventative measures. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a transmembrane receptor expressed on intestinal epithelial cells, plays an important role in orchestrating intestinal homeostatic mechanisms...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hans-Christian Pommergaard, Jakob Burcharth, Jacob Rosenberg, Hans Raskov
PURPOSE: Evidence supports an association between certain colorectal adenoma characteristics and predisposition to cancer. The association between anatomical location of colorectal adenoma, age and advanced adenomas needs attention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible association between occurrence of sporadic advanced adenomas with location and age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using baseline data from index colonoscopy from a randomized controlled trial evaluating chemopreventive treatment against recurrence of colorectal adenomas was performed...
August 16, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Gwang Hun Park, Ji Ho Sung, Hun Min Song, Jin Boo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Psoralea Fructus (PF), the dried and ripe fruit of Psoralea corylifolia exhibits an anti-cancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PF inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells have not been elucidated in detail. Cyclin D1 and CDK4 are important regulatory proteins in cell growth and are overexpressed in many cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of PF on the downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 level. METHODS: Cell growth was evaluated by MTT assay...
September 26, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Winnie K W So, Bernard M H Law, Patrick T W Law, Carmen W H Chan, Sek Ying Chair
Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. The development of effective chemopreventive strategies to reduce CRC incidence is therefore of paramount importance. Over the past decade, research has indicated the potential of rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling, in CRC chemoprevention. This was recently suggested to be partly attributable to modification in the composition of intestinal microbiota when rice bran was ingested. Indeed, previous studies have reported changes in the population size of certain bacterial species, or microbial dysbiosis, in the intestines of CRC patients and animal models...
2016: Nutrients
Alireza Milani, Marzieh Basirnejad, Sepideh Shahbazi, Azam Bolhassani
Carotenoids and retinoids have several similarities in biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumor growth, and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can influence cell growth regulation, and modulate gene expression and immune response. Epidemiologic studies have shown the correlation of high carotenoid intake from food sources with reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular or eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves some approaches including gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), growth factor signaling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, Wnt/β-Catenin pathway, and inflammatory cytokines...
September 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Katarzyna Lubelska, Katarzyna Wiktorska, Lidia Mielczarek, Małgorzata Milczarek, Ilona Zbroińska-Bregisz, Zdzisław Chilmonczyk
Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring chemopreventive and anticancer agent, is a nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) inducer. Nrf2 plays a critical role in coordinating the cell defense system by initiating the transcription of cytoprotective genes, including detoxification enzymes such as NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and transport proteins such as ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (CFTR/MRP). Recently, the essential role of Nrf2 in tumor development and progression and in the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells has been highlighted...
September 16, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Teng-Fei Yin, Min Wang, Ying Qing, Ying-Min Lin, Dong Wu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a type of cancer with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide and has become a global health problem. The conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimen for CRC not only has a low cure rate but also causes side effects. Many studies have shown that adequate intake of fruits and vegetables in the diet may have a protective effect on CRC occurrence, possibly due to the special biological protective effect of the phytochemicals in these foods. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that phytochemicals play strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer roles by regulating specific signaling pathways and molecular markers to inhibit the occurrence and development of CRC...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Bernardina Scafuri, Anna Marabotti, Virginia Carbone, Paola Minasi, Serena Dotolo, Angelo Facchiano
We investigated the potential role of apple phenolic compounds in human pathologies by integrating chemical characterization of phenolic compounds in three apple varieties, computational approaches to identify potential protein targets of the compounds, bioinformatics analyses on data from public archive of gene expression data, and functional analyses to hypothesize the effects of the selected compounds in molecular pathways. Starting by the analytic characterization of phenolic compounds in three apple varieties, i...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rosaria Acquaviva, Valeria Sorrenti, Rosa Santangelo, Venera Cardile, Barbara Tomasello, Giuseppe Malfa, Luca Vanella, Andrea Amodeo, Carlo Genovese, Silvana Mastrojeni, Michela Pugliese, Monica Ragusa, Claudia Di Giacomo
Cancers of the digestive tract, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC), are among those most responsive to dietary modification. Research has shown that approximately 75% of all sporadic cases of CRC are directly influenced by diet. Many natural compounds have been investigated for their potential usefulness as cancer chemopreventive agents as they have been thought to suppress carcinogenesis mainly during the initiation phase due to their radical scavenger activity. Since there is an increasing interest in the in vivo protective effects of natural compounds contained in plants against oxidative damage involved in several human diseases such as cancer, the aim of the present research was to test the effects of a Celtis aetnensis (Tornab...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
Sajesh K Veettil, Surasak Saokaew, Kean Ghee Lim, Siew Mooi Ching, Pochamana Phisalprapa, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and is associated with substantial socioeconomic burden. Despite considerable research, including numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews assessed the effect of various chemopreventive interventions for CRC, there remains uncertainty regarding the comparative effectiveness of these agents. No network meta-analytic study has been published to evaluate the efficacies of these agents for CRC...
August 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Paola Patrignani, Carlo Patrono
The place of aspirin in primary prevention remains controversial, with North American and European organizations issuing contradictory treatment guidelines. More recently, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended "initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer in adults aged 50 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least 10 years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least 10 years...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Weston A Welge, Jennifer K Barton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second deadliest cancer in the United States. Several screening methods exist; however, detection of small polyps remains a challenge. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting lesions as small as 1 mm in the mouse colon, but detection is based on measuring a doubling of the mucosa thickness. The colon microvasculature may be an attractive biomarker of early tumor development because tumor vessels are characterized by irregular structure and dysfunction...
August 22, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Maria Vittoria Sepporta, Raffaela Fuccelli, Patrizia Rosignoli, Giovanni Ricci, Maurizio Servili, Roberto Fabiani
Previous studies have shown that the precursor of olive oil secoiridoids, Oleuropein (OL) has several in vitro chemopreventive properties. OL inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast, thyroid, prostate, and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Much less is known about the effects of OL on animal models of carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the ability of OL to prevent the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer upset and DNA damage in mice. Animals, fed with a basal diet either enriched or not with OL (125 mg/kg), were injected with AOM (10 mg/kg, once a week for 6 weeks) and sacrificed after either 7 weeks for histological analysis of colon crypt dysplasia and evaluation of DNA damage in leukocytes or 17 weeks for counting the macroscopically observable colon tumors...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Tzu-Tang Wei, Yi-Ting Lin, Ruo-Yu Tseng, Chia-Tung Shun, Yu-Chin Lin, Ming-Shiang Wu, Jim-Min Fang, Ching-Chow Chen
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer is a worldwide cancer with rising annual incidence. Inflammation is a well-known cause of colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. Metabolic inflammation (metaflammation) and altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) have contributed to colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is an important strategy to reduce cancer-related mortality. Recently, various polypharmacologic molecules that dually inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC) and other therapeutic targets have been developed...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Latifah Saiful Yazan, Muhamad Firdaus Shyfiq Muhamad Zali, Razana Mohd Ali, Nurul Amira Zainal, Nurulaidah Esa, Sarah Sapuan, Yong Sze Ong, Yin Sim Tor, Banulata Gopalsamy, Fui Ling Voon, Sharifah Sakinah Syed Alwi
Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Colon cancer has been a major problem worldwide. Kelulut honey (KH) is produced by the stingless bees from Trigona species and has strong antioxidant activities that could be one of the potential chemopreventive agents from natural resources. Aim of This Study. This study investigated the chemopreventive properties and toxicity of KH in Sprague Dawley rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Material and Method. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 5 weeks were divided into 4 groups: (G1) untreated group not induced with AOM, (G2) untreated group induced with AOM, (G3) treated group induced with AOM, and (G4) treated group not induced with AOM...
2016: BioMed Research International
Sareeya Reungpatthanaphong, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Sasithorn Sirilun, Prasit Suwannalert
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, with chronic inflammation and diet as major causes in its development. Chemopreventive effects of natural dietary products have been the focus of studies for prevention over the past decade. This study was conducted to determine the effects of unpolished Thai rice during precancerous stage through the involvement of ?catenin, cyclooxygenase2 (COX2) expression and inflammatory cytokines focusing on azoxymethane (AOM)induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF)related to CRC...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Abdrabuh N Shwter, Nor Azizan Abdullah, Mohammed A Alshawsh, Hesham R El-Seedi, Nawal A Al-Henhena, Shaden A M Khalifa, Mahmood A Abdulla
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Natural products are important ingredients for pharmaceutical applications specifically new entities for treating cancer and other diseases. Phaleria macrocarpa is native of Indonesia and considered as a prolific source of bioactive substances useful for chemoprevention. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the chemopreventive properties of Phaleria macrocarpa on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. METHODS: The biological activities of the ethanol extract of P...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Tahir Rasool Qamar, Fatima Syed, Muhammad Nasir, Habib Rehman, Muhammad Nauman Zahid, Rui Hai Liu, Sanaullah Iqbal
The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model...
2016: Nutrients
Komal Raina, Sushil Kumar, Deepanshi Dhar, Rajesh Agarwal
Globally, the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as the incidence of mortality associated with CRC is increasing. Thus, it is imperative that we look at alternative approaches involving intake of non-toxic natural dietary/non-dietary agents, for the prevention of CRC. The ultimate goal of this approach is to reduce the incidence of pre-neoplastic adenomatous polyps and prevent their progression to more advanced forms of CRC, and use these natural agents as a safe intervention strategy during the clinical course of this deadly malignancy...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
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