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Colorectal cancer chemoprevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895923/st-producing-e-coli-oppose-carcinogen-induced-colorectal-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#1
Peng Li, Jieru E Lin, Adam E Snook, Scott A Waldman
There is a geographic inequality in the incidence of colorectal cancer, lowest in developing countries, and greatest in developed countries. This disparity suggests an environmental contribution to cancer resistance in endemic populations. Enterotoxigenic bacteria associated with diarrheal disease are prevalent in developing countries, including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) producing heat-stable enterotoxins (STs). STs are peptides that are structurally homologous to paracrine hormones that regulate the intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) receptor...
September 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881340/additional-benefits-of-routine-drugs-on-gastrointestinal-cancer-statins-metformin-and-proton-pump-inhibitors
#2
Moon Kyung Joo, Jong-Jae Park, Hoon Jai Chun
BACKGROUND: Commonly used medications including statins, metformin, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively reduce the risk of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer (CRC). SUMMARY: A number of observational studies and meta-analyses have shown that long-term statin use significantly reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Moreover, statin use after GI cancer diagnosis has been significantly associated with better prognosis in large-scale cohort studies...
September 8, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878032/effect-of-aspirin-on-tumour-cell-colony-formation-and-evolution
#3
Dominik Wodarz, Ajay Goel, C Richard Boland, Natalia L Komarova
Aspirin is known to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In a previous study, we quantified the in vitro growth kinetics of different CRC tumour cell lines treated with varying doses of aspirin, measuring the rate of cell division and cell death. Here, we use these measured parameters to calculate the chances of successful clonal expansion and to determine the evolutionary potential of the tumour cell lines in the presence and absence of aspirin...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870200/anticancer-activity-of-calyx-of-diospyros-kaki-thunb-through-downregulation-of-cyclin-d1-via-inducing-proteasomal-degradation-and-transcriptional-inhibition-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#4
Su Bin Park, Gwang Hun Park, Hun Min Song, Ho-Jun Son, Yurry Um, Hyun-Seok Kim, Jin Boo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Although it has been reported to contain high polyphenols, the pharmacological studies of the calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb (DKC) have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of DKC against human colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: Anti-cell proliferative effect of 70% ethanol extracts from the calyx of Diospyros kaki (DKC-E70) was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of DKC-E70 on the expression of cyclin D1 in the protein and mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively...
September 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861089/black-raspberries-enhance-natural-killer-cell-infiltration-into-the-colon-and-suppress-the-progression-of-colorectal-cancer
#5
Pan Pan, Siwen Kang, Youwei Wang, Ka Liu, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianying Zhang, Martha Yearsley, Jianhua Yu, Li-Shu Wang
Natural killer (NK) cells are an essential component of innate immunity against cancer development. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate immune-modulating effects using dietary compounds. Our laboratory has been investigating the chemopreventive potential of black raspberries (BRBs) and previously demonstrated their beneficial modulation of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The current study investigated their potential on modulating NK cells. To avoid the excessive inflammation caused by the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment that leads to colitis, we treated the mice with overnight DSS so that it would slightly irritate the colon but still promote colon carcinogenesis with 100% incidence in both the Apc(Min/+) mice and azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825609/the-role-of-micrornas-in-the-chemopreventive-activity-of-sulforaphane-from-cruciferous-vegetables
#6
REVIEW
Christopher Dacosta, Yongping Bao
Colorectal cancer is an increasingly significant cause of mortality whose risk is linked to diet and inversely correlated with cruciferous vegetable consumption. This is likely to be partly attributable to the isothiocyanates derived from eating these vegetables, such as sulforaphane, which is extensively characterised for cytoprotective and tumour-suppressing activities. However, its bioactivities are likely to extend in complexity beyond those currently known; further insight into these bioactivities could aid the development of sulforaphane-based chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic strategies...
August 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815730/loss-of-bmi-1-dampens-migration-and-emt-of-colorectal-cancer-in-inflammatory-microenvironment-through-tlr4-md-2-myd88-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#7
Kai Ye, Qi-Wei Chen, Ya-Feng Sun, Jian-An Lin, Jian-Hua Xu
Increasing evidence from various clinical and experimental studies has demonstrated that the inflammatory microenvironment created by immune cells facilitates tumor migration. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the progression of cancer invasion and metastasis in an inflammatory microenvironment. B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region 1 (BMI-1) acts as an oncogene in various tumors. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 have an effect on EMT and invasiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of BMI-1 on inflammation-induced tumor migration and EMT and the underlying mechanism...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808878/role-of-intestinal-microbiome-in-american-ginseng-mediated-colon-cancer-protection-in-high-fat-diet-fed-aom-dss-mice
#8
C-Z Wang, W-H Huang, C-F Zhang, J-Y Wan, Y Wang, C Yu, S Williams, T-C He, W Du, M W Musch, E B Chang, C-S Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Chronic intestinal inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and development. Diets that are rich in Western style fats have been shown to promote CRC. This study was conducted to investigate the role of intestinal microbiome in American ginseng-mediated CRC chemoprevention in a mouse model. The population and diversity of enteric microbiome were evaluated after the ginseng treatment. METHODS: Using an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced gut inflammation and tumorigenesis mouse model, the effects of oral American ginseng on high fat diet-associated enteric pathology were determined...
August 14, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808213/the-interaction-between-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-cascade-and-pkg-activation-in-cancer
#9
Kevin Lee, Gary A Piazza
The activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade has been well studied and documented in colorectal cancer (CRC). The long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been shown to reduce the incidence and risk of death from CRC in numerous epidemiological studies. The NSAID sulindac has also been reported to cause regression of precancerous adenomas in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis who are at high risk of developing CRC. The mechanism responsible for cancer chemopreventive activity of NSAIDs is not well understood but may be unrelated to their cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799785/anthocyanins-anthocyanidins-and-colorectal-cancer-what-is-behind-the-scenes
#10
Luís Fernando de Sousa Moraes, Xiaofei Sun, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Mei-Jun Zhu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cause of cancer death. Phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins/anthocyanidins (A/A), have gathered attention of the scientific community owing to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cancer-inhibitory properties. In this review, we discussed the possible mechanisms whereby A/A exhibit intestinal anticarcinogenic characteristics. Anthocyanins/anthocyanidins inhibit the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway, attenuate Wnt signaling and suppress abnormal epithelial cell proliferation...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772225/an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-quantitation-of-chemopreventive-sphingadienes-in-food-products-and-biological-samples
#11
J H Suh, A M Makarova, J M Gomez, L A Paul, J D Saba
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality. Diet has a significant influence on colon cancer risk. Identifying chemopreventive agents, dietary constituents, practices and/or diet supplements that promote gut health and reduce the incidence of intestinal neoplasias and CRC could significantly impact public health. Sphingadienes (SDs) are dietary sphingolipids found in plant-based food products. SDs are cytotoxic to colon cancer cells and exhibit chemopreventive properties. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and robust ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for quantifying SDs in food products and biological samples...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770178/chemopreventive-and-chemotherapeutic-effects-of-fish-oil-derived-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-colon-carcinogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Ja Young Lee, Tae-Bu Sim, Jeong-Eun Lee, Hye-Kyung Na
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between consumption of dietary fat and colon cancer risk. Not only the amount but also the type and the ratio of fatty acids comprising dietary fats consumed have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of colon cancer. Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been known to inhibit development of colon cancer by downregulating the expression of genes involved in colon carcinogenesis and also by altering the membrane lipid composition...
July 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751806/a-marine-bio-functional-lipid-fucoxanthinol-attenuates-human-colorectal-cancer-stem-like-cell-tumorigenicity-and-sphere-formation
#13
Masaru Terasaki, Hayato Maeda, Kazuo Miyashita, Takuji Tanaka, Shingo Miyamoto, Michihiro Mutoh
Fucoxanthinol (FuOH), an intestinal metabolite form of fucoxanthin (Fx) isolated from marine algae, is known to possess multiple health benefits, such as prevention of human cancer. However, there is little available information about the effects of FuOH on colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) and their contribution to drug resistance, tumorigenesis and cancer recurrence. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of FuOH on two putative CCSCs, CD44(high)/EpCAM(high) cells and colonospheres (Csps) formed by HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells, and the suppressive effects of FuOH on the growth of xenografted tumor...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747791/molecular-imaging-of-aberrant-crypt-foci-in-the-human-colon-targeting-glutathione-s-transferase-p1-1
#14
Naoki Muguruma, Koichi Okamoto, Tadahiko Nakagawa, Katsutaka Sannomiya, Shota Fujimoto, Yasuhiro Mitsui, Tetsuo Kimura, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Jun Higashijima, Mitsuo Shimada, Yoko Horino, Shinya Matsumoto, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Tetsuo Nagano, Makoto Shibutani, Tetsuji Takayama
Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the earliest precursor lesion of colorectal cancers (CRCs), are a good surrogate marker for CRC risk stratification and chemoprevention. However, the conventional ACF detection method with dye-spraying by magnifying colonoscopy is labor- and skill-intensive. We sought to identify rat and human ACF using a fluorescent imaging technique that targets a molecule specific for ACF. We found that glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1-1 was overexpressed in ACF tissues in a screening experiment...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745498/curcumin-and-salsalate-suppresses-colonic-inflammation-and-procarcinogenic-signaling-in-high-fat-fed-azoxymethane-treated-mice
#15
Xian Wu, Anna C Pfalzer, Gar Yee Koh, Sanyuan Tang, Jimmy W Crott, Michael J Thomas, Mohsen Meydani, Joel B Mason
High-fat diets (HFDs) and excess adiposity increase proinflammatory cytokines in the colon, altering gene expression in a manner that promotes the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, compounds that reduce this biochemical inflammation are potential chemopreventive agents. Curcumin (CUR), a dietary polyphenol, and salsalate (SAL), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, are both anti-inflammatories. We investigated the inhibitory effects of CUR with or without SAL on inflammatory cytokines and procarcinogenic signaling in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated A/J mice...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731136/mhy451-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-by-ros-generation-in-hct116-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#16
Na Lam Hwang, Yong Jung Kang, Bokyung Sung, Seong Yeon Hwang, Jung Yoon Jang, Hye Jin Oh, Yu Ra Ahn, Do Hyun Kim, Su Jeong Kim, Sultan Ullah, Mohammad Akbar Hossain, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung, Nam Deuk Kim
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite advancements in conventional therapeutic approaches to CRC, most patients with CRC die of their disease. There is a need to develop novel therapeutic agents for this malignancy. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the anticancer effects and elucidate the underlying mechanism of MHY451 in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. Treatment with MHY451 inhibited cell growth in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
July 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729694/paracrine-cyclooxygenase-2-activity-by-macrophages-drives-colorectal-adenoma-progression-in-the-apc-min-mouse-model-of-intestinal-tumorigenesis
#17
Mark A Hull, Richard J Cuthbert, C W Stanley Ko, Daniel J Scott, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Gillian Hawcroft, Sarah L Perry, Nicola Ingram, Ian M Carr, Alexander F Markham, Constanze Bonifer, P Louise Coletta
Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 abrogates intestinal adenoma development at early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. COX-2 is localised to stromal cells (predominantly macrophages) in human and mouse intestinal adenomas. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that paracrine Cox-2-mediated signalling from macrophages drives adenoma growth and progression in vivo in the Apc (Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis. Using a transgenic C57Bl/6 mouse model of Cox-2 over-expression driven by the chicken lysozyme locus (cLys-Cox-2), which directs integration site-independent, copy number-dependent transgene expression restricted to macrophages, we demonstrated that stromal macrophage Cox-2 in colorectal (but not small intestinal) adenomas from cLys-Cox-2 x Apc (Min/+) mice was associated with significantly increased tumour size (P = 0...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#18
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677025/calcium-as-a-chemopreventive-agent-against-colorectal-neoplasm-does-obesity-play-a-role
#19
NaNa Keum, Hanseul Kim, Edward L Giovannucci
BACKGROUND: Concerning the chemopreventive potential of calcium against colorectal neoplasms, strong evidence from initial randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of colorectal adenoma has not been confirmed from the most recent large RCT. To explain the conflicting results, a new hypothesis was proposed that the benefit of calcium may be confined to lean individuals. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we examined heterogeneity of the associations of calcium intake with adenoma and CRC, using data from the most recent meta-analyses of observational studies and conducting subgroup analysis by average body mass index (BMI) of study population...
July 4, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676858/jacalin-has-chemopreventive-effects-on-colon-cancer-development
#20
Thais Herrero Geraldino, Patricia Modiano, Luciana Chain Veronez, Milena Flória-Santos, Sergio Britto Garcia, Gabriela Pereira-da-Silva
Colorectal cancer, which is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, has a slow natural history that provides a great opportunity for prevention strategies. Plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention because of their inherent colorectal cancer chemopreventive effects. The plant lectin jacalin specifically recognizes the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen and has antiproliferative effects on human colon cancer cells, highlighting its potential antitumor activity...
2017: BioMed Research International
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