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Colorectal cancer chemoprevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144773/cancer-chemopreventive-antiproliferative-and-superoxide-anion-scavenging-properties-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-var-boulardii-cell-wall-components
#1
Olivier Fortin, Blanca Aguilar-Uscanga, Khanh Dang Vu, Stephane Salmieri, Monique Lacroix
This study investigated the cancer chemopreventive, the antiradical, and the antiproliferative properties of polysaccharides extracts from cell wall of Saccharomyces boulardii and Kluyveromyces marxianus. β-glucan, mannan, and chitin were also quantified to identify the most important extract responsible for these biological properties. Soluble and insoluble glucans as well as mannoprotein were extracted from cell wall using single hot-alkaline method. Superoxide anion scavenging (antiradical capacity), NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) (EC 1...
November 16, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136951/chemopreventive-effect-of-myricetin-a-natural-occurring-compound-on-colonic-chronic-inflammation-and-inflammation-driven-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#2
Mei-Jia Zhang, Han Su, Jing-Yue Yan, Na Li, Zhi-Yu Song, Huai-Jie Wang, Lian-Guang Huo, Feng Wang, Wan-Sheng Ji, Xian-Jun Qu, Mei-Hua Qu
Myricetin is a flavonoids compound extracted from edible myrica rubra. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Myricetin on colonic chronic inflammation and inflammation-driven tumorigenesis in mice. Myricetin was administrated by gavage for 4 consecutive weeks. Mice were sacrificed and the number of colonic polyps was counted. Myricetin significantly inhibited AOM/DSS-induced colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis. Myricetin prevented the incidence of colorectal tumorigenesis and reduced the size of colorectal polyps...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111351/chemoprevention-with-isothiocyanates-from-bench-to-bedside
#3
Carsten Gründemann, Roman Huber
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are naturally occurring hydrolization products from glucosinolates (GLSs) in brassicaceae and in epidemiological studies their intake has been weakly to moderately inversely correlated with the risk of colorectal cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. Numerous preclinical studies demonstrate chemopreventive mode of actions of ITCs, mainly related to a.) detoxification (induction of phase II enzymes), b.) anti-inflammatory properties by down-regulation of NFkappaB activity, c.) cyclin-mediated cell cycle arrest and d...
October 27, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075787/salicylic-acid-metabolites-and-derivatives-inhibit-cdk-activity-novel-insights-into-aspirin-s-chemopreventive-effects-against-colorectal-cancer
#4
Rakesh Dachineni, D Ramesh Kumar, Eduardo Callegari, Siddharth S Kesharwani, Ranjini Sankaranarayanan, Teresa Seefeldt, Hemachand Tummala, G Jayarama Bhat
Aspirin's potential as a drug continues to be evaluated for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple targets for aspirin and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been identified, no unifying mechanism has been proposed to clearly explain its chemopreventive effects. Our goal here was to investigate the ability of salicylic acid metabolites, known to be generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and its derivatives as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors to gain new insights into aspirin's chemopreventive actions...
December 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072082/chemoprevention-of-polyp-recurrence-with-curcumin-followed-by-silibinin-in-a-case-of-multiple-colorectal-adenomas
#5
Vicente Alfonso-Moreno, Antonio López-Serrano, Eduardo Moreno-Osset
Chemoprevention is a practical approach to reduce the risk of various cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). The goal is to reduce the incidence of pre-neoplastic adenomatous polyps and prevent its progression to CRC. Curcumin and silibinin prevent intestinal polyp formation in mice. Curcumin sensitizes silymarin to exert synergistic anticancer activity in colon cancer cells. Patients presenting with multiple colorectal adenomatous polyps (MCRA) have a high lifetime risk for CRC. We present a 57-year-old man with MCRA, without deleterious germline APC or MYH mutations...
October 23, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069290/potent-suppression-of-both-spontaneous-and-carcinogen-induced-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-in-mice-by-dietary-celastrol-supplementation
#6
Emily C Barker, Byung-Gyu Kim, Ji Hee Yoon, Gregory P Tochtrop, John J Letterio, Sung Hee Choi
Celastrol is an anti-inflammatory natural triterpenoid, isolated from the herb Tripterygium wilfordii or thunder god vine. Here we define mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory activity of celastrol and demonstrate efficacy of a dietary celastrol supplement for chemoprevention of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis in mice. Dietary celastrol (31.25 ppm in rodent diet from 8 weeks to 25 weeks of age) is well tolerated and protects against LPS-induced acute inflammation in C57BL/6 mice, potently suppressing LPS-induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, Interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β...
October 21, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066742/cardamonin-inhibits-colonic-neoplasia-through-modulation-of-microrna-expression
#7
Shirley James, Jayasekharan S Aparna, Aswathy Mary Paul, Manendra Babu Lankadasari, Sabira Mohammed, Valsalakumari S Binu, Thankayyan R Santhoshkumar, Girijadevi Reshmi, Kuzhuvelil B Harikumar
Colorectal cancer is currently the third leading cause of cancer related deaths. There is considerable interest in using dietary intervention strategies to prevent chronic diseases including cancer. Cardamonin is a spice derived nutraceutical and herein, for the first time we evaluated the therapeutic benefits of cardamonin in Azoxymethane (AOM) induced mouse model of colorectal cancer. Mice were divided into 4 groups of which three groups were given six weekly injections of AOM. One group served as untreated control and remaining groups were treated with either vehicle or Cardamonin starting from the same day or 16 weeks after the first AOM injection...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048673/the-ethanol-extracts-of-sporoderm-broken-spores-of-ganoderma-lucidum-inhibit-colorectal-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Kang Li, Kun Na, Tingting Sang, Kaikai Wu, Ying Wang, Xingya Wang
The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities including anticancer effects. However, the anti-colorectal cancer effects and the potential molecular mechanisms of the ethanol extracts of sporoderm-broken spores of G. lucidum (BSGLEE), which mainly contains triterpenoids, have not been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms exerted by BSGLEE on colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo...
September 27, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031619/chemoprevention-by-artesunate-in-a-preclinical-model-of-colorectal-cancer-involves-down-regulation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-suppression-of-angiogenesis-cellular-proliferation-and-induction-of-apoptosis
#9
Sneh Verma, Prasenjit Das, Vijay L Kumar
Use of anti-inflammatory drugs is well known to decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, one of the most common causes of cancer related mortality. In view of anti-inflammatory property of artesunate reported in various experimental models, the present study was carried out to evaluate its efficacy in rat model where colon carcinogenesis was induced by 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH). A time course study revealed that two injections of DMH given at an interval of one week resulted in appearance of multiple plaque lesions and aberrant crypt foci in the colon with a peak effect occurring at the end of 8 weeks...
October 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990814/induction-of-anoikis-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-fucoxanthinol
#10
Masaru Terasaki, Hayato Maeda, Kazuo Miyashita, Michihiro Mutoh
Fucoxanthin (Fx), one of the major xanthophylls in brown algae, is known to be effective for colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention through inhibiting cell growth, cell cycle and caspase activation. Recently, we observed fucoxanthinol (FuOH), an anti-cancer active metabolite of Fx, treatment of human CRC cells resulted in plenty of living floating cells several hours after exposure, and induced apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether FuOH induced anchorage-dependent apoptosis, that is "anoikis", along with integrin signal suppression in human CRC cells...
October 9, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967875/combination-curcumin-and-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-inhibits-colorectal-carcinoma-microenvironment-induced-angiogenesis-by-jak-stat3-il-8-pathway
#11
G Jin, Y Yang, K Liu, J Zhao, X Chen, H Liu, R Bai, X Li, Y Jiang, X Zhang, J Lu, Z Dong
Tumor microenvironment has a crucial role in cancer development and progression, whereas the mechanism of how it regulates angiogenesis is unclear. In this study, we simulated the colorectal carcinoma microenvironment by conditioned medium (CM) of colorectal carcinoma cell lines (SW620, HT-29, HCT116) supernatant or colorectal carcinoma tissue homogenate supernatant to induce normal endothelial cells (NECs). We found that colorectal carcinoma CM promoted tumor angiogenesis by coercing NECs toward tumor endothelial cells (TECs) with the activation of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway...
October 2, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948694/pomegranate-by-products-in-colorectal-cancer-chemoprevention-effects-in-apc-mutated-pirc-rats-and-mechanistic-studies-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo
#12
Katia Tortora, Angelo Pietro Femia, Andrea Romagnoli, Irene Sineo, Mohamad Khatib, Nadia Mulinacci, Lisa Giovannelli, Giovanna Caderni
SCOPE: To investigate the effect of pomegranate mesocarp, a polyphenol-rich by-product of juice production, in colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A mesocarp decoction (PMD) was administered for 6 weeks in the diet to Pirc rats, mutated in Apc, a key-gene in CRC. Mucin Depleted Foci (MDFs), as CRC biomarkers, were reduced in PMD-fed rats compared to Controls (MDF/colon: 34±4 vs 47±3, P = 0.02). Apoptosis in MDFs from PMD-treated rats was increased compared to Controls (2...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943451/tubulin-binding-anticancer-polysulfides-induce-cell-death-via-mitotic-arrest-and-autophagic-interference-in-colorectal-cancer
#13
Esma Yagdi Efe, Aloran Mazumder, Jin-Young Lee, Anthoula Gaigneaux, Flavia Radogna, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Christo Christov, Claus Jacob, Kyu-Won Kim, Mario Dicato, Patrick Chaimbault, Claudia Cerella, Marc Diederich
Polysulfanes show chemopreventive effects against gastrointestinal tumors. We identified diallyl tetrasulfide and its derivative, dibenzyl tetrasulfide (DBTTS), to be mitotic inhibitors and apoptosis inducers. Here, we translate their application in colorectal cancer (CRC). MALDI-TOF-MS analysis identified both compounds as reversible tubulin binders, validated by in cellulo α-tubulin degradation. BRAF(V600E)-mutated HT-29 cells were resistant to DBTTS, as evidenced by mitotic arrest for 48 h prior to apoptosis induction compared to KRAS(G12V)-mutated SW480/620 cells, which committed to death earlier...
September 21, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935150/mediterranean-diet-and-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Alberto Farinetti, Valeria Zurlo, Antonio Manenti, Francesca Coppi, Anna Vittoria Mattioli
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925507/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-ezh2-inhibitor-gsk343-have-similar-inhibitory-effects-and-mechanisms-of-action-on-colorectal-cancer-cells
#15
Le Ying, Feng Yan, Bryan R G Williams, Ping Xu, Xin Li, Yueling Zhao, Yiqun Hu, Yuefei Wang, Dakang Xu, Jing Dai
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a type of catechin. It exhibits excellent antioxidant effects and anti-tumor activities for cancer chemoprevention. The mechanism of anti-tumor effects of EGCG on different cancers has been studied for the past few decades, but remains controversial. To investigate the potential role that EGCG may play in the epigenetic regulation of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, we integrated bioinformatics analysis with experimental validation. We found that levels of the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) were significantly higher in CRC tissues compared to normal adjacent tissues, based on the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) data portal...
September 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895923/st-producing-e-coli-oppose-carcinogen-induced-colorectal-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#16
Peng Li, Jieru E Lin, Adam E Snook, Scott A Waldman
There is a geographic inequality in the incidence of colorectal cancer, lowest in developing countries, and greatest in developed countries. This disparity suggests an environmental contribution to cancer resistance in endemic populations. Enterotoxigenic bacteria associated with diarrheal disease are prevalent in developing countries, including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) producing heat-stable enterotoxins (STs). STs are peptides that are structurally homologous to paracrine hormones that regulate the intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) receptor...
September 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881340/additional-benefits-of-routine-drugs-on-gastrointestinal-cancer-statins-metformin-and-proton-pump-inhibitors
#17
Moon Kyung Joo, Jong-Jae Park, Hoon Jai Chun
BACKGROUND: Commonly used medications including statins, metformin, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively reduce the risk of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer (CRC). SUMMARY: A number of observational studies and meta-analyses have shown that long-term statin use significantly reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Moreover, statin use after GI cancer diagnosis has been significantly associated with better prognosis in large-scale cohort studies...
2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878032/effect-of-aspirin-on-tumour-cell-colony-formation-and-evolution
#18
Dominik Wodarz, Ajay Goel, C Richard Boland, Natalia L Komarova
Aspirin is known to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In a previous study, we quantified the in vitro growth kinetics of different CRC tumour cell lines treated with varying doses of aspirin, measuring the rate of cell division and cell death. Here, we use these measured parameters to calculate the chances of successful clonal expansion and to determine the evolutionary potential of the tumour cell lines in the presence and absence of aspirin...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870200/anticancer-activity-of-calyx-of-diospyros-kaki-thunb-through-downregulation-of-cyclin-d1-via-inducing-proteasomal-degradation-and-transcriptional-inhibition-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#19
Su Bin Park, Gwang Hun Park, Hun Min Song, Ho-Jun Son, Yurry Um, Hyun-Seok Kim, Jin Boo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Although it has been reported to contain high polyphenols, the pharmacological studies of the calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb (DKC) have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of DKC against human colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: Anti-cell proliferative effect of 70% ethanol extracts from the calyx of Diospyros kaki (DKC-E70) was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of DKC-E70 on the expression of cyclin D1 in the protein and mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively...
September 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861089/black-raspberries-enhance-natural-killer-cell-infiltration-into-the-colon-and-suppress-the-progression-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Pan Pan, Siwen Kang, Youwei Wang, Ka Liu, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianying Zhang, Martha Yearsley, Jianhua Yu, Li-Shu Wang
Natural killer (NK) cells are an essential component of innate immunity against cancer development. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate immune-modulating effects using dietary compounds. Our laboratory has been investigating the chemopreventive potential of black raspberries (BRBs) and previously demonstrated their beneficial modulation of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The current study investigated their potential on modulating NK cells. To avoid the excessive inflammation caused by the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment that leads to colitis, we treated the mice with overnight DSS so that it would slightly irritate the colon but still promote colon carcinogenesis with 100% incidence in both the Apc(Min/+) mice and azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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