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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324424/larval-therapy-for-chronic-cutaneous-ulcers-historical-review-and-future-perspectives
#1
Edoardo Raposio, Sara Bortolini, Lara Maistrello, Donato A Grasso
Cutaneous ulcers tend to become chronic and have a profound impact on quality of life. These wounds may become infected and lead to greater morbidity and even mortality. In the past, larvae (ie, maggots) of certain common flies (Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina) were considered useful in ulcer management because they only remove necrotic tissue while promoting healthy tissue in the wound bed, thus helping wounds heal faster. Recently, maggots from several other fly species (Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria, Phormia regina, Chrysomya albiceps, Sarcophaga carnaria, and Hermetia illucens) have been shown in vitro to possess characteristics (ie, debridement efficacy and putative antimicrobial potentialities) that make them suitable candidates for possible use in clinical practice...
December 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317220/acamprosate-rescues-neuronal-defects-in-the-drosophila-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#2
Russell L Hutson, Rachel L Thompson, Andrew P Bantel, Charles R Tessier
AIMS: Several off-label studies have shown that acamprosate can provide some clinical benefits in youth with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), an autism spectrum disorder caused by loss of function of the highly conserved FMR1 gene. This study investigated the ability of acamprosate to rescue cellular, molecular and behavioral defects in the Drosophila model of FXS. MAIN METHODS: A high (100μM) and low (10μM) dose of acamprosate was fed to Drosophila FXS (dfmr1 null) or genetic control (w1118) larvae and then analyzed in multiple paradigms...
January 6, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298700/evidence-for-multiple-insecticide-resistance-in-urban-aedes-albopictus-populations-in-southern-china
#3
Yiji Li, Jiabao Xu, Daibin Zhong, Hong Zhang, Wenqiang Yang, Guofa Zhou, Xinghua Su, Yang Wu, Kun Wu, Songwu Cai, Guiyun Yan, Xiao-Guang Chen
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito that has become an important vector of chikungunya, dengue and Zika viruses. In the absence of specific antiviral therapy or a vaccine, vector management is the sole method available for reducing Aedes-induced disease morbidity. Determining the resistance status of Ae. albopictus to insecticides and exploring the resistance mechanisms is essential for future vector control planning. METHODS: Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae were sampled from six sites (two sites each from urban, suburban and rural) in Guangzhou...
January 3, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291202/taeniasis-a-possible-cause-of-ileal-bleeding
#4
Alessia Settesoldi, Alessandro Tozzi, Ottaviano Tarantino
Taenia spp. are flatworms of the class Cestoda, whose definitive hosts are humans and primates. Human infestation (taeniasis) results from the ingestion of raw meat contaminated with encysted larval tapeworms and is considered relatively harmless and mostly asymptomatic. Anemia is not recognized as a possible sign of taeniasis and taeniasis-induced hemorrhage is not described in medical books. Its therapy is based on anthelmintics such praziquantel, niclosamide or albendazole. Here we describe a case of acute ileal bleeding in an Italian man affected with both Taenia spp...
December 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247619/a-new-drosophila-model-of-ubiquilin-knockdown-shows-the-effect-of-impaired-proteostasis-on-locomotive-and-learning-abilities
#5
Salinee Jantrapirom, Luca Lo Piccolo, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Ubiquilin (UBQLN) plays a crucial role in cellular proteostasis through its involvement in the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy. Mutations in the UBQLN2 gene have been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS with frontotemporal lobar dementia (ALS/FTLD). Previous studies reported a key role for UBQLN in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the mechanistic involvement of UBQLN in other neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. The genome of Drosophila contains a single UBQLN homolog (dUbqn) that shows high similarity to UBQLN1 and UBQLN2; therefore, the fly is a useful model for characterizing the role of UBQLN in vivo in neurological disorders affecting locomotion and learning abilities...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210355/neuroangiostrongyliasis-the-subarachnoid-phase-and-its-implications-for-anthelminthic-therapy
#6
Paul Prociv, Megan Turner
Infection with the Rat Lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the leading cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis worldwide. From its origins in southeastern Asia, the parasite was spread extensively throughout the twentieth century and is now established in many of the world's warmer regions. Its clinical effects range from mild and transient symptoms, usually headache with peripheral nerve dysfunction, to severe and permanent central nervous system (CNS) damage, occasionally fatal. The severity and prognosis of disease are determined by the larval dose, acquired by ingesting infected intermediate hosts (slugs and snails) or, less often, paratenic hosts, such as crabs, shrimps, frogs, and monitor lizards...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190292/tnf-%C3%AE-blockade-suppresses-pericystic-inflammation-following-anthelmintic-treatment-in-porcine-neurocysticercosis
#7
Siddhartha Mahanty, Miguel A Orrego, Carla Cangalaya, M Paz Adrianzen, Gianfranco Arroyo, Juan Calcina, Armando E Gonzalez, Héctor H García, Cristina Guerra-Giraldez, Theodore E Nash
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the brain with the larval cyst of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticidal treatment induces parasite killing resulting in a post inflammatory response and seizures, which generally requires corticosteroid treatment to control inflammation. The nature of this response and how to best control it is unclear. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pretreatment with etanercept (ETN), an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent, or dexamethasone (DEX), a high potency corticosteroid, on the post treatment inflammatory response in naturally infected pigs with neurocysticercosis after a single dose of the cysticidal drug praziquantel (PZQ)...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186534/temperature-and-tissue-type-impact-development-of-lucilia-cuprina-diptera-calliphoridae-in-sri-lanka
#8
Y Tharindu B Bambaradeniya, W A Inoka P Karunaratne, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Induwara Goonerathne, Rasika B Kotakadeniya
Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann; Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a facultative ecto-parasitic fly, distributed throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world. This blow fly species is of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance due to it being used in maggot debridement therapy (MDT), a causative agent of myiasis, and a decomposer of vertebrate carrion. The current study examined the combined effects of temperature and tissue type on the development of L. cuprina. Specimens were reared on three tissue types; swine muscle, swine liver, and bovine muscle at 20°C, 25°C, 27°C, and 38°C...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165211/case-report-myiasis-due-to-cochliomyia-hominivorax-and-dermatobia-hominis-clinical-and-pathological-differences-between-two-species-in-northern-peru
#9
Virgilio E Failoc-Rojas, Carolina Molina-Ayasta, Jaime Salazar-Zuloeta, Abel Samamé, Heber Silva-Díaz
Infestations caused by fly larvae (Myiasis) have been observed in patients with risk factors and in tropical zones. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of obligatory myiasis, as well as the therapeutic approach to patients. We identified the cases of myiasis diagnosed in two referral hospitals in northern Peru from January 2012 to December 2015 and included patients in whom larval development and a compatible clinical profile were observed...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131748/a-multicentre-clinical-evaluation-of-a-hydro-responsive-wound-dressing-the-glasgow-experience
#10
H Hodgson, D Davidson, A Duncan, J Guthrie, E Henderson, M MacDiarmid, K McGown, V Pollard, R Potter, A Rodgers, A Wilson, J Horner, M Doran, S Simm, R Taylor, A Rogers, M G Rippon, M Colgrave
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of hydro-responsive wound dressing (HRWD) in debridement and wound bed preparation of a variety of acute and chronic wounds that presented with devitalised tissue needing removal so that healing may proceed. METHOD: This was a non-comparative evaluation of acute and chronic wounds that required debridement as part of their normal treatment regimen. Clinicians recorded wound changes including a subjective assessment level of devitalised tissue and wound bed preparation, presence of pain, wound status (e...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122715/nematicidal-activity-of-a-water-soluble-lectin-from-seeds-of-moringa-oleifera
#11
Mário Luan Silva de Medeiros, Maiara Celine de Moura, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Ana Carla Diógenes Suassuna Bezerra, Michele Dalvina Correia da Silva
Gastrointestinal nematodes are the major cause of animal diseases, and the indiscriminate use of synthetic anthelmintic contributes to the development of drug resistance. Natural bioproducts are noteworthy since they have proved to be promising for alternative antiparasitic therapies. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of WSMoL (water soluble Moringa oleifera lectin) on hatching of eggs and on the development of early-stage larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected goats. In addition, the interference of WSMoL on activity of proteases was determined and the affinity of the lectin for glycosylated molecules of these parasites was investigated using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled WSMoL...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061647/pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy-in-zebrafish-caused-by-aldh7a1-deficiency
#12
Izabella A Pena, Yann Roussel, Kate Daniel, Kevin Mongeon, Devon Johnstone, Hellen Weinschutz Mendes, Marjolein Bosma, Vishal Saxena, Nathalie Lepage, Pranesh Chakraborty, David A Dyment, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Nanda Verhoeven-Duif, Tuan Vu Bui, Kym M Boycott, Marc Ekker, Alex MacKenzie
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare disease characterized by mutations in the lysine degradation gene ALDH7A1 leading to recurrent neonatal seizures which are uniquely alleviated by high doses of pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B6 vitamers). Despite treatment, neurodevelopmental disabilities are still observed in most PDE patients underlining the need for adjunct therapies. Over 60 years after the initial description of PDE, we report the first animal model for this disease: an aldh7a1-null zebrafish (Danio rerio) displaying deficient lysine metabolism and spontaneous and recurrent seizures in the larval stage (10 dpf)...
October 23, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061197/in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-sophora-moorcroftiana-alkaloids-in-combination-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-treatment-for-cystic-echinococcosis-in-mice
#13
G Zhang, J Wang, Y Luo, M Yuan, Q Gao, H Gao, X Song, Y Shi, K Dong, X Ma
Human cystic echinococcosis is a widespread, chronic, endemic, helminthic zoonosis caused by larval tapeworms of the species Echinococcus granulosus. At present, there is no rational and effective therapy for patients with echinococcosis. The present study evaluated whether the combination of alkaloids from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds (SMSa2) and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was effective in the treatment of experimental echinococcosis. After 20 weeks of secondary infection with protoscoleces, mice were randomly allocated to five groups and treated for 6 weeks by daily intragastric administration of albendazole (ABZ, 100 mg/kg), SMSa2 (100 mg/kg), BCG (abdominal subcutaneous injection at 5 × 106 CFU), SMSa2 + BCG (100 mg/kg SMSa2 and 5 × 106 CFU BCG) or normal saline (untreated group), respectively...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050919/anthelmintic-therapy-of-equine-cyathostomin-nematodes-larvicidal-efficacy-egg-reappearance-period-and-drug-resistance
#14
Jennifer L Bellaw, Kristen Krebs, Craig R Reinemeyer, Jamie K Norris, Jessica A Scare, Stefanie Pagano, Martin K Nielsen
Cyathostomins are ubiquitous in grazing horses across the world, and anthelmintic resistance has been reported with increasing levels over past decades. The aims of the present study were (i) to investigate the efficacy against encysted larval stages of moxidectin (0.4 mg/kg) and fenbendazole (10 mg/kg daily for five consecutive days) and compare these regimens at 2 and 5 weeks post-treatment, (ii) to investigate individual cyathostomin species associated with shortened egg reappearance periods, and (iii) to document species exhibiting decreased susceptibility to the evaluated compounds...
October 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992315/amphotericin-b-and-terbinafine-but-not-the-azoles-prolong-survival-in-galleria-mellonella-larvae-infected-with-madurella-mycetomatis
#15
Wendy Kloezen, Florianne Parel, Roger Brüggemann, Khalid Asouit, Marilyn Helvert-van Poppel, Ahmed Fahal, Johan Mouton, Wendy van de Sande
Mycetoma is a tropical neglected disease characterized by large subcutaneous lesions in which the causative organisms reside in the form of grains. The most common causative agent is Madurella mycetomatis. Antifungal therapy often fails due to these grains, but to identify novel treatment options has been difficult since grains do not form in vitro. We recently used Galleria mellonella larvae to develop an in vivo grain model. In the current study, we set out to determine the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used antifungal agents in this larval model...
September 14, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969840/experimental-cystic-echinococcosis-therapy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-combined-5-fluorouracil-albendazole-treatment
#16
Patricia E Pensel, Natalia Elissondo, Guillermo Gambino, Gabriela Ullio Gamboa, J P Benoit, María C Elissondo
Human cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.). Although benzimidazole compounds such as albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole have been the cornerstone of chemotherapy for the disease, there is often no complete recovery after treatment. Hence, new strategies are required to improve treatment of human cystic echinococcosis. The goals of the current study were as follows: (i) to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and ABZ combination against E...
October 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932037/fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-of-cysticercosis-in-submandibular-gland
#17
Vaneet Kaur Sandhu, Upender Sharma, Navtej Singh, Geetika Goyal
Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has emerged as simple, minimally invasive, low-cost, outpatient diagnostic modality for the evaluation of nodules caused by parasites. Cysticercosis is caused by larval stage of Taenia solium, pork tapeworm. It is endemic in Southeast Asia, Latin America and South Africa. We report a case of cysticercosis in a 25-year-old male who presented with painless swelling of submandibular gland which was diagnosed on FNAC. The patient was recommended antihelminthic therapy which resulted in complete resolution of the swelling...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902964/plasmatic-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis-in-healthy-and-otostrongylus-affected-northern-elephant-seals-mirounga-angustirostris
#18
Sarrah Kaye, Shawn Johnson, Carlos Rios, Daniel J Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Prepatent Otostrongylus arteritis results in hemorrhagic diathesis in free-ranging Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) attributed to aberrant larval migration of the lungworm, Otostrongylus circumlitus. Clinical signs are often nonspecific, including lethargy, anorexia, and blepharospasm, but can progress to spontaneous frank hemorrhage and death within 72 hours of onset. Previously published case reports describe coagulopathy with prolonged PT and APTT, normal to elevated platelet counts, normal antithrombin concentrations, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products...
September 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732770/pharmacologic-modeling-of-primary-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-dysfunction-in-zebrafish
#19
James Byrnes, Rebecca Ganetzky, Richard Lightfoot, Michael Tzeng, Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso, Christoph Seiler, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease is a heterogeneous and highly morbid group of energy deficiency disorders for which no proven effective therapies exist. Robust vertebrate animal models of primary RC dysfunction are needed to explore the effects of variation in RC disease subtypes, tissue-specific manifestations, and major pathogenic factors contributing to each disorder, as well as their pre-clinical response to therapeutic candidates. We have developed a series of zebrafish (Danio rerio) models that inhibit, to variable degrees, distinct aspects of RC function, and enable quantification of animal development, survival, behaviors, and organ-level treatment effects as well as effects on mitochondrial biochemistry and physiology...
July 18, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639707/dressings-and-topical-agents-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#20
REVIEW
Maggie J Westby, Jo C Dumville, Marta O Soares, Nikki Stubbs, Gill Norman
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, also known as bedsores, decubitus ulcers and pressure injuries, are localised areas of injury to the skin or the underlying tissue, or both. Dressings are widely used to treat pressure ulcers and promote healing, and there are many options to choose from including alginate, hydrocolloid and protease-modulating dressings. Topical agents have also been used as alternatives to dressings in order to promote healing.A clear and current overview of all the evidence is required to facilitate decision-making regarding the use of dressings or topical agents for the treatment of pressure ulcers...
June 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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