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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782500/the-human-snail-transmission-environment-shapes-long-term-schistosomiasis-control-outcomes-implications-for-improving-the-accuracy-of-predictive-modeling
#1
David Gurarie, Nathan C Lo, Martial L Ndeffo-Mbah, David P Durham, Charles H King
INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic trematode disease that affects over 240 million people worldwide. The Schistosoma lifecycle is complex, involving transmission via specific intermediate-host freshwater snails. Predictive mathematical models of Schistosoma transmission have often chosen to simplify or ignore the details of environmental human-snail interaction in their analyses. Schistosome transmission models now aim to provide better precision for policy planning of elimination of transmission...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782496/development-of-a-toolkit-for-piggybac-mediated-integrative-transfection-of-the-human-filarial-parasite-brugia-malayi
#2
Canhui Liu, Amruta S Mhashilkar, Johan Chabanon, Shulin Xu, Sara Lustigman, John H Adams, Thomas R Unnasch
BACKGROUND: The human filarial parasites cause diseases that are among the most important causes of morbidity in the developing world. The elimination programs targeting these infections rely on a limited number of drugs, making the identification of new chemotherapeutic agents a high priority. The study of these parasites has lagged due to the lack of reverse genetic methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a novel co-culture method that results in developmentally competent infective larvae of one of the human filarial parasites (Brugia malayi) and describe a method to efficiently transfect the larval stages of this parasite...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781423/in-vitro-ovicidal-and-larvicidal-activities-of-some-saponins-and-flavonoids-against-parasitic-nematodes-of-goats
#3
Acidália Carine Vieira Santos, Francianne Oliveira Santos, Hélimar Gonçalves Lima, Gisele Dias Da Silva, Rosangela Soares Uzêda, Êuder Reis Dias, Alexsandro Branco, Klauber Viana Cardoso, Jorge Mauricio David, Mariana Borges Botura, Silvia Lima Costa, Maria José Moreira Batatinha
This study assessed the anthelmintic activity of plant-derived compounds against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats using the egg hatch and larval motility assays. The compounds tested were saponins (digitonin and aescin) and their respective sapogenins (aglycones), hecogenin acetate and flavonoids (catechin, hesperidin, isocordoin and a mixture of isocordoin and cordoin). Additionally, cytotoxicity of active substances was analysed on Vero cell through 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl,2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) tests...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780329/involvement-of-met-and-kr-h1-in-jh-mediated-reproduction-of-female-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#4
Yong Yue, Rui-Lin Yang, Wei-Ping Wang, Qi-Hao Zhou, Er-Hu Chen, Guo-Rui Yuan, Jin-Jun Wang, Wei Dou
Juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis during insect larval stages and promotes adult reproductive processes. Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a zinc finger transcription factor assumed to be induced by JH via the JH receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met), mediates the antimetamorphic effect of JH in insects, but its function in JH-mediated reproductive processes has not been fully explored. In this study, Met and Kr-h1 involved in the JH signaling pathway were first cloned and identified from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis , an important pest infesting fruit and vegetables worldwide...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780006/investigation-of-the-applicability-of-a-rapid-diagnosis-test-in-the-diagnosis-of-cystic-echinococcosis
#5
Sema Ertuğ, Serçin Özlem Çalışkan, Erdoğan Malatyalı, Hatice Ertabaklar
OBJECTIVE: Echinococcus granulosus, the etiological agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans and livestock, is a widely distributed zoonotic pathogen tapeworm. The infection is transmitted to humans by the ingestion of E. granulosus eggs released in the feces of definitive hosts such as dogs. The larval stage of the parasite develops a slowly enlarging cyst in the visceral organs, particularly in the liver and/or lung. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an immunochromatographic test (ICT) for CE...
May 21, 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778904/c-lysozyme-contributes-to-antiviral-immunity-in-bombyx-mori-against-nucleopolyhedrovirus-infection
#6
Ting-Ting Chen, Li-Rong Tan, Nan Hu, Zhan-Qi Dong, Zhi-Gang Hu, Ya-Ming Jiang, Peng Chen, Min-Hui Pan, Cheng Lu
Lysozymes is a ubiquitous immune effector that is widely distributed in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Previous reports have shown that lysozymes significantly inhibit viral infections in vertebrates. However, the antiviral effects of lysozymes in invertebrates remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of lysozymes in Bombyx mori (B. mori) response to viral infection by overexpressing B. mori C-lysozyme (BmC-LZM) in larvae and cells. We found that BmC-LZM was up-regulated in cells in response to viral infection...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778741/changes-in-lipid-protein-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-spodoptera-exigua-larvae-associated-with-infection-by-heliothis-virescens-ascovirus-3h
#7
Zi-Qi Li, Huan Yu, Guo-Hua Huang
Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae were used to analyze the regulation of lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism in host larvae infected with the Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h). Using histological sections, significant pathological changes were found in the fat bodies of infected larvae from 24 h to 72 h post-infection (hpi). The lipid and protein contents of the infected larvae were significantly higher than those of the uninfected larvae, while the carbohydrate content of the infected larvae was significantly lower than that of the mock-infected larvae...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778442/developmental-profiles-of-progesterone-receptor-transcripts-and-molecular-responses-to-gestagen-exposure-during-silurana-tropicalis-early-development
#8
Paisley Thomson, Valerie S Langlois
Environmental gestagens are an emerging class of contaminants that have been recently measured in surface water and can interfere with reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Gestagens include endogenous progestogens, such as progesterone (P4), which bind P4-receptors and have critically important roles in vertebrate physiology and reproduction. Gestagens also include synthetic progestins, which are components of human and veterinary drugs, such as melengestrol acetate (MGA). Endogenous progestogens are essential in the regulation of reproduction in mammalian species, but the role of P4 in amphibian larval development remains unclear...
May 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777401/bantam-regulates-the-axonal-geometry-of-drosophila-larval-brain-by-modulating-actin-regulator-enabled
#9
Animesh Banerjee, Jagat Kumar Roy
During development, axonogenesis, an integral part of neurogenesis, is based on well-concerted events comprising generation, rearrangement, migration, elongation, and adhesion of neurons. Actin, specifically the crosstalk between the guardians of actin polymerization, like enabled, chickadee, capping protein plays an essential role in crafting several events of axonogenesis. Recent evidences reflect multifaceted role of microRNA during axonogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of bantam miRNA, a well-established miRNA in Drosophila, in regulating the actin organization during brain development...
May 18, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777177/controlling-vector-borne-diseases-by-releasing-modified-mosquitoes
#10
REVIEW
Heather A Flores, Scott L O'Neill
Aedes mosquito-transmitted diseases, such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya, are becoming major global health emergencies while old threats, such as yellow fever, are re-emerging. Traditional control methods, which have focused on reducing mosquito populations through the application of insecticides or preventing breeding through removal of larval habitat, are largely ineffective, as evidenced by the increasing global disease burden. Here, we review novel mosquito population reduction and population modification approaches with a focus on control methods based on the release of mosquitoes, including the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes and strategies to genetically modify the vector, that are currently under development and have the potential to contribute to a reversal of the current alarming disease trends...
May 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776357/anopheles-arabiensis-in-sudan-a-noticeable-tolerance-to-urban-polluted-larval-habitats-associated-with-resistance-to-temephos
#11
Rasha S Azrag, Babiker H Mohammed
BACKGROUND: It has been documented that unplanned urbanization leads to the exposure of members of the Anopheles vectors to a range of water pollution in urban settings. Many surveys from African and Asian countries reported the presence of Anopheles larvae in polluted urban habitats. The present study documents an obvious tolerance of the melanic and normal forms of Anopheles arabiensis to urban polluted larval habitats accompanied by resistance to Temephos larvicide. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out to inspect apparently polluted An...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776340/the-developmental-transcriptomes-of-two-sea-biscuit-species-with-differing-larval-types
#12
Anne Frances Armstrong, Richard K Grosberg
BACKGROUND: Larval developmental patterns are extremely varied both between and within phyla, however the genetic mechanisms leading to this diversification are poorly understood. We assembled and compared the developmental transcriptomes for two sea biscuit species (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) with differing patterns of larval development, to provide a resource for investigating the evolution of alternate life cycles. One species (Clypeaster subdepressus) develops via an obligately feeding larva which metamorphoses 3-4 weeks after fertilization; the other (Clypeaster rosaceus) develops via a rare, intermediate larval type-facultative feeding- and can develop through metamorphosis entirely based on egg provisioning in under one week...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775245/subunits-of-the-dna-polymerase-alpha-primase-complex-promote-notch-mediated-proliferation-with-discrete-and-shared-functions-in-c-elegans-germline
#13
Dong Suk Yoon, Dong Seok Cha, Mohammad A Alfhili, Brett D Keiper, Myon-Hee Lee
Notch receptor signaling is a highly conserved cell communication system in most multicellular organisms and plays a critical role at several junctures in animal development. In C. elegans, GLP-1/Notch signaling is essential for both germline stem cell maintenance and germ cell proliferation during gonad development. Here, we show that subunits (POLA-1, DIV-1, PRI-1, and PRI-2) of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex are required for germ cell proliferation in response to GLP-1/Notch signaling in different tissues at different developmental stages...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774285/molecular-prevalence-of-babesia-bigemina-in-rhipicephalus-microplus-ticks-infesting-cross-bred-cattle-of-punjab-india
#14
S A Bhat, N K Singh, H Singh, S S Rath
Babesiosis is an economically important tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan disease of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, Rhipicephalus microplus engorged female ticks were collected from 135 apparently healthy cattle from different agro-climatic zones of Punjab, India, to investigate the carrier status of Babesia bigemina infection in vector tick by using microscopy and PCR based assays. PCR when applied on DNA extracted from the egg masses harvested from ticks showed 1.48% (2/135) samples as positive, whereas 4...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773559/serrate-notch-signaling-regulates-the-size-of-the-progenitor-cell-pool-in-drosophila-imaginal-rings
#15
Sheng-An Yang, Wu-Min Deng
Drosophila imaginal rings are larval tissues composed of progenitor cells that are essential for the formation of adult foreguts, hindguts and salivary glands. Specified from subsets of ectoderm in the embryo, imaginal ring cells are kept quiescent until mid-second larval instar, and undergo rapid proliferation during the third instar to attain adequate numbers of cells that will replace apoptotic larval tissues for adult organ formation. Here we show that Notch signaling is activated in all three imaginal rings from middle embryonic stage to early pupal stage and that Notch signaling positively controls cell proliferation in all three imaginal rings during the third larval instar...
May 17, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773142/a-climate-driven-model-for-the-dynamics-of-the-free-living-stages-of-cooperia-oncophora
#16
Christian W Sauermann, Dave M Leathwick
Experimental results and published literature data regarding the development, survival and herbage translocation of Cooperia oncophora larvae were used to develop a climate-driven model to simulate the dynamics of the free-living stages. From daily maximum and minimum temperature the model estimated hourly development and survival rates of the pre-infective stages and daily survival of infective third stage larvae (L3) inside the faecal pat and in the herbage. In addition, daily rainfall data were used to calculate the translocation rate of the L3 from the faecal pat into the herbage...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773128/time-and-dose-dependent-development-of-humoral-immune-responses-to-ascaridia-galli-in-experimentally-and-naturally-infected-chickens
#17
Gürbüz Daş, Mark Hennies, Armin Tuchscherer, Matthias Gauly
Factors affecting the development of Ascaridia galli-specific humoral responses and their protective roles are largely unknown. We investigated the effects of time and infection dose on A. galli-specific IgY antibody levels following experimental infection. The acquisition and development of new infections and reinfections were also monitored by using tracer birds. Relationships between the retrospective IgY and the final worm burden of the birds were investigated to determine whether humoral immune responses generated during infection provide protection to the host animal...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772891/the-influence-of-urban-heat-islands-and-socioeconomic-factors-on-the-spatial-distribution-of-aedes-aegypti-larval-habitats
#18
Thiago S De Azevedo, Brian Patrick Bourke, Rafael Piovezan, Maria Anice M Sallum
We addressed the potential associations among the temporal and spatial distribution of larval habitats of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, the presence of urban heat islands and socioeconomic factors. Data on larval habitats were collected in Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil, from 2004 to 2006, and spatial and temporal variations were analysed using a wavelet-based approach. We quantified urban heat islands by calculating surface temperatures using the results of wavelet analyses and grey level transformation from Thematic Mapper images (Landsat 5)...
May 8, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772736/exploring-the-effect-of-phage-therapy-in-preventing-vibrio-anguillarum-infections-in-cod-and-turbot-larvae
#19
Nanna Rørbo, Anita Rønneseth, Panos G Kalatzis, Bastian Barker Rasmussen, Kirsten Engell-Sørensen, Hans Petter Kleppen, Heidrun Inger Wergeland, Lone Gram, Mathias Middelboe
The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and inefficient vaccination at the larval stage of fish emphasizes the need for novel approaches, and phage therapy for controlling Vibrio pathogens has gained interest in the past few years. In this study, we examined the potential of the broad-host-range phage KVP40 to control four different V...
May 16, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772227/evolutionary-shift-towards-lateral-line-dependent-prey-capture-behavior-in-the-blind-mexican-cavefish
#20
Evan Lloyd, Courtney Olive, Bethany A Stahl, James B Jaggard, Paloma Amaral, Erik R Duboue, Alex C Keene
Feeding strategies are dependent on multi-modal sensory processing, that integrates visual, chemosensory, and mechanoreceptive cues. In many fish species, local environments and food availability dramatically influence the evolution of sensory and morphological traits that underlie feeding. The Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus, have developed robust changes in sensory-dependent behaviors, but the impact on prey detection and feeding behavior is not known. In the absence of eyes, cavefish have evolved enhanced sensitivity of the lateral line, comprised of mechanosensory organs that sense water flow and detect prey...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
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