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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531871/echinococcosis-mimicking-liver-malignancy-a-case-report
#1
Radek Pohnan, Miroslav Ryska, Vladislav Hytych, Radek Matej, Petr Hrabal, Jiri Pudil
INTRODUCTION: Human Alveolar Echinococcosis - Alveolar Hydatid disease (AE) is an omitted zoonotic infection presenting with focal liver lesions. Cause of AE is a larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworms. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report an extraordinary case of a 38 year-old female examined due to 2 liver tumors and 2 pulmonary nodules is described. The patient underwent pulmonary and liver surgery for suspected advanced cholangiocellular carcinoma and surprisingly AE was found...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531839/genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-of-atrazine-atanor-50-sc-on-dendropsophus-minutus-peters-1872-anura-hylidae-developmental-larval-stages
#2
Macks Wendhell Gonçalves, Calebe Bertolino Marins de Campos, Vinícius Guerra Batista, Aparecido Divino da Cruz, Paulo de Marco Junior, Rogério Pereira Bastos, Daniela de Melo E Silva
The potential mutagenic and genotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine were investigated in different developmental stages of Dendropsophus minutus tadpoles. These animals were exposed to 4 nominal concentrations of atrazine (2.25, 4.5, 9, and 18 mg/L) and 40 mg/L of Cyclophosphamide as a positive control, for 96 h. Negative controls were also added to the experiment. The tadpoles were divided into three groups according to Gosner's developmental stages, namely GS 25-33 as premetamorphic, GS 36-39 as prometamorphic, and GS 42-43 as metamorphic climax...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529879/beyond-the-raccoon-roundworm-the-natural-history-of-non-raccoon-baylisascaris-species-in-the-new-world
#3
REVIEW
Sarah G H Sapp, Pooja Gupta, Melissa K Martin, Maureen H Murray, Kevin D Niedringhaus, Madeleine A Pfaff, Michael J Yabsley
A total of 10 species of Baylisascaris, a genus of ascaridoid nematodes, occur worldwide and 6 of them occur in the New World. Most of the Baylisascaris species have a similar life cycle with carnivorous mammals or marsupials serving as definitive hosts and a smaller prey host serving as paratenic (or intermediate) hosts. However, one species in rodents is unique in that it only has one host. Considerable research has been conducted on B. procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, as it is a well-known cause of severe to fatal neurologic disease in humans and many wildlife species...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529177/senecio-brasiliensis-impairs-eclosion-rate-and-induces-apoptotic-cell-death-in-larvae-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Karen Kich Gomes, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Gabriel da Luz Wallau, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Litiele Cezar da Cruz, Dennis Guilherme da Costa Silva, Aline Augusti Boligon, Jeferson Luis Franco, Thaís Posser
Senecio brasilienis (Spreng) Less., is a species native from Brazil, popularly known as "maria mole", and known to induce hepatotoxicity due to its high content of Pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Despite its toxicity, this plant is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine. Considering the antagonizing effects described for S. brasiliensis, we describe here molecular markers involved in the toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of S. brasiliensis (HESB) in Drosophila melanogaster. Phytochemical analysis of HESB revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529176/impairment-of-antioxidant-mechanisms-in-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes-by-acute-exposure-to-aluminum
#5
Wilson F Ramírez-Duarte, Tomofumi Kurobe, Swee J Teh
Increasing aluminum (Al) concentrations in aquatic habitats as a result of anthropogenic acidification and industrialization is a global issue. Moreover, in extensive areas of the humid tropics and subtropics, high Al concentrations in freshwater are observed because of both naturally low pH and high Al concentrations in soil. Al increases production of reactive oxygen species and enhances oxidative damage in mammals. However, no studies have examined the effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of Al at low pH on oxidative stress in fish...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529156/transgenerational-effects-of-maternal-and-grandmaternal-age-on-offspring-viability-and-performance-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Margaret C Bloch Qazi, Paige B Miller, Penny M Poeschel, Mai H Phan, Joseph L Thayer, Christian L Medrano
In non-social insects, fitness is determined by relative lifetime fertility. Fertility generally declines with age as a part of senescence. For females, senescence has profound effects on fitness by decreasing viability and fertility as well as those of her offspring. However, important aspects of these maternal effects, including the cause(s) of reduced offspring performance and carry-over effects of maternal age, are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful system for examining potential transgenerational effects of increasing maternal age, because of their use as a model system for studying the physiology and genetic architecture of both reproduction and senescence...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529144/toxicant-induced-behavioural-aberrations-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dependent-on-minor-methodological-alterations
#7
Thomas W K Fraser, Abdolrahman Khezri, Juan G H Jusdado, Anna M Lewandowska-Sabat, Theodore Henry, Erik Ropstad
Alterations in zebrafish motility are used to identify neurotoxic compounds, but few have reported how methodology may affect results. To investigate this, we exposed embryos to bisphenol A (BPA) or tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) before assessing larval motility. Embryos were maintained on a day/night cycle (DN) or in constant darkness, were reared in 96 or 24 well plates (BPA only), and behavioural tests were carried out at 96, 100, or 118 (BPA only) hours post fertilisation (hpf). We found that the prior photo-regime, larval age, and/or arena size influence behavioural outcomes in response to toxicant exposure...
May 18, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528533/first-report-of-angiostrongylus-vasorum-in-a-wild-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-from-apulia-italy
#8
Giuseppe Passantino, Fabio Marino, Gabriella Gaglio, Rosa Patruno, Giovanni Lanteri, Nicola Zizzo
Severe lung strongylosis was detected in a wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) (1/12) from Apulia (Italy). We performed routine diagnostics on 12 foxes found dead in Apulia. Eleven of them showed lesions consistent with a vehicle collision. However, the remaining fox appeared to have died from other causes. At necropsy we observed, catarrhal enteritis, fatty liver, lung congestion with some areas rm in consistence and brain haemorrhages and malacia. Histopathology revealed lung brosis with mononucleate cells in ltration, thrombosis a several larval nematodes spread in the parenchyma, interstitial nephritis, interstitial myocarditis, encephalitis, encephalomalacia, and a brain granuloma...
April 5, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528312/low-sensitivity-of-reproductive-life-stages-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-to-abamectin
#9
Laura J Falkenberg, Anna-Lisa Wrange, Alexandra Kinnby, Jon N Havenhand, Antony Lockyer, Craig A Styan
Hard surfaces submerged in the marine environment often become colonised by macro-organisms unless the surfaces have some form of biofouling protection. While protective paints that contain tributyltin or copper work well to prevent biofouling, release of these materials into the environment has been shown to have wider negative impacts. Consequently, new low-release antifouling paints are being developed with alternative active ingredients, such as avermectins, yet little is known about their potential effects on non-target organisms in marine environments...
May 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526851/characterization-of-trpa-channels-in-the-starfish-patiria-pectinifera-involvement-of-thermally-activated-trpa1-in-thermotaxis-in-marine-planktonic-larvae
#10
Shigeru Saito, Gen Hamanaka, Narudo Kawai, Ryohei Furukawa, Jun Gojobori, Makoto Tominaga, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Yoko Satta
The vast majority of marine invertebrates spend their larval period as pelagic plankton and are exposed to various environmental cues. Here we investigated the thermotaxis behaviors of the bipinnaria larvae of the starfish, Patiria pectinifera, in association with TRPA ion channels that serve as thermal receptors in various animal species. Using a newly developed thermotaxis assay system, we observed that P. pectinifera larvae displayed positive thermotaxis toward high temperatures, including toward temperatures high enough to cause death...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526479/foxo-mediates-the-timing-of-pupation-through-regulating-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#11
Xianyu Lin, Na Yu, Guy Smagghe
The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the major developmental hormone in insects, controls all the developmental transitions including ecdysis and metamorphosis. In our study with last larval stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of Forkhead box protein O (FoxO) resulted in reduced food intake and larval mass and this agreed with a reduction in the expression of insulin signaling-related genes (insulin-like peptides 2, 3, 4, and chico). Interestingly, we also observed a significant delay in the moment of the pupation and these FoxO-silenced larvae then died at the middle pupal stage...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526066/transovarial-transmission-of-denv-in-aedes-aegypti-in-the-amazon-basin-a-local-model-of-xenomonitoring
#12
Cristiano Fernandes da Costa, Ricardo Augusto Dos Passos, José Bento Pereira Lima, Rosemary Aparecida Roque, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Thais Bonifácio Campolina, Nágila Francinete Costa Secundino, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes spp. mosquitoes is considered an important mechanism for the maintenance of the virus in nature and may be implicated in the occurrence of outbreaks and epidemics of the disease. However, there are few studies involving transovarial transmission and viral vector monitoring as a surveillance tool and control strategy. The present study evaluated transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti populations as a xenomonitoring strategy in municipalities of the Amazonas state...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524239/oral-contraceptive-pills-risky-or-protective-in-case-of-trichinella-spiralis-infection
#13
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Dina A Radi, Eiman A Hasby
AIM: to investigate how Trichinella spiralis infection can be affected by contraceptive pills invivo. METHODS: included six groups of female Wistar rats; healthy, Trichinella infected, receiving combined contraceptive pills (COCPs), receiving progestin only pills (POPs), infected receiving COCPs and infected receiving POPs. Parasite burden was measured (two gender worm counts, gravidity, larvae/muscle and RCI). Histopathological examination, immunohistochemical detection of C-kit mast cells & Foxp3+ T-reg...
May 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522854/genetic-tools-to-study-juvenile-hormone-action-in-drosophila
#14
A A Baumann, M J Texada, H M Chen, J N Etheredge, D L Miller, S Picard, R Warner, J W Truman, L M Riddiford
The insect juvenile hormone receptor is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein, a novel type of hormone receptor. In higher flies like Drosophila, the ancestral receptor germ cell-expressed (gce) gene has duplicated to yield the paralog Methoprene-tolerant (Met). These paralogous receptors share redundant function during development but play unique roles in adults. Some aspects of JH function apparently require one receptor or the other. To provide a foundation for studying JH receptor function, we have recapitulated endogenous JH receptor expression with single cell resolution...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522417/physiological-responses-of-insects-to-microbial-fermentation-products-insights-from-the-interactions-between-drosophila-and-acetic-acid
#15
Geonho Kim, Jia Hsin Huang, John G McMullen, Peter D Newell, Angela E Douglas
Acetic acid is a fermentation product of many microorganisms, including some that inhabit the food and guts of Drosophila. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary acetic acid on oviposition and larval performance of Drosophila. At all concentrations tested (0.34-3.4%), acetic acid promoted egg deposition by mated females in no-choice assays; and females preferred to oviposit on diet with acetic acid relative to acetic acid-free diet. However, acetic acid depressed larval performance, particularly extending the development time of both larvae colonized with the bacterium Acetobacter pomorum and axenic (microbe-free) larvae...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522416/implantation-assays-using-the-integument-of-early-stage-bombyx-larvae-insights-into-the-mechanisms-underlying-the-acquisition-of-competence-for-metamorphosis
#16
Tomohiro Inui, Takaaki Daimon
It is widely accepted that the anti-metamorphic action of insect juvenile hormones (JHs) is required to inhibit larval-pupal metamorphosis. However, recent studies using RNAi or knockout techniques reveal that larval status may be maintained independently of JHs during the early larval stages. To investigate why larvae of very early instars do not have competence to metamorphose and how they acquire this competence through larval development, we revisited the classic experiments of Piepho (ca. 1930s) and performed implantation assays using the integument of very young larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522415/behavioural-adaptation-of-the-rice-leaf-folder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-to-short-term-heat-stress
#17
Muhammad Adnan Bodlah, Ling-Ling Gu, Ye Tan, Xiang-Dong Liu
Under ongoing climate warming, both the degree and number of high-temperature events in summer may increase, and behavioural adaptation is an important ecological strategy employed by insects to cope with such events. The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée, is a serious insect pest of rice fields in summer. Population outbreaks have become more frequent in the last ten years. In addition to adult migration, rice leaf folders are thought to have other thermal adaptations. Therefore, the behaviours of larval and adult rice leaf folders, such as leaf folding (making shelter) and habitat selection for pupae and eggs, were observed on rice plants under heat stress...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521944/genomics-of-lepidoptera-saliva-reveals-function-in-herbivory
#18
REVIEW
Loren J Rivera-Vega, Flor E Acevedo, Gary W Felton
Lepidoptera herbivores deposit copious amounts of saliva when feeding. Their saliva is produced by the paired mandibular and labial glands and evidence indicates that it may play an important role in allowing an herbivore to establish on its host plant. Genomic studies of Lepidoptera saliva are beginning to reveal the role of saliva in herbivory. Molecules involved in digestion, detoxification, immunity, defense against plant secondary chemicals, chemoreception and so on have been identified using high throughput genomic tools...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521132/linking-neurons-to-network-function-and-behavior-by-two-photon-holographic-optogenetics-and-volumetric-imaging
#19
Marco Dal Maschio, Joseph C Donovan, Thomas O Helmbrecht, Herwig Baier
We introduce a flexible method for high-resolution interrogation of circuit function, which combines simultaneous 3D two-photon stimulation of multiple targeted neurons, volumetric functional imaging, and quantitative behavioral tracking. This integrated approach was applied to dissect how an ensemble of premotor neurons in the larval zebrafish brain drives a basic motor program, the bending of the tail. We developed an iterative photostimulation strategy to identify minimal subsets of channelrhodopsin (ChR2)-expressing neurons that are sufficient to initiate tail movements...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520808/proteomic-analysis-of-biomphalaria-glabrata-plasma-proteins-with-binding-affinity-to-those-expressed-by-early-developing-larval-schistosoma-mansoni
#20
Xiao-Jun Wu, Nathalie Dinguirard, Grzegorz Sabat, Hong-di Lui, Laura Gonzalez, Michael Gehring, Utibe Bickham-Wright, Timothy P Yoshino
Interactions between early developing Schistosoma mansoni larval stages and the hemolymph of its snail intermediate host represent the first molecular encounter with the snail's immune system. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of this early parasite-host interaction, biotinylated sporocyst tegumental membrane (Mem) proteins and larval transformation proteins (LTP) were affixed to streptavidin-agarose beads and used as affinity matrices to enrich for larval-reactive plasma proteins from susceptible (NMRI) and resistant (BS-90) strains of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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