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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149480/the-characterisation-of-iron-iii-in-seawater-and-related-toxicity-to-early-life-stages-of-scleractinian-corals
#1
Justin Leigh-Smith, Amanda Reichelt-Brushett, Andrew L Rose
Currently toxicity data for iron (Fe) in seawater is limited; furthermore these data are of poor quality due to the importance of Fe solubility in test solutions being overlooked. This study characterised the solubility and lability of Fe(III) in seawater and then examined the effects of Fe(III) on the fertilisation success and larval survival of the tropical marine scleractinian corals Acropora spathulata and Platygyra daedalea. Here we present the first assessment of the effects of Fe on the early life stages of scleractinian corals...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149192/diet-improvement-for-western-corn-rootworm-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larvae
#2
Man P Huynh, Lisa N Meihls, Bruce E Hibbard, Stephen L Lapointe, Randall P Niedz, Dalton C Ludwick, Thomas A Coudron
The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most serious insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and parts of Europe, and arguably one of the world's most expensive pests to control. Several diet formulations are currently used by industry and public researchers to evaluate WCR larvae in diet-toxicity bioassays. However, a publicly available diet that produces normative insects that are physiologically similar to WCR larvae reared on corn roots will accelerate development of management technologies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146985/drosophila-muscles-regulate-the-immune-response-against-wasp-infection-via-carbohydrate-metabolism
#3
Hairu Yang, Dan Hultmark
We recently found that JAK/STAT signaling in skeletal muscles is important for the immune response of Drosophila larvae against wasp infection, but it was not clear how muscles could affect the immune response. Here we show that insulin signaling is required in muscles, but not in fat body or hemocytes, during larval development for an efficient encapsulation response and for the formation of lamellocytes. This effect requires TOR signaling. We show that muscle tissue affects the immune response by acting as a master regulator of carbohydrate metabolism in the infected animal, via JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles, and that there is indirect positive feedback between JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146770/environmental-population-and-life-stage-plasticity-in-the-visual-system-of-atlantic-cod
#4
Ragnhild Valen, Rita Karlsen, Jon Vidar Helvik
The visual system is for many fishes essential in guiding behaviors such as foraging, predator avoidance and mate choice. The marine environment is characterized by large spatiotemporal fluctuations in light intensity and spectral composition. However, visual capabilities are restricted by both space limitations set by eye size, and by the genomic content of light absorbing opsin genes. The rich array of visual opsins in teleosts may be used differentially to tune vision towards specific needs during ontogeny, and to changing light...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146197/illicit-drug-ketamine-induces-adverse-effects-from-behavioral-alterations-and-oxidative-stress-to-p53-regulated-apoptosis-in-medaka-fish-under-environmentally-relevant-exposures
#5
Pei-Han Liao, Wen-Kai Yang, Ching-Hsin Yang, Chun-Hon Lin, Chin-Chu Hwang, Pei-Jen Chen
With increasing problems of drug abuse worldwide, aquatic ecosystems are contaminated by human pharmaceuticals from the discharge of hospital or municipal effluent. However, ecotoxicity data and related toxic mechanism for neuroactive controlled or illicit drugs are still lacking, so assessing the associated hazardous risk is difficult. This study aims to investigate the behavioral changes, oxidative stress, gene expression and neurotoxic or apoptosis effect(s) in larvae of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) with environmentally relevant exposures of ketamine (KET) solutions for 1-14 days...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146144/drosophila-adult-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#6
REVIEW
Rajesh D Gunage, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Myogenesis is a highly orchestrated, complex developmental process by which cell lineages that are mesodermal in origin generate differentiated multinucleate muscle cells as a final product. Considerable insight into the process of myogenesis has been obtained for the embryonic development of the larval muscles of Drosophila. More recently, the postembryonic development of the muscles of the adult fly has become a focus of experimental investigation of myogenesis since specific flight muscles of the fly manifest remarkable similarities to vertebrate muscles in their development and organization...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145867/environmental-variables-associated-with-anopheline-larvae-distribution-and-abundance-in-yanomami-villages-within-unaltered-areas-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#7
Jordi Sánchez-Ribas, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, John E Gimnig, Cleomar Pereira-Ribeiro, Maycon Sebastião Alberto Santos-Neves, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento
BACKGROUND: Many indigenous villages in the Amazon basin still suffer from a high malaria burden. Despite this health situation, there are few studies on the bionomics of anopheline larvae in such areas. This publication aims to identify the main larval habitats of the most abundant anopheline species and to assess their associations with some environmental factors. METHODS: We conducted a 19-month longitudinal study from January 2013 to July 2014, sampling anopheline larvae in two indigenous Yanomami communities, comprised of four villages each...
November 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145452/behavioral-climatic-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infections-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-2015-16
#8
Trevon L Fuller, Guilherme Calvet, Camila Genaro Estevam, Jussara Rafael Angelo, Gbenga J Abiodun, Umme-Aiman Halai, Bianca De Santis, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira, Eliane Machado Araujo, Simone Alves Sampaio, Marco Cesar Lima de Mendonça, Allison Fabri, Rita Maria Ribeiro, Ryan Harrigan, Thomas B Smith, Claudia Raja Gabaglia, Patrícia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Karin Nielsen-Saines
The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459) from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145160/larval-development-ratio-test-with-the-calanoid-copepod-acartia-tonsa-as-a-new-bioassay-to-assess-marine-sediment-quality
#9
Isabella Buttino, Valentina Vitiello, Simona Macchia, Alice Scuderi, David Pellegrini
The copepod Acartia tonsa was used as a model species to assess marine sediment quality. Acute and chronic bioassays, such as larval development ratio (LDR) and different end-points were evaluated. As a pelagic species, A. tonsa is mainly exposed to water-soluble toxicants and bioassays are commonly performed in seawater. However, an interaction among A. tonsa eggs and the first larval stages with marine sediments might occur in shallow water environments. Here we tested two different LDR protocols by incubating A...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145143/biodegradation-of-polystyrene-wastes-in-yellow-mealworms-larvae-of-tenebrio-molitor-linnaeus-factors-affecting-biodegradation-rates-and-the-ability-of-polystyrene-fed-larvae-to-complete-their-life-cycle
#10
Shan-Shan Yang, Anja Malawi Brandon, James Christopher Andrew Flanagan, Jun Yang, Daliang Ning, Shen-Yang Cai, Han-Qing Fan, Zhi-Yue Wang, Jie Ren, Eric Benbow, Nan-Qi Ren, Robert M Waymouth, Jizhong Zhou, Craig S Criddle, Wei-Min Wu
Commercial production of polystyrene (PS) -a persistent plastic that is not biodegradable at appreciable rates in most environments-has led to its accumulation as a major contaminant of land, rivers, lakes, and oceans. Recently, however, an environment was identified in which PS is susceptible to rapid biodegradation: the larval gut of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworms). In this study, we evaluate PS degradation capabilities of a previously untested strain of T. molitor and assess its survival and PS biodegradation rates for a range of conditions (two simulated food wastes, three temperatures, seven PS waste types)...
October 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145051/towards-stressor-specific-macroinvertebrate-indices-which-traits-and-taxonomic-groups-are-associated-with-vulnerable-and-tolerant-taxa
#11
Elisabeth Berger, Peter Haase, Ralf B Schäfer, Andrea Sundermann
Monitoring of macroinvertebrate communities is frequently used to define the ecological health status of rivers. Ideally, biomonitoring should also give an indication on the major stressors acting on the macroinvertebrate communities supporting the selection of appropriate management measures. However, most indices are affected by more than one stressor. Biological traits (e.g. size, generation time, reproduction) could potentially lead to more stressor-specific indices. However, such an approach has rarely been tested...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144215/a-filtration-based-rapid-test-using-a-partially-purified-third-stage-larval-antigen-to-detect-specific-antibodies-for-the-diagnosis-of-gnathostomiasis
#12
A Ma, Y Wang, X L Liu, H M Zhang, P Eamsobhana, H S Yong, X X Gan
Human gnathostomiasis is an emerging food-borne parasitic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. Currently, serological tests are commonly applied to support clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a simple and rapid filtration-based test, dot immune-gold filtration assay (DIGFA) was developed using a partially purified antigen of Gnathostoma third-stage larvae (L3). A total of 180 serum samples were tested to evaluate the diagnostic potential of DIGFA for gnathostomiasis. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 96...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143683/the-progression-of-heartworm-associated-respiratory-disease-hard-in-spf-cats-18%C3%A2-months-after-dirofilaria-immitis-infection
#13
A Ray Dillon, Bryon L Blagburn, Michael Tillson, William Brawner, Betsy Welles, Calvin Johnson, Russell Cattley, Pat Rynders, Sharron Barney
BACKGROUND: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) in cats is induced by the arrival and death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary system and is indistinguishable from mature adult heartworm infection. METHODS: A controlled, blind research study investigated the long-term (18 months post infection, PI) consequences of the inflammatory response associated with the death of immature adult heartworms in cats. Three groups of cats, 10 per group, were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142533/corrigendum-rna-seq-comparison-of-larval-and-adult-malpighian-tubules-of-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-reveals-life-stage-specific-changes-in-renal-function
#14
Yiyi Li, Peter M Piermarini, Carlos J Esquivel, David P Price, Hannah E Drumm, Faye D Schilkey, Immo A Hansen
[This corrects the article on p. 283 in vol. 8, PMID: 28536536.].
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142433/prosopis-juliflora-pods-alkaloid-rich-fraction-in-vitro-anthelmintic-activity-on-goat-gastrointestinal-parasites-and-its-cytotoxicity-on-vero-cells
#15
Helimar Gonçalves Lima, Danilo Cavalcante Gomes, Nathália Silva Santos, Êuder Reis Dias, Mariana Borges Botura, Maria José Moreira Batatinha, Alexsandro Branco
Background: This study was designed to assess the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the fraction containing alkaloid from Prosopis juliflora pods on goat gastrointestinal nematodes using the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA), and larval motility assay (LMA). Materials and Methods: The alkaloid-rich fraction (AF) - content juliprosopine as major alkaloid - was obtained from ethyl acetate extract after fractionation in Sephadex LH-20 chromatography column and its characterization were made by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis together with literature data comparison...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142316/sedentary-behavior-and-altered-metabolic-activity-by-agnps-ingestion-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Akanksha Raj, Prasanna Shah, Namita Agrawal
Among several nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are extensively used in a wide variety of consumer products due to its unique antimicrobial property. However, dosage effect of AgNPs on behavior and metabolic activity in an in vivo condition is not well studied. Therefore, to elucidate the impact of AgNPs on behavior and metabolism, systematic and detailed dosages study of AgNPs was performed by rearing Drosophila melanogaster on food without and with AgNPs. We found that dietary intake of AgNPs at early larval stage leads to behavioral abnormalities such as poor crawling and climbing ability of larvae and adults respectively...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142237/inner-ear-otolith-asymmetry-in-late-larval-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus-perciformes-showing-kinetotic-behaviour-under-diminished-gravity
#17
Ralf Anken, Miriam Knie, Reinhard Hilbig
The inner ears of all vertebrates are designed to perceive auditory and vestibular inputs. Although a tremendous diversity in the inner ear can be found even among bony fishes, the morphologies of the utricle and of the semicircular canals are rather conservative among vertebrates. Fish show kinetoses under reduced gravity (spinning movements and looping responses) and are regarded model organisms concerning the performance of the otolithic organs. Otoliths can be analysed easily because they are compact, in contrast to the otoconial masses of other vertebrates...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142194/transient-cardiomyocyte-fusion-regulates-cardiac-development-in-zebrafish
#18
Suphansa Sawamiphak, Zacharias Kontarakis, Alessandro Filosa, Sven Reischauer, Didier Y R Stainier
Cells can sacrifice their individuality by fusing, but the prevalence and significance of this process are poorly understood. To approach these questions, here we generate transgenic reporter lines in zebrafish to label and specifically ablate fused cells. In addition to skeletal muscle cells, the reporters label cardiomyocytes starting at an early developmental stage. Genetic mosaics generated by cell transplantation show cardiomyocytes expressing both donor- and host-derived transgenes, confirming the occurrence of fusion in larval hearts...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142093/developmental-changes-in-spinal-neuronal-properties-motor-network-configuration-and-neuromodulation-at-free-swimming-stages-of-xenopus-frog-tadpoles
#19
Stephen Paul Currie, Keith Thomas Sillar
We describe a novel preparation of the isolated brainstem and spinal cord from pro-metamorphic tadpole stages of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that permits whole cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Previous research on earlier stages of the same species has provided one of the most detailed understandings of the design and operation of a CPG circuit. Here we have addressed how development sculpts complexity from this more basic circuit. The preparation generates bouts of fictive swimming activity either spontaneously or in response to electrical stimulation of the optic tectum, allowing an investigation into how the neuronal properties, activity patterns and neuromodulation of locomotor rhythm generation change during development...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141955/the-constant-threat-from-a-non-native-predator-increases-tail-muscle-and-fast-start-swimming-performance-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#20
Tsukasa Mori, Yukio Yanagisawa, Yoichiro Kitani, Goshi Yamamoto, Naoko Goto-Inoue, Tadashi Kimura, Keiko Kashiwagi, Akihiko Kashiwagi
Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity is the ability of prey to adapt to their native predator. However, owing to environmental changes, encounters with unknown predators are inevitable. Therefore, study of prey and non-native predator interaction will reveal the primary stages of adaptive strategies in prey-predator interactions in the context of evolutionary processes. Here, Xenopus tadpoles exposed to a non-native predator, a larval salamander, showed a significant increase in body weight and tail length to body length ratio...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
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