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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922901/localization-of-an-aldo-keto-reductase-akr2e4-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-lepidoptera-bombycidae
#1
K Yamamoto, Y Ozakiya, T Uno
The aldo-keto reductase AKR2E4 reduces 3-dehydroecdysone to ecdysone in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. In this study, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the level of AKR2E4 mRNA was higher in the testes than in other tissues, and a western immunoblot analysis revealed that the AKR2E4 content in the testes was stage-specific from the fifth larval instar to the pupal stage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the AKR2E4 protein was present in cyst cells associated with sperm cells and spermatocytes...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922900/grass-pollen-affects-survival-and-development-of-larval-anopheles-arabiensis-diptera-culicidae
#2
Yelfwagash Asmare, Richard J Hopkins, Habte Tekie, Sharon R Hill, Rickard Ignell
Nutrients in breeding sites are critical for the survival and development of malaria mosquitoes, having a direct impact on vectorial capacity. Yet, there is a limited understanding about the natural larval diet and its impact on the individual fitness of mosquitoes. Recent studies have shown that gravid Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted by and oviposit in grass-associated habitats. The pollen provided by these grasses is a potential source of nutrients for the larvae. Here, we assess the effect of Typha latifolia L...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919559/adipokinetic-hormone-receptor-gene-identification-and-its-role-in-triacylglycerol-mobilization-and-sexual-behavior-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#3
Qiu-Li Hou, Er-Hu Chen, Hong-Bo Jiang, Dan-Dan Wei, Shun-Hua Gui, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Energy homeostasis requires continuous compensation for fluctuations in energy expenditure and availability of food resources. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) where it is regulating the nutritional status by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In this study, we characterized the gene coding for the AKH receptor (AKHR) and investigated its function in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit...
September 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919405/exploration-of-stable-isotope-analysis-for-tick-host-identification
#4
Kathleen LoGiudice, Kathryn Kurchena, Katherine Christopher, Natasha Scott
Due to the problem of tick-borne diseases, there is a need to better understand the importance of different host species in maintaining enzootic disease cycles. We explored the utility of stable isotope analysis to identify the larval hosts of questing ixodid ticks. In laboratory experiments, we used Ixodes scapularis and two host species that are important in the Lyme disease system in eastern North America. First, we tested how effectively a short-term dietary tracer ((13)C in corn) was reflected in molted ticks...
September 7, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917319/morphological-and-molecular-analyses-of-tylodelphys-spp-metacercaria-trematoda-diplostomidae-from-the-vitreous-humour-of-two-freshwater-fish-species-channa-gachua-ham-and-puntius-sophore-ham
#5
Anshu Chaudhary, Shivi Gupta, Richa Tripathi, Hridaya S Singh
Trematodes of family Diplostomatidae consists of a large and diverse group of parasites which have larval stages that are very important pathogens of wild and cultured freshwater fishes worldwide, can cause serious impacts. Our understanding of the diplostomids diversity, though, remains deficient and limited especially in India. In the present study, the morphology and molecular characterization of Tylodelphys spp. from the vitreous humour of eye, collected from two economically important food fish, dwarf snakehead Channa gachua (Perciformes: Channidae) and pool barb Puntius sophore (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) were described from Bijnor and Meerut, Uttar Pradesh (U...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917212/comparative-analytical-and-toxicological-assessment-of-methylcyclohexanemethanol-mchm-mixtures-associated-with-the-elk-river-chemical-spill
#6
Katharine A Horzmann, Chloe de Perre, Linda S Lee, Andrew J Whelton, Jennifer L Freeman
On January 9, 2014, a chemical mixture containing crude methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) contaminated the water supply of Charleston, West Virginia. Although the mixture was later identified as a mix of crude MCHM and stripped propylene glycol phenyl ethers, initial risk assessment focused on 4-MCHM, the predominant component of crude MCHM. The mixture's exact composition and the toxicity differences between 4-MCHM, crude MCHM, and the tank mixture were unknown. We analyzed the chemical composition of crude MCHM and the tank mixture via GC/MS and, based on identified spectra, found that crude MCHM and the tank mixture differed in chemical composition...
September 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916787/late-permian-wood-borings-reveal-an-intricate-network-of-ecological-relationships
#7
Zhuo Feng, Jun Wang, Ronny Rößler, Adam Ślipiński, Conrad Labandeira
Beetles are the most diverse group of macroscopic organisms since the mid-Mesozoic. Much of beetle speciosity is attributable to myriad life habits, particularly diverse-feeding strategies involving interactions with plant substrates, such as wood. However, the life habits and early evolution of wood-boring beetles remain shrouded in mystery from a limited fossil record. Here we report new material from the upper Permian (Changhsingian Stage, ca. 254-252 million-years ago) of China documenting a microcosm of ecological associations involving a polyphagan wood-borer consuming cambial and wood tissues of the conifer Ningxiaites specialis...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916169/the-large-and-small-spen-family-proteins-stimulate-axon-outgrowth-during-neurosecretory-cell-remodeling-in-drosophila
#8
Tingting Gu, Tao Zhao, Uday Kohli, Randall S Hewes
Split ends (SPEN) is the founding member of a well conserved family of nuclear proteins with critical functions in transcriptional regulation and the post-transcriptional processing and nuclear export of transcripts. In animals, the SPEN proteins fall into two size classes that perform either complementary or antagonistic functions in different cellular contexts. Here, we show that the two Drosophila representatives of this family, SPEN and Spenito (NITO), regulate metamorphic remodeling of the CCAP/bursicon neurosecretory cells...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915832/dogs-as-victims-of-their-own-worms-serodiagnosis-of-canine-alveolar-echinococcosis
#9
C F Frey, N Marreros, S Renneker, L Schmidt, H Sager, B Hentrich, S Milesi, B Gottstein
BACKGROUND: Besides acting as definitive hosts for Echinococcus multilocularis, dogs can become infected by the larval form of this parasite and thereby develop life-threatening alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Although AE is a zoonotic disease, most therapeutic and diagnostic approaches have been developed for human patients. In dogs, AE is typically diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease when the parasitic mass has already caused abdominal distension. At that stage, complete resection of the parasitic mass is often impossible, leaving a guarded prognosis for the affected dogs...
September 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915542/comparative-susceptibility-of-two-neotropical-predators-eriopis-connexa-and-chrysoperla-externa-to-acetamiprid-and-pyriproxyfen-short-and-long-term-effects-after-egg-exposure
#10
Federico Rimoldi, Marilina N Fogel, Alicia E Ronco, Marcela I Schneider
Compatibility assessments between selective insecticides and the natural enemies of pests are essential for integrated-pest-management programs. Chrysoperla externa and Eriopis connexa are two principal Neotropical predators of agricultural pests whose conservation in agroecosystems requires a toxicity evaluation of pesticides to minimize the impact on those beneficial insects on the environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the insecticides pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid on C. externa and E...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914357/erratum-to-density-dependent-effects-of-larval-dispersal-mediated-by-host-plant-quality-on-populations-of-an-invasive-insect
#11
Adam A Pepi, Hannah J Broadley, Joseph S Elkinton
There was a coding error in the original paper resulting in incorrect model parameter estimates and in some cases incorrect model conclusions. The error was the specification of logistic models (using the glm and glmer functions) in R as cbind (survived, total) instead of cbind (survived, dead). The differences between the originally published and correct models of those affected are detailed.
September 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913166/anisakidae-nematodes-isolated-from-the-flathead-grey-mullet-fish-mugil-cephalus-of-buenaventura-colombia
#12
Jenniffer Alejandra Castellanos, Andrés Ricardo Tangua, Liliana Salazar
Anisakiasis is a parasitic infection caused by larval stages of nematodes of the genus Anisakis, Pseudoterranova and Contracaecum, of the Anisakidae family. The lifecycle of these nematodes develops in aquatic organisms and their final hosts are marine mammals. However, humans can act as accidental hosts and become infected with infective stage larvae (L3) by consuming raw or undercooked fish or shellfish carrying the parasite. Of this group of parasites, the genus Anisakis is the most studied: its presence in humans is associated with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms or allergic responses that can trigger anaphylactic shock...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912375/organ-culture-of-the-xenopus-tadpole-intestine
#13
Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
During Xenopus metamorphosis, most tadpole organs remodel from the larval to adult form to prepare for adaptation to terrestrial life. Organ culture serves as an important tool for studying larval-to-adult organ remodeling independent of the effects of other parts of the body. Here, I introduce a protocol for organ culture in vitro using the Xenopus laevis tadpole intestine before metamorphic climax. During culture in the absence of exogenous 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the most potent natural thyroid hormone, the intestine remains in its larval state without any metamorphic changes...
September 14, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912257/nurse-honeybee-workers-tend-capped-brood-which-does-not-require-feeding-around-the-clock
#14
Moshe Nagari, Yafit Brenner, Guy Bloch
"Nurse" honeybees tend brood around-the-clock with attenuated or no circadian rhythms, but the brood signals inducing this behavior remain elusive. We first tested the hypothesis that worker circadian rhythms are regulated by brood pheromones. We monitored locomotor activity of individually isolated nurse bees that were either exposed to various doses of larval extracts or synthetic brood ester pheromone (BEP). Bees orally treated with larvae extracts showed attenuated circadian rhythms in one of four tested colonies; a similar but statistically non-significant trend was seen in two additional colonies...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911744/identification-of-two-novel-p450-genes-and-their-responses-to-deltamethrin-in-the-cabbage-moth-mamestra-brassicae-linnaeus
#15
Xia Zhou, Xing Fan, Yanling Gao, Jing Yang, Jin Qian, Dong Fan
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, found in virtually all living organisms, play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, pesticides, and plant toxins. In this study, we identified two novel cytochrome P450 genes from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae Linnaeus. They were named CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 (GenBank Accession Nos.: KX008607 and JQ901385, respectively) by the P450 Nomenclature Committee. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription revealed that CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 were highly expressed in the fat bodies and were differentially expressed at different larval developmental stages...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910410/the-function-of-drosophila-larval-class-iv-dendritic-arborization-sensory-neurons-in-the-larval-pupal-transition-is-separable-from-their-function-in-mechanical-nociception-responses
#16
Hannah E Brown, Trishna Desai, Allison J Murphy, Harshida Pancholi, Zachary W Schmidt, Hannah Swahn, Eric C Liebl
The sensory and physiological inputs which govern the larval-pupal transition in Drosophila, and the neuronal circuity that integrates them, are complex. Previous work from our laboratory identified a dosage-sensitive genetic interaction between the genes encoding the Rho-GEF Trio and the zinc-finger transcription factor Sequoia that interfered with the larval-pupal transition. Specifically, we reported heterozygous mutations in sequoia (seq) dominantly exacerbated the trio mutant phenotype, and this seq-enhanced trio mutant genotype blocked the transition of third instar larvae from foragers to wanderers, a requisite behavioral transition prior to pupation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905914/erratum-a-novel-mechanism-for-mechanosensory-based-rheotaxis-in-larval-zebrafish
#17
Pablo Oteiza, Iris Odstrcil, George Lauder, Ruben Portugues, Florian Engert
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature23014.
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905324/the-diatraea-complex-lepidoptera-crambidae-in-colombia-s-cauca-river-valley-making-a-case-for-the-geographically-localized-approach
#18
G Vargas, L A Lastra, G D Ramírez, M A Solís
The sugarcane stem borers Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) and D. indigenella Dyar & Heinrich are common pests of sugarcane crops in Colombia's Cauca river valley (CRV). In 2012, however, D. tabernella Dyar was recorded for the first time in northern CRV and just 1 year later, D. busckella Dyar & Heinrich was detected, also for the first time, in central CRV. The Diatraea outbreak in the CRV was studied, its distribution and population in the region was analyzed, and levels of larval parasitism were observed...
September 13, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902964/plasmatic-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis-in-healthy-and-otostrongylus-affected-northern-elephant-seals-mirounga-angustirostris
#19
Sarrah Kaye, Shawn Johnson, Carlos Rios, Daniel J Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Prepatent Otostrongylus arteritis results in hemorrhagic diathesis in free-ranging Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) attributed to aberrant larval migration of the lungworm, Otostrongylus circumlitus. Clinical signs are often nonspecific, including lethargy, anorexia, and blepharospasm, but can progress to spontaneous frank hemorrhage and death within 72 hours of onset. Previously published case reports describe coagulopathy with prolonged PT and APTT, normal to elevated platelet counts, normal antithrombin concentrations, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products...
September 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902918/phylogeography-and-larval-spine-length-of-the-dragonfly-leucorhinia-dubia-in-europe
#20
Frank Johansson, Peter Halvarsson, Dirk J Mikolajewski, Jacob Höglund
Presence or absence of predators selects for different kind of morphologies. Hence, we expect variation in traits that protect against predators to vary over geographical areas where predators vary in past and present abundance. Abdominal larval spines in dragonfly larvae provide protection against fish predators. We studied geographical variation in larval spine length of the dragonfly Leucorrhinia dubia across Western Europe using a phylogenetic approach. Larvae were raised in a common garden laboratory experiment in the absence of fish predators...
2017: PloS One
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