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Cancer chemoprevention

Jiansong Ren, Gwen Murphy, Jinhu Fan, Sanford M Dawsey, Philip R Taylor, Jacob Selhub, Youlin Qiao, Christian C Abnet
B vitamins play an essential role in DNA synthesis and methylation, and may protect against oesophageal and gastric cancers. In this case-cohort study, subjects were enrolled from the General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial in Linxian, China. Subjects included 498 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), 255 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCAs), and an age- and sex-matched sub-cohort of 947 individuals. Baseline serum riboflavin, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), folate, vitamin B12, and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) were measured for all subjects...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Min Ji Bak, Van-Long Truong, Se-Yeon Ko, Xuan Ngan Giang Nguyen, Mira Jun, Soon-Gi Hong, Jong-Won Lee, Woo-Sik Jeong
BACKGROUND: The induction of cellular defensive genes such as phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes is a highly effective strategy for protection against carcinogenesis as well as slowing cancer development. Transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) is responsible for activation of phase II enzymes induced by natural chemopreventive compounds. METHODS: Red ginseng oil (RGO) was extracted using a supercritical CO2 extraction system and chemical profile of RGO was investigated by GC/MS...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Guglielmo Costa, Carlo Andreotti, Moreno Paolini
Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated...
October 11, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Gianandrea Traversi, Mario Fiore, Zulema Percario, Francesca Degrassi, Renata Cozzi
Natural compounds are extensively studied for their potential use in traditional and non-traditional medicine. Several natural and synthetic Resveratrol analogues have shown interesting biological activities in the field of cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we have focused on the ability of Resveratrol and two methoxylated derivatives (Trimethoxystilbene and Pterostilbene) to inhibit human cancer cell growth particularly analyzing their ability to interfere with tubulin dynamics at mitosis. We show that Trimethoxystilbene, differently from Resveratrol and Pterostilbene, alters microtubule polymerization dynamics in HeLa cells specifically inducing multipolar spindles and mitotic arrest coupled to a reduction of cell growth and an increase in apoptotic death by mitotic catastrophe...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Ruth Heisey, June C Carroll
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the best evidence on strategies to identify and manage women with a family history of breast cancer. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A PubMed search was conducted using the search terms breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management, and magnetic resonance imaging screening from 2000 to 2016. Most evidence is level II. MAIN MESSAGE: Taking a good family history is essential when assessing breast cancer risk in order to identify women suitable for referral to a genetic counselor for possible genetic testing...
October 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Kaili Zhang, Ying Wang, Weiyuan Ma, Zhigang Hu, Pengxin Zhao
Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a common autoimmune disease. Genistein is an isoflavone with immunomodulatory functions in various diseases. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study, we investigated the effects of genistein on patients with HT. A total of 218 patients were recruited. Genistein treated patients had a significant increased T4, fT4 levels, as well as reduction in serum TSH, TPOAb and TgAb levels, compared with those receiving placebo. Furthermore, Th1 related cytokine IFN-γ and IL-2 changes after genistein treatment suggest the immune modulating effect of genistein is mediated through regulating the function of Th1 cells...
October 4, 2016: Immunobiology
Sreekanth C Narayanapillai, Shang-Hsuan Lin, Pablo Leitzman, Pramod Upadhyaya, Carolyn J Baglole, Chengguo Xing
4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a key carcinogen responsible for tobacco smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis. Among DNA damages caused by NNK and its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), O6-methylguanine (O6-mG) is likely the most carcinogenic in A/J mice. Results of our previous studies showed that O6-mG and other NNAL-derived DNA damages were preferentially reduced in the lung of female A/J mice upon the dietary treatment with dihydromethysticin (DHM), a promising lung cancer chemopreventive agent from kava...
October 11, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Xiaojuan Liu, Mingyue Song, Zili Gao, Xiaokun Cai, William Dixon, Xiaofeng Chen, Yong Cao, Hang Xiao
Astaxanthin (AST) is a xanthophyll carotenoid with potential protective effects against carcinogenesis. Different stereoisomers of AST (ASTs) exist in a variety of food sources. Due to limited information on the bioactivities of ASTs, the present study investigated the inhibitory effects of ASTs on HCT116 and HT29 human colon cancer cells. ASTs investigated herein included 3S,3'S (S) from Haematococcus pluvialis, 3R,3'R (R) from Phaffia rhodozyma, and a statistical mixture (S: meso: R = 1:2:1) (M) from synthetic AST...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rosa Lauretta, Giulia Lanzolla, Patrizia Vici, Luciano Mariani, Costanzo Moretti, Marialuisa Appetecchia
Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Marie Daugan, Amélie Dufaÿ Wojcicki, Benoit d'Hayer, Vincent Boudy
Since epidemiologic data have highlighted the positive effects of metformin to reduce cancer incidence and mortality, many in vitro and in vivo studies as well as a large number of clinical trials have been conducted in order to study its potential. The many anticancer actions of metformin lead to a cytostatic effect. Two distinct but not exclusive mechanisms can be implicated in these actions. First, by decreasing insulinemia and glycaemia, metformin can block the PI3K/MAPK signalling pathway implicated in cell growth...
October 5, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
F Farabegoli, E S Scarpa, A Frati, G Serafini, A Papi, E Spisni, E Antonini, S Benedetti, P Ninfali
Vitexin-2-O-xyloside (XVX) from Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. (BVc) seeds, betaxanthin (R1) and betacyanin (R2) fractions from Beta vulgaris var. rubra L. (BVr) roots were combined and tested for cytotoxicity in CaCo-2 colon cancer cells. XVX was the most cytotoxic molecule, but the combination of XVX with R1 and R2 significantly prolonged its cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was mediated by the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as shown by an increase in Bcl2-like protein 4, cleaved Poly ADP-Ribosyl Polymerase 1 and cleaved Caspase 3 levels with a parallel decrease in anti-apoptotic protein B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 levels...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Lili Zhang, Shuli Man, Huanna Qiu, Zhen Liu, Mi Zhang, Long Ma, Wenyuan Gao
Curcumin (CUR), as a yellow pigment in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), possessed a pleiotropic application containing cancer therapy. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, the objective of this study was to investigate the use of curcumin-cyclodextrin complexes (CD15) as an approach to cancer chemoprevention. In this study, CUR encapsulation into the β-cyclodextrin (CD) cavity was achieved by the saturated aqueous solution method. CD15 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV spectra analyses...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Christian Schem, Robert J Tower, Philipp Kneissl, Anna-Christina Rambow, Graeme M Campbell, Christine Desel, Timo Damm, Thorsten Heilmann, Sabine Fuchs, Maaz Zuharya, Anna Trauzold, Claus C Glüer, Sarah Schott, Sanjay Tiwari
Bisphosphonates have effects which are anti-resorptive, anti-tumor and anti-apoptotic to osteoblasts and osteocytes, but an effective means of eliciting these multiple activities in the treatment of bone metastases has not been identified. Antimetabolite-bisphosphonate conjugates have potential for improved performance as a class of bone specific anti-neoplastic drugs. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether an antimetabolite-bisphosphonate conjugate will preserve bone formation concomitant with anti-resorptive and anti-tumor activity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
R Fabiani
Epidemiological studies suggest that olive oil intake is associated to a reduced risk of cancer. Recently, the chemopreventive activity of olive oil has been attributed to its unique phenolic compounds represented by phenolic alcohols, hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol: 3,4-DHPEA) and tyrosol (p-hydroxyphenylethanol: p-HPEA), and their secoiridoid derivatives 3,4-DHPEA-EA (oleuropein aglycon), p-HPEA-EA (ligstroside aglycon), 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA (oleocanthal), and oleuropein. Several studies have demonstrated that these compounds are able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in different tumor cell lines...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Kyle E Horst, Susan C Modesitt
OBJECTIVES: Endometrial cancer remains the fourth most common malignancy among US women, and hormonal contraceptives drastically reduce this risk. The study objectives were to assess the prescribing patterns, counseling practices, and knowledge of family physicians and obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) regarding hormonal contraceptives, obesity, and cancer prevention. METHODS: A 25-question survey was mailed to 4600 OB/GYNs and family practitioners licensed in Virginia to assess self-reported hormonal contraceptive prescription practices, patient evaluation and counseling, and gynecologic oncology knowledge...
October 2016: Southern Medical Journal
Chun-Chao Chen, Yi-Ping Hsu, Ju-Chi Liu, Pai-Feng Kao, Li-Chin Sung, Chao-Feng Lin, Wen-Rui Hao, Shing-Hwa Liu, Szu-Yuan Wu
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased cancer risk. We evaluated the chemopreventive effect of statins against all cancers in COPD patients and identified the statin with the strongest chemopreventive effect. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients diagnosed with COPD at health care facilities in Taiwan (n = 116,017) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2012, were recruited. Each patient was followed to assess the following protective and risk factors for all cancers: age; sex; comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia) and the Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]); urbanization level; monthly income; and nonstatin drug use...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Barbara Bonamassa, Donatella Canistro, Andrea Sapone, Fabio Vivarelli, Andrea Vornoli, Vincenzo Longo, Moreno Paolini
Fruit and vegetables (FV) have long been considered a panacea against major chronic diseases, including cancer. However, there is no convincing epidemiological, clinical or experimental evidence supporting FV chemopreventive ability. A daily mono-supplementation of lyophilized onion, tomato, peach, black grape or lettuce was compared with the daily combined administration of the same FV (5 a day-like diet). Ten days post-treatment, the phase-I/II xenobiotic metabolizing and antioxidant enzyme activities, protein and mRNA levels were investigated...
October 1, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Arin Bhattacharjee, Abhishek Basu, Jaydip Biswas, Tuhinadri Sen, Sudin Bhattacharya
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the widely used anticancer agents; however, it has serious deleterious effects on normal host cells due to its nonspecific action. The essential trace element Selenium (Se) is suggested to have chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy and currently used in pharmaceutical formulations. Previous report had shown Nano-Se could protect CP-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in normal Swiss albino mice; however, its role in cancer management is still not clear. The aim of present study is to investigate the chemoprotective efficacy of Nano-Se against CP-induced toxicity as well as its chemoenhancing capability when used along with CP in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells...
October 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Erica C Borresen, Dustin G Brown, Greg Harbison, Lynn Taylor, Amanda Fairbanks, Joanne O'Malia, Marlon Bazan, Sangeeta Rao, Susan M Bailey, Melissa Wdowik, Tiffany L Weir, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Consumption of navy beans (NB) and rice bran (RB) have been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis. Given the overall poor diet quality in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and low reported intake of whole grains and legumes, practical strategies to increase consumption merit attention. This study determined feasibility of increasing NB or RB intake in CRC survivors to increase dietary fiber and examined serum inflammatory biomarkers and telomere lengths. Twenty-nine subjects completed a randomized controlled trial with foods that included cooked NB powder (35 g/day), heat-stabilized RB (30 g/day), or no additional ingredient...
September 30, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Amanda M Pattison, Dante J Merlino, Erik S Blomain, Scott A Waldman
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. While improved treatments have enhanced overall patient outcome, disease burden encompassing quality of life, cost of care, and patient survival has seen little benefit. Consequently, additional advances in CRC treatments remain important, with an emphasis on preventative measures. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a transmembrane receptor expressed on intestinal epithelial cells, plays an important role in orchestrating intestinal homeostatic mechanisms...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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