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Cancer chemoprevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643618/heat-stabilised-rice-bran-consumption-by-colorectal-cancer-survivors-modulates-stool-metabolite-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Dustin G Brown, Erica C Borresen, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control)...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641488/uca1-involved-in-the-metformin-regulated-bladder-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-glycolysis
#2
Tian Li, Xiangzhou Sun, Xianhan Jiang
Despite great scientific advances have been achieved in cancer treatment in recent years, the death rate of bladder cancer has been staying at a high level. Metformin, a widely-used and low-cost diabetes medicine, might have the potential of anticancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on bladder cancer cells and to identify potential molecular targets and signaling pathways. Bladder cancer 5637 cells transfected with either pcDNA/UCA1 vector or pcDNA3.1 empty vector were treated with various doses of metformin for different periods of time, and then cell proliferation and glycolysis were assessed...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640929/modulation-of-tumor-microenvironment-by-chemopreventive-natural-products
#3
REVIEW
Sin-Aye Park, Young-Joon Surh
The tumor microenvironment provides a niche in which cancer cells and their surrounding stromal cells reside and in which their interactions occur. The cross talk between cancer and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment promotes many biological processes to support cancer cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Recently, not only cancer cells but also multiple types of surrounding stromal cells, including endothelial cells, immune cells, and fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment, have been recognized to be attractive targets for reducing resistance to anticancer therapy and tumor recurrence...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634392/the-traditional-chinese-medicine-achyranthes-bidentata-and-our-de-novo-conception-of-its-metastatic-chemoprevention-from-phytochemistry-to-pharmacology
#4
Zhou Jiang, Jun Qian, Haiyan Dong, Jingyi Yang, Xiaobo Yu, Jianzhong Chen, Hongning Chen, Qing Shi, Lee Jia
Our recent biosystems analysis revealed similarities between embryonic implantation and cancer cell adhesion, which suggests that abortifacients may be good for safe and effective metastatic chemoprevention targeting circulating tumor cells (CTC). Here we test the hypothesis by using the well-known abortion herb Achyranthes bidentata Blume (A. bidentata). Five compounds were separated from the herb root. Among them, ginsenoside Ro was the most potent in inhibiting embryonic implantation within non-cytotoxic concentrations...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632937/synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-docking-studies-of-trans-stilbene-methylthio-derivatives-as-cytochromes-p450-family-1-inhibitors
#5
Marcin Wierzchowski, Zbigniew Dutkiewicz, Agnieszka Gielara-Korzańska, Artur Korzański, Anna Teubert, Artur Teżyk, Tomasz Stefański, Wanda Baer-Dubowska, Renata Mikstacka
Cytochromes P450 family 1 (CYP1) are responsible for the metabolism of procarcinogens, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic and heterocyclic amines. The inhibition of CYP1 activity is examined in terms of chemoprevention and cancer chemotherapy. We designed and synthesized a series of trans-stilbene derivatives possessing a combination of methoxy and methylthio functional groups attached in different positions to the trans-stilbene skeleton. We determined the effects of synthesized compounds on the activities of human recombinant CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and, to explain the variation of inhibitory potency of methoxystilbene derivatives and their methylthio analogs, we employed computational analysis...
June 20, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632894/flavonoids-as-modulators-of-metabolic-enzymes-and-drug-transporters
#6
REVIEW
Anca Miron, Ana Clara Aprotosoaie, Adriana Trifan, Jianbo Xiao
Flavonoids, natural compounds found in plants and in plant-derived foods and beverages, have been extensively studied with regard to their capacity to modulate metabolic enzymes and drug transporters. In vitro, flavonoids predominantly inhibit the major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP450 3A4 and the enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of procarcinogens (CYP1 enzymes) and upregulate the enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification (UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs))...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631098/urolithins-impair-cell-proliferation-arrest-the-cell-cycle-and-induce-apoptosis-in-umuc3-bladder-cancer-cells
#7
Joana Liberal, Anália Carmo, Célia Gomes, Maria Teresa Cruz, Maria Teresa Batista
Ellagitannins have been gaining attention as potential anticancer molecules. However, the low bioavailability of ellagitannins and their extensive metabolization in the gastrointestinal tract into ellagic acid and urolithins suggest that the health benefits of consuming ellagitannins rely on the direct effects of their metabolites. Recently, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities were ascribed to urolithins. Nonetheless, there is still a need to screen and evaluate the selectivity of these molecules and to elucidate their cellular mechanisms of action...
June 20, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630399/dietary-mastic-oil-extracted-from-pistacia-lentiscus-var-chia-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-experimental-colon-cancer-models
#8
Katerina Spyridopoulou, Angeliki Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Evangeli Lampri, Eleni Fitsiou, Stavros Vasileiadis, Manolis Vamvakias, Haido Bardouki, Anna Goussia, Vasiliki Malamou-Mitsi, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Alex Galanis, Aglaia Pappa, Katerina Chlichlia
Plant-derived bioactive compounds attract considerable interest as potential chemopreventive anticancer agents. We analyzed the volatile dietary phytochemicals (terpenes) present in mastic oil extracted from the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia and comparatively investigated their effects on colon carcinoma proliferation, a) in vitro against colon cancer cell lines and b) in vivo on tumor growth in mice following oral administration. Mastic oil inhibited - more effectively than its major constituents- proliferation of colon cancer cells in vitro, attenuated migration and downregulated transcriptional expression of survivin (BIRC5a)...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629389/cancer-chemoprevention-through-dietary-flavonoids-what-s-limiting
#9
REVIEW
Haneen Amawi, Charles R Ashby, Amit K Tiwari
Flavonoids are polyphenols that are found in numerous edible plant species. Data obtained from preclinical and clinical studies suggest that specific flavonoids are chemo-preventive and cytotoxic against various cancers via a multitude of mechanisms. However, the clinical use of flavonoids is limited due to challenges associated with their effective use, including (1) the isolation and purification of flavonoids from their natural resources; (2) demonstration of the effects of flavonoids in reducing the risk of certain cancer, in tandem with the cost and time needed for epidemiological studies, and (3) numerous pharmacokinetic challenges (e...
June 19, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629161/cancer-chemoprevention-by-resveratrol-the-p53-tumor-suppressor-protein-as-a-promising-molecular-target
#10
REVIEW
Danielly C Ferraz da Costa, Eliane Fialho, Jerson L Silva
Increasing epidemiological and experimental evidence has demonstrated an inverse relationship between the consumption of plant foods and the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer. Microcomponents that are naturally present in such foods, especially polyphenols, are responsible for the benefits to human health. Resveratrol is a diet-derived cancer chemopreventive agent with high therapeutic potential, as demonstrated by different authors. The aim of this review is to collect and present recent evidence from the literature regarding resveratrol and its effects on cancer prevention, molecular signaling (especially regarding the involvement of p53 protein), and therapeutic perspectives with an emphasis on clinical trial results to date...
June 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628924/chrysin-alters-micrornas-expression-levels-in-gastric-cancer-cells-possible-molecular-mechanism
#11
Farideh Mohammadian, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Shahriar Alipour, Mehdi Dadashpour, Nosratollah Zarghami
Background Gastric carcinoma still remains the second most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. Chrysin, as a flavone, has showed cancer chemopreventive activity. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of chrysin in cancer cells have not been fully understood. Objective In this study, we investigate expression levels of let-7a, miR-9, mir-18a, miR-21, miR-22, miR-34a, miR-126 and mir-221 to describe the anti-cancer effects of chrysin. Materials and Methods The cytotoxic effects of chrysin were assessed using MTT assay...
June 19, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628680/current-perspectives-among-u-s-dermatologists-on-chemoprevention-of-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-a-survey-based-study
#12
Brittany Oliver, Serena Durrani, Joel L Cohen, Adam J Friedman
<p>Introduction: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in the US Primary prevention of NMSC with physical photoprotective measures are often not sufficient to impact skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals. Chemoprevention is the use of agents to prevent, suppress, and reverse carcinogenic progression. Many agents have been investigated, but preclinical and clinical studies are often inconsistent.</p> <p>Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to assess current practices, perceptions, and general knowledge of U...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628644/targeting-multiple-pro-apoptotic-signaling-pathways-with-curcumin-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#13
Mariela Rivera, Yanilda Ramos, Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Sheila López-Acevedo, Luis A Cubano, Jin Zou, Qiang Zhang, Guangdi Wang, Nawal M Boukli
Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa), is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624978/preferences-for-breast-cancer-risk-reduction-among-brca1-brca2-mutation-carriers-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#14
Alexander Liede, Carol A Mansfield, Kelly A Metcalfe, Melanie A Price, Carrie Snyder, Henry T Lynch, Sue Friedman, Justyna Amelio, Joshua Posner, Steven A Narod, Geoffrey J Lindeman, D Gareth Evans
PURPOSE: Unaffected women who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations face difficult choices about reducing their breast cancer risk. Understanding their treatment preferences could help us improve patient counseling and inform drug trials. The objective was to explore preferences for various risk-reducing options among women with germline BRCA1/2 mutations using a discrete-choice experiment survey and to compare expressed preferences with actual behaviors. METHODS: A discrete-choice experiment survey was designed wherein women choose between hypothetical treatments to reduce breast cancer risk...
June 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622440/chemical-characterization-and-biological-activities-of-phenolic-rich-fraction-from-cauline-leaves-of-isatis-tinctoria-l-brassicaceae-growing-in-sicily-italy
#15
Natalizia Miceli, Angela Filocamo, Salvatore Ragusa, Francesco Cacciola, Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello, Marilena Celano, Valentina Maggisano, Maria Fernanda Taviano
The present work focused on the evaluation of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the phenolic-rich fraction (ItJ-EAF) obtained from cauline leaves collected in January from Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) grown wild around Acireale (Sicily, Italy). The total phenolic, flavonoid and condensed tannin contents of the fraction were determined spectrophotometrically, whereas the phenolic profile was assessed by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analysis. A total of 20 compounds were positively identified and 12 out of them were never previously reported in I...
June 16, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622061/formulation-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-curcumin-lactoferrin-conjugated-nanostructures-for-cancerous-cells
#16
Farkhondeh Chaharband, Golnaz Kamalinia, Fatemeh Atyabi, S Alireza Mortazavi, Zahra H Mirzaie, Rassoul Dinarvand
Curcumin, a natural polyphenol, exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic and chemopreventive properties. In fact, targeting of this natural anticancer agent has received a great deal of attention during the recent years. In this study, we proposed that curcumin conjugation with lactoferrin molecules may lead to a potential drug delivery system targeted toward cancerous cells through both active and passive targeting. In this regard, curcumin conjugated lactoferrin was developed via a carbodiimide-based coupling reaction and the resulting conjugates were appraised for their molecular properties as a potential targeted drug delivery system...
June 16, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621489/validation-and-comparison-of-quality-of-life-measures-for-topical-5-fluorouracil-treatment-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
H Pomerantz, M-M Chren, R Lew, M A Weinstock
BACKGROUND: Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is commonly used for high-risk patients with keratinocyte carcinoma (KC). Skindex and Skin Cancer Index (SCI) are validated instruments to measure quality of life (QoL) of patients with KC and those who have had surgical treatment of KCs. AIM: To validate Skindex and SCI for topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) application and to compare the two QoL instruments. METHODS: We randomized 932 veterans at high risk for developing a KC to either topical 5-FU or vehicle control cream applied to the face and ears for up to 1 month...
July 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620301/chemopreventive-activity-of-honokiol-against-7-12-dimethylbenz-a-anthracene-induced-mammary-cancer-in-female-sprague-dawley-rats
#18
Zhenyu Wang, Xingyi Zhang
Breast cancer is a predominant cause of death in women across the globe. Chemoprevention by using natural, dietary or synthetic products has been appearing to be a fascinating approach to combat the growing burden of breast cancer. In the current study, we intended to explore the mechanisms of chemopreventive action of honokiol against 7, 12 - dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague Dawlely (SD) rats. We induced mammary cancer in SD rats by administering single dose of DMBA (80 mg/kg) through intra gastric route...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618017/curcumin-and-metformin-mediated-chemoprevention-of-oral-cancer-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-cancer-stem-cells
#19
Gangotri Siddappa, Safeena Kulsum, Doddathimmasandra Ramanjanappa Ravindra, Vinay V Kumar, Nalini Raju, Nisheena Raghavan, Holalugunda Vittalamurthy Sudheendra, Anupam Sharma, Sumsum P Sunny, Tina Jacob, Binu T Kuruvilla, Merina Benny, Benny Antony, Mukund Seshadri, Padma Lakshminarayan, Wesley Hicks, Amritha Suresh, Moni A Kuriakose
Effective chemoprevention is critical for improving outcomes of oral cancer. As single agents, curcumin and metformin, are reported to exhibit chemopreventive properties, in vitro as well as in patients with oral cancer. In this study, the chemopreventive efficacy of this drug combination was tested in a 4NQO (4-nitro-quinoline-oxide) induced, mice oral carcinogenesis model. Molecular analysis revealed a cancer stem cell (CSC)-driven, oral carcinogenic progression in this model, wherein a progressive increase in the expression of CSC-specific markers (CD44 and CD133) was observed from 8th to 25th week, at transcript (40 to 100 fold) and protein levels (p≤0...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616586/the-autotaxin-lysophosphatidic-acid-pathway-emerges-as-a-therapeutic-target-to-prevent-liver-cancer
#20
Derek J Erstad, Andrew M Tager, Yujin Hoshida, Bryan C Fuchs
Using transcriptome meta-analysis, we recently identified the autotaxin (ATX)-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) pathway as a regulator of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in human cirrhosis patients. Pharmacological targeting of this pathway reduced fibrosis progression and HCC development in animals, identifying ATX-LPA signaling as a novel chemoprevention strategy for cirrhosis and HCC.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
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