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Cancer chemoprevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346093/a-label-free-continuous-fluorescence-based-assay-for-monitoring-ornithine-decarboxylase-activity-with-a-synthetic-putrescine-receptor
#1
Mohamed Nilam, Philip Gribbon, Jeanette Reinshagen, Kathrin Cordts, Edzard Schwedhelm, Werner M Nau, Andreas Hennig
Polyamines play an important role in cell growth, differentiation, and cancer development, and the biosynthetic pathway of polyamines is established as a drug target for the treatment of parasitic diseases, neoplasia, and cancer chemoprevention. The key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). We report herein an analytical method for the continuous fluorescence monitoring of ODC activity based on the supramolecular receptor cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) and the fluorescent dye trans-4-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide (DSMI)...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344324/diallyl-trisulfide-suppresses-tumor-growth-through-the-attenuation-of-nrf2-akt-and-activation-of-p38-jnk-and-potentiates-cisplatin-efficacy-in-gastric-cancer-treatment
#2
Xiao-Yan Jiang, Xiao-Song Zhu, Hong-Ya Xu, Zhong-Xi Zhao, Si-Ying Li, Shan-Zhong Li, Jian-Hua Cai, Ji-Min Cao
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic organosulfide, has shown excellent chemopreventive potential. Cisplatin (DDP) is widely used to treat solid malignant tumors, but causing serious side effects. In the current study, we attempted to elucidate the chemopreventive mechanisms of DATS in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells in vitro, and to investigate whether DATS could enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of DDP and improve quality of life in BGC-823 xenograft mice in vivo. Treatment with DATS (25-400 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the viability of BGC-823 cells in vitro with an IC50 of 115...
March 27, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340626/decision-making-for-breast-cancer-prevention-among-women-at-elevated-risk
#3
REVIEW
Tasleem J Padamsee, Celia E Wills, Lisa D Yee, Electra D Paskett
Several medical management approaches have been shown to be effective in preventing breast cancer and detecting it early among women at elevated risk: 1) prophylactic mastectomy; 2) prophylactic oophorectomy; 3) chemoprevention; and 4) enhanced screening routines. To varying extents, however, these approaches are substantially underused relative to clinical practice recommendations. This article reviews the existing research on the uptake of these prevention approaches, the characteristics of women who are likely to use various methods, and the decision-making processes that underlie the differing choices of women...
March 24, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340269/prevention-of-dna-damage-and-anticarcinogenic-activity-of-activia-%C3%A2-in-a-preclinical-model
#4
S M A Limeiras, F M Ogo, L A L Genez, C M Carreira, E J T Oliveira, L R Pessatto, S C Neves, J R Pesarini, L C Schweich, R A Silva, W B Cantero, A C M B Antoniolli-Silva, R J Oliveira
Colorectal cancer is a global public health issue. Studies have pointed to the protective effect of probiotics on colorectal carcinogenesis. Activia(®) is a lacto probiotic product that is widely consumed all over the world and its beneficial properties are related, mainly, to the lineage of traditional yoghurt bacteria combined with a specific bacillus, DanRegularis, which gives the product a proven capacity to intestinal regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic proprieties of the Activia product, in response to damage caused by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in Swiss mice...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337306/thymoquinone-potentiates-chemoprotective-effect-of-vitamin-d3-against-colon-cancer-a-pre-clinical-finding
#5
Amr M Mohamed, Bassem A Refaat, Adel G El-Shemi, Osama A Kensara, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris
Prevention of colon cancer among high-risk group has been long lasting research goal. Emerging data have evidenced the anticancer activities of Vitamin D3 (Vit.D) and Thymoquinone (TQ). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the synergistic potential of Thymoquinone and Vitamin D3 in the control of colon cancer progression using azoxymethane-induced rat model. Vit.D and TQ were given individually or in combination 4 week prior to induction and continued for a total of 20 week. At the end of the study, all animals were euthanized and their resected colons were examined macroscopically and microscopically for tumor growth...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331822/risk-assessment-in-relation-to-the-detection-of-small-pulmonary-nodules
#6
REVIEW
John K Field, Michael W Marcus, Matthijs Oudkerk
The National Lung Cancer Screening trial (NLST) demonstrated that individuals assigned to the LDCT screening arm had a 20% lower mortality than those who were assigned to the conventional chest radiography. The NLST was thoroughly analyzed by the US Preventive Task Force on CT Screening and they recommended that lung cancer screening should be implemented. A number of other countries have also recommended implementation, whilst others are awaiting the outcome of the NELSON Trial. However, recommendations for the management of CT screen detected nodules have only recently had any clarity...
February 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329662/the-preneoplastic-genome-transcriptomic-drivers-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-development
#7
Kenneth Y Tsai
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC) comprises 15-20% of all skin cancers, accounting for over 700,000 cases in the U.S. annually. Most cuSCC arise in association with a distinct precancerous lesion, the actinic keratosis (AK). In order to identify potential targets for molecularly targeted chemoprevention, we performed integrated cross-species genomic analysis of cuSCC development through the preneoplastic AK stage using matched human samples and a solar UV- driven Hairless mouse model. We performed RNA-seq and microRNA-seq on samples from both patients undergoing Mohs surgery and the mouse model...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326001/the-role-of-plant-processing-for-the-cancer-preventive-potential-of-ethiopian-kale-brassica-carinata
#8
Grace Akinyi Odongo, Nina Schlotz, Corinna Herz, Franziska S Hanschen, Susanne Baldermann, Susanne Neugart, Bernhard Trierweiler, Lara Frommherz, Charles M A P Franz, Benard Ngwene, Abraham Wahid Luvonga, Monika Schreiner, Sascha Rohn, Evelyn Lamy
Background: Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata) is a horticulturally important crop used as leafy vegetable in large parts of East and Southern Africa. The leaves are reported to contain high concentrations of health-promoting secondary plant metabolites. However, scientific knowledge on their health benefits is scarce. Objective: This study aimed to determine the cancer preventive potential of B. carinata using a human liver in vitro model focusing on processing effects on the pattern of secondary plant metabolites and bioactivity...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325827/sessile-serrated-polyps-and-colon-cancer-prevention
#9
Shahrooz Rashtak, Rafaela Rego, Seth R Sweetser, Frank A Sinicrope
Evidence suggests that up to one fifth of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) develop from serrated polyps, named for their pattern of colonic crypts, and include the sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) that has malignant potential. SSA/Ps are typically located in the proximal colon and have molecular features of hypermethylation of CpG islands in gene promoters and activating point mutations (V600E) in the BRAF oncogene. Both of these features are seen in sporadic CRCs with microsatellite instability (MSI) which is potentially consistent with an origin of these cancers from precursor SSA/Ps...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323499/antiproliferative-activity-of-egg-yolk-peptides-in-human-colon-cancer-cells
#10
Marwa N Yousr, Akram A Aloqbi, Ulfat M Omar, Nazlin K Howell
Egg yolk peptides were successfully prepared from egg yolk protein by-products after lecithin extraction. Defatted egg yolk protein was hydrolyzed with pepsin and pancreatin and purified by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fraction (EYGF-33) with antiproliferative activity. The highlight of this study was that the peptide EYGF-33 (1.0 mg/ml) significantly inhibits cell viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2) with no inhibitory effects on the viability of human colon epithelial normal cells (HCEC) after 48 h...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322154/mechanisms-and-drug-targets-for-pancreatic-cancer-chemoprevention
#11
Deepanshi Dhar, Komal Raina, Rajesh Agarwal
Pancreatic cancer management remains a major challenge to society. Poor prognosis results in dismal survival rates and quality of life for pancreatic cancer patients post chemo/radiation therapies. Although progress has been made in drug development for chemotherapeutics targeting pancreatic cancer, accompanying issues of resistance to these drugs renders the treatment futile. Emerging area of cancer chemoprevention is gaining importance with natural/dietary compounds serving as novel agents with strong anticancer properties; these are pleiotropic agents targeting multiple pathways with minimal toxicities in the surrounding normal tissue...
March 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321860/nicotinamide-for-skin-cancer-chemoprevention
#12
REVIEW
Diona L Damian
Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population...
March 20, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315345/inositol-hexaphosphate-suppresses-colorectal-cancer-cell-proliferation-via-the-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-cascade-in-a-1-2-dimethylhydrazine-induced-rat-model
#13
Wenyang Yu, Cuiping Liu, Xin Li, Fuguo Yang, Lixue Cheng, Chang Liu, Yang Song
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common worldwide, and most treatments for CRC have undesirable side effects. Many researchers have demonstrated that inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has potent anticarcinogenic activity against CRC and no apparent toxicity to normal cells. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the anticancer and anti-proliferative properties of IP6 in CRC and its possible mechanisms during this chemopreventive process. We examined the expression of genes related to the PI3K/Akt and Wnt pathways at the transcriptional and translational levels in a DMH-induced rat CRC model following IP6 administration...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314837/risk-reducing-strategies-for-ovarian-cancer-in-brca-mutation-carriers-a-balancing-act
#14
Roi Tschernichovsky, Annekathryn Goodman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the role of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA mutation (mBRCA) carriers and alternative interventions in risk reduction of ovarian cancer (OC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library was conducted to identify studies of different strategies to prevent OC in mBRCA carriers, including bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, prophylactic salpingectomy with delayed oophorectomy, intensive surveillance, and chemoprevention...
March 17, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301456/prediction-of-breast-cancer-risk-based-on-flow-variant-analysis-of-circulating-peripheral-blood-b-cells
#15
Mahrukh M Syeda, Kinnari Upadhyay, Johnny Loke, Alexander Pearlman, Susan Klugman, Yongzhao Shao, Harry Ostrer
PURPOSE: Identifying women at high risk for breast cancer can trigger a personal program of annual mammograms and magnetic resonance imaging scans for early detection, prophylactic surgery, or chemoprevention to reduce the risk of cancer. Yet, current strategies to identify high-risk mutations based on sequencing panels of genes have significant false-positive and false-negative results, suggesting the need for alternative approaches. METHODS: Flow-variant assays (FVAs) that assess the effects of mutations in the double-strand break (DSB) repair genetic pathway in lymphoblastoid cells in response to treatment with radiomimetic agents were assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy both alone and as part of a logistic regression classification score...
March 16, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301143/ellagitannins-from-rubus-idaeus-l-exert-geno-and-cytotoxic-effects-against-the-human-colon-adenocarcinoma-cell-line-caco-2
#16
Adriana Nowak, Michał Sójka, Elżbieta Klewicka, Lidia Lipińska, Robert Klewicki, Krzysztof Kolodziejczyk
Ellagitannins possess several biological activities, including anti-cancer properties. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cyto- and genotoxic activity of a red raspberry ellagitannin preparation (REP) in the concentration range of 2.5-160 μg/mL, as well as that of the main individual raspberry ellagitannins: sanguiin H-6 (SH-6, 12.8-256 μM) and lambertianin C (LC, 9.3-378 μM), against the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. The ellagitannin concentrations used in the study correspond to those found in foodstuffs containing raspberry fruit...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295364/melanoma-chemoprevention-current-status-and-future-prospects
#17
Gagan Chhabra, Mary Ann Ndiaye, Liz Mariely Garcia-Peterson, Nihal Ahmad
The incidence of skin cancers, both non-melanoma as well as melanoma, are increasing in the United States. The ultraviolet radiation, mainly from sun, is considered the major cause for these neoplasms. While non-melanoma skin cancers are far more numerous, melanoma remains the most challenging. This is because melanoma can become extremely aggressive and its incidence is increasing worldwide due to lack of effective early detection, as well as disease recurrence, following both surgery and chemotherapy. Therefore, in addition to better treatment options, newer means are required to prevent melanomas from developing...
March 15, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292742/fatty-acid-synthesis-intermediates-represent-novel-noninvasive-biomarkers-of-prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-phenethyl-isothiocyanate
#18
Krishna B Singh, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a distinctive feature of prostate cancer, which continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men. Therefore, inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis represents an attractive strategy for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. We have shown previously that dietary feeding of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a phytochemical derived from edible cruciferous vegetables such as watercress, inhibits incidence and burden of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292553/low-dietary-n-6-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-ratio-prevents-induced-oral-carcinoma-in-a-hamster-pouch-model
#19
Hsiu-Chuan Lee, An Liang, Yun-Ho Lin, Yu-Ru Guo, Shih-Yi Huang
Dietary fatty acid patterns have been linked to the prevalence of certain cancers, however in oral carcinoma is limited. Thus, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of various dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]-anthracene (DMBA)- and betel quid extract (BQE) -induced hamster oral cancer model. Thirty 6-week-old adult male hamsters were housed and divided into normal, low, and high dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid groups under DMBA + BQE treatment for 16 weeks. The right buccal pouch of all hamsters were evaluated by tumor number, volume, burden and selected inflammatory parameters...
March 9, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292018/vitis-vinifera-peel-and-seed-gold-nanoparticles-exhibit-chemopreventive-potential-antioxidant-activity-and-induce-apoptosis-through-mutant-p53-bcl-2-and-pan-cytokeratin-down-regulation-in-experimental-animals
#20
J Grace Nirmala, R T Narendhirakannan
Several studies suggest surface modifications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by capping agents or surface coatings could play an important role in biological systems, and site directed delivery. The present study was carried out to assess the antioxidant and apoptotic activities of the Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles in experimentally induced cancer in Swiss albino mice. 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) (single application) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (thrice a week) were applied on the dorsal area of the skin to induce skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice for 16 weeks...
March 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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