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Cancer chemoprevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230759/analysis-of-the-total-biflavonoids-extract-from-selaginella-doederleinii-by-hplc-qtof-ms-and-its-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anticancer-effects
#1
Hong Yao, Bing Chen, Yanyan Zhang, Huigen Ou, Yuxiang Li, Shaoguang Li, Peiying Shi, Xinhua Lin
Selaginella doederleinii Hieron has been traditionally used as a folk antitumor herbal medicine in China. In this paper, the phytochemical components of the total biflavonoids extract from S. doederleinii were studied by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS) in negative ion mode, and their in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects were evaluated. Four types of biflavonoids from S. doederleinii, including IC3'-IIC8'', IC3'-IIC6'', IC3'-IIC3''', and C-O linked biflavonoids were examined originally using QTOF MS/MS...
February 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221673/breast-cancer-prevention-strategies-in-lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-a-decision-analysis
#2
Stephanie M Wong, Natasha K Stout, Rinaa S Punglia, Ipshita Prakash, Yasuaki Sagara, Mehra Golshan
BACKGROUND: Women diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 3-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing invasive breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the life expectancy (LE) and differences in survival offered by active surveillance, risk-reducing chemoprevention, and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy among women with LCIS. METHODS: A Markov simulation model was constructed to determine average LE and quality-adjusted LE (QALE) gains for hypothetical cohorts of women diagnosed with LCIS at various ages under alternative risk-reduction strategies...
February 21, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219690/factors-associated-with-shorter-colonoscopy-surveillance-intervals-for-patients-with-low-risk-colorectal-adenomas-and-effects-on-outcome
#3
Joseph C Anderson, John A Baron, Dennis J Ahnen, Elizabeth L Barry, Roberd M Bostick, Carol A Burke, Robert S Bresalier, Timothy R Church, Bernard F Cole, Marcia Cruz-Correa, Adam S Kim, Leila A Mott, Robert S Sandler, Douglas J Robertson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopists do not routinely follow guidelines to survey individuals with low-risk adenomas (LRAs, 1-2 small tubular adenomas, less than 1 cm) every 5-10 years for colorectal cancer (CRC)-many endoscopists recommend shorter surveillance intervals for these individuals. We aimed to identify reasons that endoscopists recommend shorter surveillance intervals for some individuals with LRAs and determine whether timing affects outcomes at follow-up examinations. METHODS: We collected data from 1560 individuals (45-75 years old) who participated in a prospective chemoprevention trial (of vitamin D and calcium) from 2004 through 2008...
February 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218475/profound-changes-in-mirna-expression-during-cancer-initiation-by-aflatoxin-b1-and-their-abrogation-by-the-chemopreventive-triterpenoid-cddo-im
#4
Merricka C Livingstone, Natalie M Johnson, Bill D Roebuck, Thomas W Kensler, John D Groopman
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) is a potent human and animal hepatocarcinogen. To investigate the effects of aflatoxin on miRNA expression during the initiation phase of carcinogenesis, next-generation sequencing was used to analyze liver tissues from F344 rats exposed to 200 µg/kg per day AFB1 for 4 weeks. A panel of miRNAs was identified that was upregulated with AFB1 treatment compared to controls: rno-miR-434-3p, rno-miR-411-5p, rno-miR-221-3p, rno-miR-127-3p, rno-miR-205, rno-miR-429, rno-miR-34a-5p, rno-miR-181c-3p, rno-miR-200b-3p, and rno-miR-541-5p...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218036/chemopreventive-effect-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-atorvastatin-in-rats-with-bladder-cancer
#5
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Eman G Khedr, Hoda A El-Bahrawy, Samar M Al-Tantawy
Bladder cancer remains a huge concern for the medical community because of its incidence and prevalence rates, as well as high percentage of recurrence and progression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin proved anti-inflammatory effects through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma mechanism. However, their chemopreventive effect still remained to be examined and clarified. In this study, bladder cancer was induced in rats by the chemical carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine...
February 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216890/evaluate-the-antigenotoxicity-and-anticancer-role-of-%C3%AE-sitosterol-by-determining-oxidative-dna-damage-and-the-expression-of-phosphorylated-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-c-fos-c-jun-and-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor
#6
Ramalingam Sharmila, Ganapathy Sindhu
BACKGROUND: Plant sterols are the major source of micronutrients and have not shown any obvious side effects in human. β-sitosterol is one of the most prevalent phytosterols which have been recorded in ancient medicinal history for its use in the treatment of many chronic diseases, especially cancer. The modulations of mitogen-activated protein kinases' (MAPKs') play a crucial role in the development of human renal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the antigenotoxic and anticancer role of β-sitosterol against renal carcinogen...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215160/cathepsin-d-as-a-promising-target-for-the-discovery-of-novel-anticancer-agents
#7
Vijaya Dubey, Suaib Luqman
BACKGROUND: Cathepsin D (CATD), one of the aspartyl endoproteinase involved in different physiological processes and signaling pathways, is accountable for metabolic breakdown of intracellular proteins, activation of growth factors, hormones, and precursors of enzyme, processing of antigens, enzyme inhibitors and activators and regulation of apoptosis. Implication as a Target: Studies have confirmed the role and significance of CATD in an assortment of pathological conditions like Atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, Cancer, Cardiovascular, Huntington and Parkinson diseases...
December 29, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212423/phenolic-extract-from-oleaster-olea-europaea-var-sylvestris-leaves-reduces-colon-cancer-growth-and-induces-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-colon-cancer-cells-via-the-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#8
Wafa Zeriouh, Abdelhafid Nani, Meriem Belarbi, Adélie Dumont, Charlotte de Rosny, Ikram Aboura, Fatima Zahra Ghanemi, Babar Murtaza, Danish Patoli, Charles Thomas, Lionel Apetoh, Cédric Rébé, Dominique Delmas, Naim Akhtar Khan, François Ghiringhelli, Mickael Rialland, Aziz Hichami
Dietary polyphenols, derived from natural products, have received a great interest for their chemopreventive properties against cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of phenolic extract of the oleaster leaves (PEOL) on tumor growth in mouse model and on cell death in colon cancer cell lines. We assessed the effect of oleaster leaf infusion on HCT116 (human colon cancer cell line) xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. We observed that oleaster leaf polyphenol-rich infusion limited HCT116 tumor growth in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210630/scientific-evidence-of-rice-by-products-for-cancer-prevention-chemopreventive-properties-of-waste-products-from-rice-milling-on-carcinogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
REVIEW
Bee Ling Tan, Mohd Esa Norhaizan
Cancer is a significant global health concern affecting men and women worldwide. Although current chemopreventive drugs could inhibit the growth of cancer cells, they exert many adverse side effects. Dietary factor plays a crucial role in the management of cancers and has drawn the attention of researchers to be used as an option to combat this disease. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that rice and its by-products display encouraging results in the prevention of this disease. The mechanism of anticancer effect is suggested partly through potentiation of bioactive compounds like vitamin E, phytic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), γ-oryzanol, and phenolics...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209723/functional-metabolic-and-dynamic-mitochondrial-changes-in-the-rat-cirrhosis-hepatocellular-carcinoma-model-and-the-protective-effect-of-ifc-305
#10
Enrique Chavez, Maria Guadalupe Lozano-Rosas, Mariana Dominguez-Lopez, Gabriela Velasco-Loyden, Jesus Rafael Rodriguez-Aguilera, Concepcion Jose-Nunez, Marietta Tuena de Gomez-Puyou, Victoria Chagoya de Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrion is an important metabolic and energetic organelle which regulates several cellular processes. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been related with liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. As a result, the energetic demand is not properly supplied and mitochondrial morphologic changes has been observed resulting in an altered metabolism. We previously demonstrated the chemopreventive effect of the hepatoprotector IFC-305. AIM: In this work we aimed to evaluate the functional, metabolic, and dynamic mitochondrial alterations in the sequential model of cirrhosis-hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats and the possible beneficial effect of IFC-305...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209333/green-tea-extracts-for-the-prevention-of-metachronous-colorectal-polyps-among-patients-who-underwent-endoscopic-removal-of-colorectal-adenomas-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Cheol Min Shin, Dong Ho Lee, A Young Seo, Hyun Joo Lee, Seong Beom Kim, Woo-Chan Son, Young Kyung Kim, Sang Jun Lee, Sung-Hee Park, Nayoung Kim, Young Soo Park, Hyuk Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the preventive effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplements on metachronous colorectal adenoma and cancer in the Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred seventy-six subjects (88 per each group) who had undergone complete removal of colorectal adenomas by endoscopic polypectomy were enrolled. They were randomized into 2 groups: supplementation group (0.9 g GTE per day for 12 months) or control group without GTE supplementation...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208617/inhibition-of-autophagy-by-deguelin-sensitizes-pancreatic-cancer-cells-to-doxorubicin
#12
Xiao Dong Xu, Yan Zhao, Min Zhang, Rui Zhi He, Xiu Hui Shi, Xing Jun Guo, Cheng Jian Shi, Feng Peng, Min Wang, Min Shen, Xin Wang, Xu Li, Ren Yi Qin
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Furthermore, patients with pancreatic cancer experience limited benefit from current chemotherapeutic approaches because of drug resistance. Therefore, an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with pancreatic cancer is urgently required. Deguelin is a natural chemopreventive drug that exerts potent antiproliferative activity in solid tumors by inducing cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this activity have not been fully elucidated...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208611/betulinic-acid-mediated-apoptosis-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells-involves-p53-and-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#13
Eswar Shankar, Ailin Zhang, Daniel Franco, Sanjay Gupta
Defects in p53 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways are frequently observed in the initiation and development of various human malignancies, including prostate cancer. Clinical studies demonstrate higher expression of NF-κB/p65/RelA, NF-κB/p50/RelB, and cRel as well as downregulation of the p53 network in primary prostate cancer specimens and in metastatic tumors. Betulinic acid (BA), is a triterpenoid that has been reported to be an effective inducer of apoptosis through modification of several signaling pathways...
February 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207781/absence-of-genotoxic-effects-of-the-chalcone-e-1-2-hydroxyphenyl-3-4-methylphenyl-prop-2-en-1-one-and-its-potential-chemoprevention-against-dna-damage-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assays
#14
Débora Cristina da Silva Lima, Camila Regina do Vale, Jefferson Hollanda Véras, Aline Bernardes, Caridad Noda Pérez, Lee Chen-Chen
The chalcone (E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-methylphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one), or 2HMC, displays antileishmanial, antimalarial, and antioxidant activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and protective effects of 2HMC using the Ames mutagenicity test, the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, and the comet assay in mice. In the assessment using the Ames test, 2HMC did not increase the number of His+ revertants in Salmonella typhimurium strains, demonstrating lack of mutagenicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199187/combinatorial-effect-of-curcumin-with-docetaxel-modulates-apoptotic-and-cell-survival-molecules-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Saswati Banerjee, Santosh K Singh, Indrajit Chowdhury, Rajesh Singh
Docetaxel is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent to target androgen signaling in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa); however, prolonged treatment with docetaxel results in drug-resistant cancer cells. Combination therapies have the potential of increasing the effectiveness of drug treatment as well as decreasing the side effects. Curcumin is a nontoxic organic compound with multifaceted chemopreventive potential. In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin can reinforce the effect of docetaxel on PCa cells...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199128/sox2-drives-bronchial-dysplasia-in-a-novel-organotypic-model-of-early-human-squamous-lung-cancer
#16
Lúcia L Correia, Jo-Anne Johnson, Peter McErlean, Julien Bauer, Hassan Farah, Doris M Rassl, Robert C Rintoul, Tariq Sethi, Paul Lavender, Emma L Rawlins, Trevor D Littlewood, Gerard I Evan, Frank M McCaughan
Rationale Improving the early detection and chemoprevention of lung cancer are key to improving outcomes. The pathobiology of early squamous lung cancer is poorly understood. We have shown that amplification of SOX2 is an early and consistent event in the pathogenesis of this disease but its functional oncogenic potential remains uncertain. We tested the impact of deregulated SOX2 expression in a novel organotypic system that recreates the molecular and microenvironmental context in which squamous carcinogenesis occurs...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198062/curcumin-suppresses-lung-cancer-stem-cells-via-inhibiting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-sonic-hedgehog-pathways
#17
Jian-Yun Zhu, Xue Yang, Yue Chen, Ye Jiang, Shi-Jia Wang, Yuan Li, Xiao-Qian Wang, Yu Meng, Ming-Ming Zhu, Xiao Ma, Cong Huang, Rui Wu, Chun-Feng Xie, Xiao-Ting Li, Shan-Shan Geng, Jie-Shu Wu, Cai-Yun Zhong, Hong-Yu Han
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are highly implicated in the progression of human cancers. Thus, targeting CSCs may be a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Wnt/β-catenin and Sonic Hedgehog pathways play an important regulatory role in maintaining CSC characteristics. Natural compounds, such as curcumin, possess chemopreventive properties. However, the interventional effect of curcumin on lung CSCs has not been clarified. In the present study, tumorsphere formation assay was used to enrich lung CSCs from A549 and H1299 cells...
February 15, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197528/antimutagenic-effect-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-aqueous-extract-on-rats-treated-with-monosodium-glutamate
#18
Ana Carla Guidini Valentini Gheller, Jacqueline Kerkhoff, Gerardo Magela Vieira Júnior, Kleber Eduardo de Campos, Marina Mariko Sugui
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194229/circulating-and-tissue-biomarkers-in-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Caterina Fumagalli, Fabrizio Bianchi, Paola Rafaniello Raviele, Davide Vacirca, Giovanni Bertalot, Cristiano Rampinelli, Matteo Lazzeroni, Bernardo Bonanni, Giulia Veronesi, Nicola Fusco, Massimo Barberis, Elena Guerini-Rocco
OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterise circulating and tissue tumour biomarkers of patients who developed early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during long-term follow-up of a chemoprevention trial (NCT00321893). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood and sputum samples were collected from 202 high-risk asymptomatic individuals with CT-detected stable lung nodules. Real-time PCR was performed on plasma to quantify free circulating DNA. Baseline serum was investigated with a previously validated test based on 13 circulating miRNAs (miR-Test)...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193521/pharmacological-inhibition-of-magl-lipase-attenuates-experimental-colon-carcinogenesis
#20
Ester Pagano, Francesca Borrelli, Pierangelo Orlando, Barbara Romano, Martina Monti, Lucia Morbidelli, Gabriella Aviello, Roberta Imperatore, Raffaele Capasso, Fabiana Piscitelli, Lorena Buono, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Angelo A Izzo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Western countries. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) exerts antiproliferative actions in a number of tumoral cell lines, including CRC cells. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), a serine hydrolase that inactivates 2-AG, is highly expressed in aggressive human cancer cells. Here, we investigated the role of MAGL in experimental colon carcinogenesis. The role of MAGL was assessed in vivo by using the xenograft and the azoxymethane models of colon carcinogenesis; MAGL expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry; 2-AG levels were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry; angiogenesis was evaluated in tumor tissues [by microvessel counting and by investigating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) proteins] as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC); cyclin D1 was evaluated by RT-PCR...
February 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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