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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346569/controlled-antenatal-thyroid-screening-ii-effect-of-treating-maternal-sub-optimal-thyroid-function-on-child-cognition
#1
Charlotte Hales, Peter N Taylor, Sue Channon, Ruth Paradice, Kirsten McEwan, Lei Zhang, Michael Gyedu, Ameen Bakhsh, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Ilaria Muller, Mohd S Draman, John W Gregory, Colin Dayan, John H Lazarus, D Aled Rees, Marian Ludgate
Context & Objective: The Controlled Antenatal Thyroid Screening (CATS) study investigated treatment for suboptimal gestational thyroid function (SGTF) on childhood cognition and found no difference in IQ at 3 years between children of treated and untreated SGTF mothers. We have measured IQ in the same children at age 9.5-years and included children from normal-GTF mothers. Design, Setting & Participants: One examiner, blinded to participant group, assessed children's IQ (WISC-IV), long-term memory and motor function (NEPSY-II) from children of 119 treated and 98 untreated SGTF mothers plus children of 232 mothers with normal-GTF...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346524/-effects-of-a-primary-care-based-multifactorial-intervention-on-physical-and-cognitive-function-in-frail-elderly-individuals-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Laura Romera-Liebana, Francesc Orfila, Josep Maria Segura, Jordi Real, Maria Lluïsa Fabra, Mercedes Möller, Santiago Lancho, Anna Ramirez, Nuria Marti, Montserrat Cullell, Nuria Bastida, Dolors Martinez, Maria Giné, Patricia Cendrós, Anna Bistuer, Elena Perez, Maria Assumpta Fabregat, Gonçal Foz
Background: Detecting and managing frailty at early stages can prevent disability and other adverse outcomes. The study aim was to evaluate whether a multifactorial intervention program could modify physical and cognitive frailty parameters in elderly individuals. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group trial in community-living pre-frail/frail elderly individuals in Barcelona. A total of 352 patients, aged ≥65 years old with positive frailty screening, was randomized into two groups to receive a 12-week multidisciplinary intervention or usual care, with concealed allocation...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344660/purple-sweet-potato-color-attenuates-high-fat-induced-neuroinflammation-in-mouse-brain-by-inhibiting-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#3
Jian Li, Zhao Shi, Yongjie Mi
Purple sweet potato color (PSPC) is a natural anthocyanin pigment that is derived from purple sweet potato storage roots. PSPC possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and neuroprotective effects; however, the detailed effects of PSPC on high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced neuroinflammation remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSPC has a protective role in HFD‑associated neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and to provide novel insight into the mechanisms of the action...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343470/cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis-state-of-the-field-and-priorities-for-the-future
#4
REVIEW
James F Sumowski, Ralph Benedict, Christian Enzinger, Massimo Filippi, Jeroen J Geurts, Paivi Hamalainen, Hanneke Hulst, Matilde Inglese, Victoria M Leavitt, Maria A Rocca, Eija M Rosti-Otajarvi, Stephen Rao
Cognitive decline is recognized as a prevalent and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially deficits in episodic memory and processing speed. The field aims to (1) incorporate cognitive assessment into standard clinical care and clinical trials, (2) utilize state-of-the-art neuroimaging to more thoroughly understand neural bases of cognitive deficits, and (3) develop effective, evidence-based, clinically feasible interventions to prevent or treat cognitive dysfunction, which are lacking. There are obstacles to these goals...
January 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342865/acute-post-prandial-cognitive-effects-of-brown-seaweed-extract-in-humans
#5
Crystal F Haskell-Ramsay, Philippa A Jackson, Fiona L Dodd, Joanne S Forster, Jocelyn Bérubé, Carey Levinton, David O Kennedy
(Poly)phenols and, specifically, phlorotannins present in brown seaweeds have previously been shown to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes involved in the breakdown and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. Related to this are observations of modulation of post-prandial glycemic response in mice and increased insulin sensitivity in humans when supplemented with seaweed extract. However, no studies to date have explored the effect of seaweed extract on cognition. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups study examined the impact of a brown seaweed extract on cognitive function post-prandially in 60 healthy adults (N = 30 per group)...
January 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342446/the-impact-of-happy-and-angry-faces-on-working-memory-in-depressed-adolescents
#6
Laura Wante, Sven C Mueller, Sofie Cromheeke, Caroline Braet
Recent cognitive models suggest that the ability to control emotional information in working memory (WM) may be implicated in the etiology and maintenance of depression. However, few studies have examined the effects of processing relevant and irrelevant emotional stimuli on WM performance in depressed adolescents. In the current study, depressed adolescents (n = 27) and healthy adolescents (n = 49) completed two versions of an emotional n-back task: a low WM load (0-back) task and a high WM load (2-back) task...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341891/long-term-treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-impairment-through-restoration-of-decreased-synaptic-adhesion-molecule-1-2-3-induced-by-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-the-aged-gerbil-hippocampus
#7
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Joon Ha Park, Jinseu Park, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, In Hye Kim, Jeong-Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae-Chul Lee, Bich Na Shin, Young-Myeong Kim, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Il Jun Kang, Bai Hui Chen, Bing Chun Yan, Young Joo Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Soo Young Choi
Exercise improves cognitive impairments induced by transient cerebral ischemia and modulates synaptic adhesion molecules. In this study, we investigated effects of long-term treadmill exercise on cognitive impairments and its relation to changes of synaptic cell adhesion molecule (SynCAM) 1/2/3 in the hippocampus after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in aged gerbils. Animals were assigned to sedentary and exercised groups, given treadmill exercise for 4 consecutive weeks from 5 days after transient ischemia and evaluated cognitive function through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test...
January 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341807/active-memory-reactivation-previous-to-the-introduction-of-a-new-related-content-improves-students-learning
#8
Priscila Marques Sosa, Rithiele Gonçalves, Felipe P Carpes, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339557/chronic-dietary-creatine-enhances-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-memory-bioenergetics-and-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#9
Wanda M Snow, Chris Cadonic, Claudia Cortes-Perez, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Michael J Bernstein, Miyoung Suh, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
The brain has a high demand for energy, of which creatine (Cr) is an important regulator. Studies document neurocognitive benefits of oral Cr in mammals, yet little is known regarding their physiological basis. This study investigated the effects of Cr supplementation (3%, w/w) on hippocampal function in male C57BL/6 mice, including spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and oxygen consumption rates from isolated mitochondria in real time. Levels of transcription factors and related proteins (CREB, Egr1, and IκB to indicate NF-κB activity), proteins implicated in cognition (CaMKII, PSD-95, and Egr2), and mitochondrial proteins (electron transport chain Complex I, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1) were probed with Western blotting...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338165/how-ligands-affect-resistive-switching-in-solution-processed-hfo2-nanoparticle-assemblies
#10
Jiaying Wang, Satyan Choudhary, Jonathan De Roo, Katrien De Keukeleere, Isabel Van Driessche, Alfred J Crosby, Stephen S Nonnenmann
Advancement of resistive random access memory (ReRAM) requires fully understanding the various complex, defect-mediated transport mechanisms to further improve performance. While thin film oxide materials have been extensively studied, the switching properties of nanoparticle assemblies remain underexplored due to difficulties in fabricating ordered structures. Here we employ a simple flow coating method for the facile deposition of highly ordered HfO2 nanoparticle nanoribbon assemblies. The resistive switching character of nanoribbons was determined to correlate directly with the organic capping layer length of their constituting HfO2 nanoparticles, using oleic acid, dodecanoic acid, and undecenoic acid as model nanoparticle ligands...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337893/soybean-derived-phytoalexins-improve-cognitive-function-through-activation-of-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathway
#11
Ji Yeon Seo, Bo Ram Kim, Jisun Oh, Jong-Sang Kim
As soy-derived glyceollins are known to induce antioxidant enzymes in various types of cells and tissues, we hypothesized that the compounds could protect neurons from damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to examine the neuroprotective effect of glyceollins, primary cortical neurons collected from mice and mouse hippocampal HT22 cells were challenged with glutamate. Glyceollins attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in primary cortical neuron isolated from mice carrying wild-type nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), but the compounds were ineffective in those isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, suggesting the involvement of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in glyceollin-mediated neuroprotection...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337140/characteristics-and-prognostic-factors-for-patients-with-her2-overexpressing-breast-cancer-and-brain-metastases-in-the-era-of-her2-targeted-therapy-an-argument-for-earlier-detection
#12
Aki Morikawa, Rui Wang, Sujata Patil, Adi Diab, Jonathan Yang, Clifford A Hudis, Heather L McArthur, Kathryn Beal, Andrew D Seidman
BACKGROUND: Although brain metastases (BM) are associated with poor prognosis, patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressing (HER2+) breast cancer (BC) with BM who are treated with anti-HER2 therapy have a relatively longer survival after BM diagnosis compared with other subtypes and HER2+ patients previously untreated with anti-HER2 therapy. It is unclear if previously reported prognostic factors are applicable to patients with HER2+ BC in the era of HER2-targeted therapy...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337053/oral-ingestion-of-plasmalogens-can-attenuate-the-lps-induced-memory-loss-and-microglial-activation
#13
Md Shamim Hossain, Ayako Tajima, Satoshi Kotoura, Toshihiko Katafuchi
Plasmalogens (Pls) are the special phospholipids which were reported to be reduced in brain and blood samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, suggested a possibility that an oral ingestion of Pls may prevent the disease progression. Interestingly, the clinical study showed that the daily oral ingestion of Pls among the mild AD patients improved cognition. However, it is unknown of whether the oral ingestion of Pls inhibits the AD like changes in brain e.g., glial activation and accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) proteins...
January 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336307/activation-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-signaling-inhibits-melanoma-and-improves-response-to-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#14
Christopher A Natale, Jinyang Li, Junqian Zhang, Ankit Dahal, Tzvete Dentchev, Ben Z Stanger, Todd W Ridky
Female sex and history of prior pregnancies are associated with favorable melanoma outcomes. Here, we show that much of the melanoma protective effect likely results from estrogen signaling through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) on melanocytes. Selective GPER activation in primary melanocytes and melanoma cells induced long-term changes that maintained a more differentiated cell state as defined by increased expression of well-established melanocyte differentiation antigens, increased pigment production, decreased proliferative capacity, and decreased expression of the oncodriver and stem cell marker c-Myc...
January 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335844/the-adiponectin-homolog-osmotin-enhances-neurite-outgrowth-and-synaptic-complexity-via-adipor1-ngr1-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Gwangho Yoon, Shahid Ali Shah, Tahir Ali, Myeong Ok Kim
Alzheimer's disease is a major neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss and cognitive deficits. Recently, we reported that osmotin, which is a homolog of adiponectin, improved long-term potentiation and cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease mice. Several lines of evidence have suggested that Nogo-A and the Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1), which form a complex that inhibits long-term potentiation and cognitive function, might be associated with the adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), which is a receptor for osmotin...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335220/adeno-associated-virus-vector-mediated-expression-of-dj-1-attenuates-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-2-2%C3%A2-4-4%C3%A2-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-47-treated-mice
#16
Juan Zhuang, Shan Wang, Qun Shan, Zi-Feng Zhang, Meng-Qiu Li, Gui-Hong Zheng, Shao-Hua Fan, Dong-Mei Wu, Bin Hu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Evidence indicates that oxidative stress is the central pathological feature of 2, 2´, 4, 4´-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47)-induced neurotoxicity. Protein kinase C delta (PKCδ), an oxidative stress-sensitive kinase, can be proteolytically cleaved to yield a catalytically active fragment (PKCδ-CF) that is involved in various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we showed that BDE-47 treatment increased ROS, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl levels in the mouse hippocampus. In turn, excessive ROS induced caspase-3-dependent PKCδ activation and stimulated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, resulting in inflammation in the mouse hippocampus...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335016/autophagy-is-required-for-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-improve-spatial-working-memory-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model
#17
Wen Li, Kai Li, Jing Gao, Zhuo Yang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that autophagy plays a central role in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and many studies have shown that human umbilical cord MSCs (huMSCs) can treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) through a variety of mechanisms. However, no studies have looked at the effects of autophagy on neuroprotective function of huMSCs in the AD mouse model. Thus, in this study we investigated whether inhibition of autophagy could weaken or block the function of huMSCs through in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334687/cognitive-deficits-in-methamphetamine-users-how-strong-is-the-evidence
#18
Lisa Proebstl, Felicia Kamp, Gabi Koller, Michael Soyka
Methamphetamine use has spread in many European countries and the United States. The current review provides a summary and critical analysis of research on cognitive deficits associated with methamphetamine, also known as "crystal meth." The literature search performed for this review led us to the hypothesis that methamphetamine use is associated with persistent changes in brain metabolism that result in various impairments, such as deficits in memory, attention, and concentration. The dopaminergic system in particular seems to be affected...
January 15, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334662/aqueous-extracts-of-two-tropical-ethnobotanicals-tetrapleura-tetraptera-and-quassia-undulata-improved-spatial-and-non-spatial-working-memories-in-scopolamine-induced-amnesic-rats-influence-of-neuronal-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems
#19
Veronica O Odubanjo, Emmanuel O Ibukun, Ganiyu Oboh, Stephen A Adefegha
BACKGROUND: Tetrapleura tetraptera (TT) and Quassia undulata (QU) are two predominant tropical ethnobotanicals with various medicinal values but are commonly used in folklore for the treatment of mental illness without justifiable mechanisms of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of aqueous extracts from TT fruits and QU leaves on the spatial and non-spatial working memory, antioxidant status and activities of neuronal marker enzymes of scopolamine-induced amnesic rats and thus, understand the possible mechanism of action of these plants...
January 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334362/investigation-of-resistance-switching-in-siox-rram-cells-using-a-3d-multi-scale-kinetic-monte-carlo-simulator
#20
Toufik Sadi, Adnan Mehonic, Luca Montesi, Mark Buckwell, Anthony Kenyon, Asen Asenov
We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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