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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779175/anthocyanins-improve-hippocampus-dependent-memory-function-and-prevent-neurodegeneration-via-jnk-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-in-lps-treated-adult-mice
#1
Muhammad Sohail Khan, Tahir Ali, Min Woo Kim, Myeung Hoon Jo, Jong Il Chung, Myeong Ok Kim
Microglia plays a critical role in the brain and protects neuronal cells from toxins. However, over-activation of microglia leads to deleterious effects. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to affect neuronal cells via activation of microglia as well as directly to initiate neuroinflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of anthocyanins against LPS-induced neurotoxicity in an animal model and in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injections of LPS (250 μg/kg/day for 1 week) induce ROS production and promote neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration which ultimately leads to memory impairment...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778778/swimming-improves-cognitive-reserve-in-ovariectomized-rats-and-enhances-neuroprotection-after-global-cerebral-ischemia
#2
Meng Zhang, Yating Zhai, Yaping Sun, Wenli Zhang, Qian Li, Darrell Brann, Ruimin Wang
Cognitive reserve has been proposed to account for different responses to brain damage or pathology. Factors implicated to influence cognitive reserve include cognitive engagement, physical activity, leisure activities, stress levels, and diet. Furthermore, long-term ovariectomy (OVX), such as occurs in women that have underwent surgical menopause, has been reported to increase the risk of cognitive impairment. In the current study, we examined whether swimming improves cognitive function in long-term OVX-rats...
May 17, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778761/preferential-stabilization-of-newly-formed-dendritic-spines-in-motor-cortex-during-manual-skill-learning-predicts-performance-gains-but-not-memory-endurance
#3
Taylor A Clark, Min Fu, Andrew K Dunn, Yi Zuo, Theresa A Jones
Previous findings that skill learning is associated with the formation and preferential stabilization of new dendritic spines in cortex have raised the possibility that this preferential stabilization is a mechanism for lasting skill memory. We investigated this possibility in adult mice using in vivo two-photon imaging to monitor spine dynamics on superficial apical dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons in motor cortex during manual skill learning. Spine formation increased over the first 3 days of training on a skilled reaching task, followed by increased spine elimination...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778746/betulinic-acid-a-natural-pde-inhibitor-restores-hippocampal-camp-cgmp-and-bdnf-improve-cerebral-blood-flow-and-recover-memory-deficits-in-permanent-bccao-induced-vascular-dementia-in-rats
#4
Madhu Kaundal, Saima Zameer, Abul Kalam Najmi, Suhel Parvez, Mohd Akhtar
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of senile dementia, embraces memory deficits, neuroinflammation, executive function damage, mood and behavioral changes and abnormal cerebral blood flow. The purpose of the study was to explore the therapeutic potential of betulinic acid in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced VaDin experimental rats.VaD was induced by BCCAO in rats and betulinic acid (10 and 15mg/kg/day po) was administered 1 week after surgery. The cerebral blood pressure of the animal was recorded before and after the treatment using Laser Doppler flow meter...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777699/cart-peptide-activates-the-nrf2-ho-1-antioxidant-pathway-and-protects-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Wenyu Jiao, Yongchen Wang, Linghong Kong, Tao Ou-Yang, Qing Meng, Qiang Fu, Zhenzhen Hu
The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and oxidative stress damage in the brain are recognized as early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide may possibly play an antioxidative role in neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant mechanism of CART peptide in a rat model of AD. We microinjected of Aβ1-42 (2μl/4μg/hemisphere) into rat hippocampus to set a rat model of AD. A pre-microinjection of CART peptide (1μl/0...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777152/temporary-microglia-depletion-after-cosmic-radiation-modifies-phagocytic-activity-and-prevents-cognitive-deficits
#6
Karen Krukowski, Xi Feng, Maria Serena Paladini, Austin Chou, Kristen Sacramento, Katherine Grue, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Tamako Jones, Mary Campbell-Beachler, Gregory Nelson, Susanna Rosi
Microglia are the main immune component in the brain that can regulate neuronal health and synapse function. Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause long-term cognitive impairments in rodent models thereby presenting potential obstacles for astronauts engaged in deep space travel. The mechanism/s for how cosmic radiation induces cognitive deficits are currently unknown. We find that temporary microglia depletion, one week after cosmic radiation, prevents the development of long-term memory deficits. Gene array profiling reveals that acute microglia depletion alters the late neuroinflammatory response to cosmic radiation...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777133/selective-improvements-in-balancing-associated-with-offline-periods-of-spaced-training
#7
Antonino Casabona, Maria Stella Valle, Carlo Cavallaro, Gabriele Castorina, Matteo Cioni
Benefits from post-training memory processing have been observed in learning many procedural skills. Here, we show that appropriate offline periods produce a performance gain during learning to stand on a multiaxial balance board. The tilt angle and the area of sway motion of the board were much more reduced in participants performing a training spaced by an interval of one day with respect to participants executing the same amount of practice over a concentrated period. In particular, offline memory encoding was specifically associated with the motion along the anterior-posterior direction, the spatio-temporal dynamics, and the frequency contents of the board sway...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776861/acceptability-and-functionality-of-the-kettle-strap-an-attempt-to-decrease-kettle-related-burns-in-children
#8
Obakeng Makhubalo, Dorothy Schulman, Heinz Rode, Sharon Cox
BACKGROUND: Extensive hot water burns (HWB) are common at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH). The majority are caused by kettle scalds. These burn injuries usually affect toddlers living in poor socio-economic circumstances. The majority of these injuries are preventable. AIM: This trial aims to demonstrate the acceptability and functionality of the Kettle Strap as a kettle safety device. The feedback will be used for a public awareness program marketed by the Child Accident Prevention Foundation of Southern Africa and ChildSafe as part of their mandate to reduce kettle related thermal injuries...
May 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776611/nasal-delivery-of-chitosan-alginate-nanoparticle-encapsulated-bee-apis-mellifera-venom-promotes-antibody-production-and-viral-clearance-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-by-modulating-t-cell-related-responses
#9
Jina Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Ju-Heon Kim, Cheong-Weon Cho, Jong-Woon Jeon, Jin-Kyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776428/evidence-of-the-impact-of-systemic-inflammation-on-neuroinflammation-from-a-non-bacterial-endotoxin-animal-model
#10
Chunxia Huang, Michael Garnet Irwin, Gordon Tin Chun Wong, Raymond Chuen Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation induces neuroinflammation and cellular changes such as tau phosphorylation to impair cognitive function, including learning and memory. This study uses a single model, laparotomy without any pathogen, to characterize these changes and their responses to anti-inflammatory treatment in the intermediate term. METHODS: In a two-part experiment, wild-type C57BL/6N mice (male, 3 month old, 25 ± 2 g) were subjected to sevoflurane anesthesia alone or to a laparotomy...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775630/the-basolateral-amygdala-dopaminergic-system-contributes-to-the-improving-effect-of-nicotine-on-stress-induced-memory-impairment-in-rats
#11
Elnaz Keshavarzian, Zahra Ghasemzadeh, Ameneh Rezayof
Stress seems to be an important risk factor in the beginning and continuing stages of cigarette tobacco smoking in humans. Considering that both of nicotine administration and stress exposure affect cognitive functions including memory formation, the aim of the present study was 1) to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of nicotine on memory formation under stress and 2) to assess the possible role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the effect of nicotine on stress-induced memory retrieval impairment...
May 15, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775623/unsupervised-visual-discrimination-learning-of-complex-stimuli-accuracy-bias-and-generalization
#12
Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Mauricio Toro, Pedro E Maldonado, María de la L Aylwin
Through same-different judgements, we can discriminate an immense variety of stimuli and consequently, they are critical in our everyday interaction with the environment. The quality of the judgements depends on familiarity with stimuli. A way to improve the discrimination is through learning, but to this day, we lack direct evidence of how learning shapes the same-different judgments with complex stimuli. We studied unsupervised visual discrimination learning in 42 participants, as they performed same-different judgments with two types of unfamiliar complex stimuli in the absence of labeling or individuation...
May 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775564/the-antibody-rhigm22-facilitates-hippocampal-remyelination-and-ameliorates-memory-deficits-in-the-cuprizone-mouse-model-of-demyelination
#13
Charlene Cui, Jing Wang, Ariana P Mullin, Anthony O Caggiano, Tom J Parry, Raymond W Colburn, Elias Pavlopoulos
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. In addition to motor, sensory and visual deficits, MS is also characterized by hippocampal demyelination and memory impairment. We recently demonstrated that a recombinant human-derived monoclonal IgM antibody, which is designated rHIgM22 and currently in clinical development for people with MS, accelerates remyelination of the corpus callosum in the brains of cuprizone-treated mice. Here, we investigated the effects of rHIgM22 in the hippocampus and on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in the same mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination and spontaneous remyelination...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774475/neuropsychological-profiles-of-breast-cancer-and-brain-tumor-cohorts-in-northeast-ontario-canada
#14
Matias Mariani, Mark William Glister Collins
PURPOSE: As developments in cancer treatment have improved outcomes, research has increasingly focused on the role of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in quality of life for cancer survivors. Impairment profiles have been heterogeneous across studies, necessitating the study of these effects across different cohorts. The purpose of this preliminary study is to compare the memory profiles of Northeast Ontario breast and CNS cancer patients, as there is no literature which exists for profiling CRCI within this largely rural region...
May 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773978/effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-on-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-rats-beneficial-effects-of-maternal-exercise
#15
Ziyi Wu, Xingyue Li, Yi Zhang, Dongyi Tong, Lili Wang, Ping Zhao
Fetal exposure to general anesthetics may pose significant neurocognitive risks but methods to mitigate against these detrimental effects are still to be determined. We set out, therefore, to assess whether single or repeated in utero exposure to sevoflurane triggers long-term cognitive impairments in rat offspring. Since maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve cognition in offspring, we hypothesized that maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy would protect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773397/self-healable-tough-supramolecular-hydrogels-crosslinked-by-poly-cyclodextrin-through-host-guest-interaction
#16
Tingting Cai, Shuangjun Huo, Tao Wang, Weixiang Sun, Zhen Tong
A new supramolecular hydrogel with superior self-healing and shape memory properties was synthesized via in-situ copolymerization of the adamantane-containing monomer N-adamantylacrylamide (Ad-AAm) and monomer acrylic acid (AAc) in the polycyclodextrin (PCD) aqueous solution, where PCD served as the polyfunctional physical cross-linker. The PCD-Ad hydrogels showed strength of 40 kPa with breaking strain of 600%, but small tensile loading-unloading hysteresis and residual deformation benefited from the reversible crosslinking structure...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772392/effects-of-task-repetition-but-no-transfer-of-inhibitory-control-training-in-healthy-adults
#17
Tobias Talanow, Ulrich Ettinger
Executive functions (EFs) comprise the updating, shifting and inhibition dimensions. According to the Unity and Diversity Model, the inhibition dimension is fully accounted for by a general EFs factor. This suggests that training of inhibition should transfer, in part, to updating and shifting. Therefore, we tested the effectiveness of a three-week inhibition training (high-conflict Stroop task) and explored near transfer effects to an untrained inhibition task (antisaccade task) and far transfer effects to untrained tasks demanding task-set shifting (number-letter-task), working memory updating (n-back task) and planning abilities (Stockings of Cambridge task)...
May 14, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772381/high-gamma-activity-in-the-human-hippocampus-and-parahippocampus-during-inter-trial-rest-periods-of-a-virtual-navigation-task
#18
Yi Pu, Brian R Cornwell, Douglas Cheyne, Blake W Johnson
In rodents, hippocampal cell assemblies formed during learning of a navigation task are observed to re-emerge during resting (offline) periods, accompanied by high-frequency oscillations (HFOs). This phenomenon is believed to reflect mechanisms for strengthening newly-formed memory traces. Using magnetoencephalography recordings and a beamforming source location algorithm (synthetic aperture magnetometry), we investigated high-gamma (80-140 Hz) oscillations in the hippocampal region in 18 human participants during inter-trial rest periods in a virtual navigation task...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772244/gender-difference-in-the-effect-of-progesterone-on-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mouse
#19
Shuyu Dong, Qian Zhang, Delian Kong, Chao Zhou, Jie Zhou, Jingjing Han, Yan Zhou, Guoliang Jin, Xiaodong Hua, Jun Wang, Fang Hua
This study was to investigate the effects of progesterone (PROG) on neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (NHI) brain injury, the differences in effects between genders, and the underlying mechanisms. NHI brain injury was established in both male and female neonatal mice induced by occlusion of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia. The mice were treated with PROG or vehicle. Fluoro-Jade B staining (F-JB), long term behavior testing, and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) were applied to evaluate neuronal death, neurological function, and brain damage...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771673/self-paced-prioritized-curriculum-learning-with-coverage-penalty-in-deep-reinforcement-learning
#20
Zhipeng Ren, Daoyi Dong, Huaxiong Li, Chunlin Chen
In this paper, a new training paradigm is proposed for deep reinforcement learning using self-paced prioritized curriculum learning with coverage penalty. The proposed deep curriculum reinforcement learning (DCRL) takes the most advantage of experience replay by adaptively selecting appropriate transitions from replay memory based on the complexity of each transition. The criteria of complexity in DCRL consist of self-paced priority as well as coverage penalty. The self-paced priority reflects the relationship between the temporal-difference error and the difficulty of the current curriculum for sample efficiency...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
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