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Cancer chemoprophylaxis

Ping Tan, Nan Xie, Lu Yang, Liangren Liu, Zhuang Tang, Qiang Wei
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of diagnostic ureteroscopy (URS) prior to radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) on intravesical recurrence (IVR) in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search of the Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane library was performed in August 2017. Cumulative analyses of available hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% CI were conducted using Stata version 12.0. RESULTS: Eleven studies including 4,057 participants were included, with a total of 1,403 patients diagnosed with IVR during the follow-up period...
December 8, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
Arash Momeni, Justin P Fox
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a serious complication after the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Contemporary guidelines limit VTE chemoprophylaxis to the period of hospitalization. We conducted this study to evaluate the frequency of postdischarge VTE among surgically treated breast cancer patients and identify patient level factors associated with postdischarge VTE. METHODS: Using Arkansas, Florida, Nebraska, and New York state inpatient databases, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult women who underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer between October 1, 2008, and September 30, 2013...
October 31, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Matthew L Basiaga, Michelle E Ross, Jeffrey S Gerber, Alexis Ogdie
Background: Antimicrobial prophylaxis is indicated to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in profoundly immunosuppressed children. The incidence of PJP infection in children with chronic glucocorticoid exposure is unknown, and PJP prophylaxis has been associated with adverse events. We hypothesized that PJP infection is rare in children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cancer, or a transplant history who are using chronic glucocorticoids and that those exposed to PJP prophylaxis are more likely to experience a cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction or myelosuppression than unexposed patients...
July 13, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Shimpei Sugiura, Noriaki Noto, Mitsuyuki Koizumi, Daiji Takamoto, Naoya Fujikawa, Ichiro Ikeda
We evaluated the efficacy of single-dose instillation of pirarubicine hydrochloride (THP) in the chemoprophylaxis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer(NMIBC). In a retrospective study, 135 evaluable patients were assigned to three groups after transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). In group 1, patients received no adjuvant therapy after TURBT. In group 2, patients received a single-dose of 30 mg THP in 30 ml normal saline immediately after TURBT. In group 3, patients received 30 mg THP in 30 ml normal saline 2 weeks after TURBT , and the instillations were repeated for 4 weeks, then every other week twice and successively monthly for 6 months...
May 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
N C Ramchander, N A J Ryan, E J Crosbie, D G Evans
BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome results from bi-allelic inheritance of mutations affecting the key DNA mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Individuals with bi-allelic mutations have a dysfunctional mismatch repair system from birth; as a result, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is characterised by early onset malignancies. Fewer than 150 cases have been reported in the literature over the past 20 years. This is the first report of the founder PMS2 mutation - NM_000535...
April 5, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
Mohammed Jeraq, David J Cote, Timothy R Smith
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common medical condition, particularly after surgical interventions. Many studies have shown that development of VTE, including both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is more common in surgical patients with cancer than in patients without cancer. This chapter focuses on VTE in brain tumor patients, including their pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Topics discussed included a brief overview of VTE followed by an in-depth discussion of the VTE risks brain tumor patients face in the post-operative period...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Changhyun Kim, Joyce Cheng, Oscar R Colegio
The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) is 65- to 250-fold greater than in the general population. In addition, SCC in SOTRs is more aggressive than in the general population. SOTRs must undergo skin cancer screenings at intervals based on their risk stratification. The incidence of SCC in SOTRs varies with the type, intensity, and duration of the immunosuppressive regimen. Notably, patients on sirolimus have lower incidence of SCC compared to patients on calcineurin inhibitors...
June 2016: Seminars in Oncology
Joanna E Allen, Dipti Patel
BACKGROUND: People who travel while immunocompromised are more at risk of serious travel-related infection. Their condition, medications or treatments can contraindicate, decrease the effectiveness of or increase the toxicity of vaccinations or malaria chemoprophylaxis. Therefore, immunocompromised travellers require careful assessment and specialized pre-travel advice. The aims of this study were to investigate enquiries by healthcare professionals (HCPs) to the UK National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) advice line regarding travellers with immunocompromise and to identify their most common concerns...
March 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Srinivas J Ivatury, Stefan D Holubar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Luke V Selby, Mindy Sovel, Daniel D Sjoberg, Margaret McSweeney, Damon Douglas, David R Jones, Peter T Scardino, Gerald A Soff, Nicola Fabbri, Kent Sepkowitz, Vivian E Strong, Inderpal S Sarkaria
BACKGROUND: We prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of adding preoperative chemoprophylaxis to our institution's operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis policy as part of a physician-led quality improvement initiative. STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing major cancer surgery between August 2013 and January 2014 were screened according to service-specific eligibility criteria and targeted to receive preoperative VTE chemoprophylaxis. Bleeding, transfusion, and VTE rates were compared with rates of historical controls who had not received preoperative chemoprophylaxis...
February 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
M Matoušková
Bladder cancer has high prevalence in men and women. Bladder cancer usually originates from urothelium. More than 75% of cases are classified as nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Urothelial bladder carcinoma is usually managed by transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Role of transurethral resection of the bladder tumor is also essential in bladder cancer staging. Local prophylaxis is used in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer to reduce risk of recurrence. While local chemoprophylaxis is sufficient in low and middle risk patients, intravesical instillation of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus CalmetteGuerin (BCG) is preferred in high risk bladder cancer...
2015: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Brittany A Zwischenberger, Ching-Wei D Tzeng, Nicholas D Ward, Joseph B Zwischenberger, Jeremiah T Martin
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for gastrointestinal cancer surgical intervention in high-risk patients recommend postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) chemical prophylaxis for 4 weeks with low-dose unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin, but specific guidelines for esophagectomy are lacking. This survey identified the clinical patterns affecting postesophagectomy VTE chemoprophylaxis use among general thoracic surgeons. METHODS: General Thoracic Surgery Club members were invited to complete an online survey on VTE prophylaxis to analyze clinical factors affecting their choices...
February 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Krista J Hachey, Philip D Hewes, Liam P Porter, Douglas G Ridyard, Pamela Rosenkranz, David McAneny, Hiran C Fernando, Virginia R Litle
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) creates an 8-fold increase in mortality after lung resection. About one third of postoperative VTEs occur after discharge. The Caprini risk assessment model has been used by other specialties to calculate the risk of a VTE. Patients deemed high risk by the model are candidates for prophylactic anticoagulation after discharge, reducing the VTE risk by 60%. Our primary aims were to determine the frequency of VTE events and evaluate whether the Caprini model could risk-stratify patients...
January 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Sameh Msaad, Ilhem Yangui, Najla Bahloul, Narjes Abid, Makram Koubaa, Yosr Hentati, Mounir Ben Jemaa, Samy Kammoun
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. It is relatively uncommon in patients with lung cancer. We report a case of PCP in a 59-year-old man with a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with formoterol and a moderate daily dose of inhaled budesonide. He had also advanced stage non-small lung cancer treated with concurrent chemo-radiation with a cisplatin-etoposide containing regimen. The diagnosis of PCP was suspected based on the context of rapidly increasing dyspnea, lymphopenia and the imaging findings...
September 16, 2015: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Caio A V G Leite, Viviane T L Alencar, Davi L R Melo, José M S C Mota, Paulo H Melo, Lívia T C Mourão, Deysi V T Wong, Pedro J C Magalhães, Armênio A Santos, Gerly A C Brito, Roberto C P Lima-Júnior, Fernando Q Cunha, Ronaldo A Ribeiro
PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic cystitis is an important dose limiting side effect of ifosfamide based cancer chemotherapy. Despite chemoprophylaxis inflammation can still be found in cystoscopy guided biopsies. Previous studies confirmed the role of TNF-α and IL-1β. We evaluated the protective effect of the IL-1R antagonist anakinra and the anti-TNF-α antibody infliximab in experimental ifosfamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hemorrhagic cystitis was induced by an injection of ifosfamide (400 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in Swiss wild-type C57Bl/6, IL-1R-/-, TNFR1-/- or TNFR1/R2-/- mice...
December 2015: Journal of Urology
Jeremiah T Martin, Angela L Mahan, Victor A Ferraris, Sibu P Saha, Timothy W Mullett, Joseph B Zwischenberger, Ching-Wei D Tzeng
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) chemoprophylaxis for moderate-risk patients (3% rate or greater) and extended-duration chemoprophylaxis for high-risk patients (6% or greater). Large-scale studies of and recommendations for esophagectomy patients are lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the timing, rates, and predictors of postesophagectomy VTE. METHODS: Patients undergoing esophagectomies for cancer were identified from the 2005 to 2012 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement database...
September 2015: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Olga Zajac-Spychała, Ewelina Gowin, Piotr Fichna, Jacek Wysocki, Marta Fichna, Arleta Kowala-Piaskowska, Iwona Mozer-Lisewska, Jerzy Nowak, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic pathogen causing pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a life-threatening infection, in immunocompromised patients. In this study, retrospective analysis of the presence of P. jirovecii DNA in different samples collected from children with suspected PCP was carried out. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred and six specimens [152 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, 80 blood specimens, 18 bronchial secretions (BS), 34 induced sputum samples, 10 endotracheal aspirates (ETA), and 12 other type samples] obtained from patients with suspected PCP were examined by real-time PCR...
2015: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Daniel W Nelson, Vlad V Simianu, Amir L Bastawrous, Richard P Billingham, Alessandro Fichera, Michael G Florence, Eric K Johnson, Morris G Johnson, Richard C Thirlby, David R Flum, Scott R Steele
IMPORTANCE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication of colorectal surgery, but its incidence is unclear in the era of VTE prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of and risk factors associated with thromboembolic complications and contemporary VTE prophylaxis patterns following colorectal surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective data from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) linked to a statewide hospital discharge database...
August 2015: JAMA Surgery
Liv Riisager Wahlsten, Henrik Eckardt, Stig Lyngbæk, Per Føge Jensen, Emil Loldrup Fosbøl, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar Hilmar Gislason, Jonas Bjerring Olesen
BACKGROUND: Our aims were to determine the incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) that required inpatient or outpatient treatment, and to identify specific risk factors associated with DVT/PE in patients who had undergone surgery for a fracture distal to the knee. METHODS: Using individual linkage of nationwide registries, we included all Danish patients who had undergone surgery for a fracture distal to the knee between 1999 and 2011...
March 18, 2015: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Tarik Sammour, Ian P Hayes, Andrew G Hill, Finlay A Macrae, Des C Winter
Familial colorectal cancer syndromes pose a complex challenge to the treating clinician. Once a syndrome is recognized, genetic testing is often required to confirm the clinical suspicion. Management from that point is usually based on disease-specific guideline recommendations targeting risk reduction for the patient and their relatives through surgery, surveillance and chemoprophylaxis. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date summary of the most common familial syndromes and their medical and surgical management, with specific emphasis on evidence-based interventions that improve patient outcome, and to present the information in a manner that is easily readable and clinically relevant to the treating clinician...
June 2015: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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