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Chemoprophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314384/erratum-to-pre-travel-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-counselling-in-a-public-travel-medicine-clinic-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#1
Tânia do Socorro Souza Chaves, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Jessé Reis Alves, Marcus Lacerda, Marta Heloisa Lopes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292765/soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-in-indigenous-groups-a-community-cross-sectional-study-in-the-amazonian-southern-border-region-of-ecuador
#2
Natalia Romero-Sandoval, Claudia Ortiz-Rico, Héctor Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Daniel Valdivieso, Carlos Sandoval, Jacob Pástor, Miguel Martín
BACKGROUND: Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador...
March 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287001/transplacental-passage-of-vancomycin
#3
Craig V Towers, Beth Weitz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a larger number of patients receiving a vancomycin dosing regimen of 20 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for Group B streptococcus (GBS) chemoprophylaxis and analyze maternal and neonatal cord blood levels at delivery. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled every mother that entered labor with a positive GBS culture and a high-risk penicillin allergy with resistance to clindamycin or unknown sensitivity. Maternal and cord blood vancomycin levels were obtained at delivery...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262452/tranexamic-acid-was-safe-in-arthroplasty-patients-with-a-history-of-venous-thromboembolism-a-matched-outcome-study
#4
Orlando D Sabbag, Matthew P Abdel, Adam W Amundson, Dirk R Larson, Mark W Pagnano
BACKGROUND: In contemporary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and total knee arthroplasties (TKAs), intravenous tranexamic acid (IV TXA) has proved efficacious in decreasing blood loss and transfusion. Interested in expanding the use of IV TXA to patients with a prior venous thromboembolic event (VTE), we sought out to determine the risk of recurrent VTE with TXA administration during primary THA and TKA. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1262 patients (1620 cases) with a history of VTE who underwent primary THA or TKA between 2000 and 2012...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259152/should-chemoprophylaxis-be-a-main-strategy-for-preventing-re-introduction-of-malaria-in-highly-receptive-areas-sri-lanka-a-case-in-point
#5
A Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Renu Wickremasinghe, Hemantha D B Herath, S Deepika Fernando
BACKGROUND: Imported malaria cases continue to be reported in Sri Lanka, which was declared 'malaria-free' by the World Health Organization in September 2016. Chemoprophylaxis, a recommended strategy for malaria prevention for visitors travelling to malaria-endemic countries from Sri Lanka is available free of charge. The strategy of providing chemoprophylaxis to visitors to a neighbouring malaria-endemic country within the perspective of a country that has successfully eliminated malaria but is highly receptive was assessed, taking Sri Lanka as a case in point...
March 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250622/lyell-s-syndrome-and-antimalarials-a-case-report-and-clinical-review
#6
Joana Miranda Nunes, Sofia Santareno, Lina Guerreiro, Ana Filipa Margalho
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) or Lyell's syndrome is a rare, however, life-threatening mucocutaneous disorder with an epidermal detachment of a total body surface area (TBSA) of >30%. It is triggered by an idiosyncratic immune-allergic reaction to a drug, with many possible drugs implicated. Treatment success relies on early diagnosis and withdrawal of suspected/causative drug(s) and supportive care. Clinical evidence for specific therapies is still sparse. It is described a case of Lyell syndrome by sulfonamides for chemoprophylaxis of malaria...
January 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207572/cross-reactivity-of-chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-with-dri-amphetamine-immunoassay
#7
Isabel Gomila, Loreto Quesada, Victoria López-Corominas, Julia Fernández, Miguel Á Servera, Laura Sahuquillo, Macarena Dastis, Albert Torrents, Bernardino Barceló
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are medical drugs used to treat the chemoprophylaxis of malaria and a second-line anti-inflammatory drug. METHODS: We performed a study of cross-reactivity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the DRI Amphetamine Assay inspired by a case report of a self-ingestion of chloroquine after a family dispute, that involved the following: (1) an in vitro study with control samples of healthy subjects, (2) an in vivo study with samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and (3) an evaluation of the cross-reactivity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in 3 additional immunoassays...
April 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199305/sterile-protection-against-human-malaria-by-chemoattenuated-pfspz-vaccine
#8
Benjamin Mordmüller, Güzin Surat, Heimo Lagler, Sumana Chakravarty, Andrew S Ishizuka, Albert Lalremruata, Markus Gmeiner, Joseph J Campo, Meral Esen, Adam J Ruben, Jana Held, Carlos Lamsfus Calle, Juliana B Mengue, Tamirat Gebru, Javier Ibáñez, Mihály Sulyok, Eric R James, Peter F Billingsley, K C Natasha, Anita Manoj, Tooba Murshedkar, Anusha Gunasekera, Abraham G Eappen, Tao Li, Richard E Stafford, Minglin Li, Phil L Felgner, Robert A Seder, Thomas L Richie, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Peter G Kremsner
A highly protective malaria vaccine would greatly facilitate the prevention and elimination of malaria and containment of drug-resistant parasites. A high level (more than 90%) of protection against malaria in humans has previously been achieved only by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ) inoculated by mosquitoes; by intravenous injection of aseptic, purified, radiation-attenuated, cryopreserved PfSPZ ('PfSPZ Vaccine'); or by infectious PfSPZ inoculated by mosquitoes to volunteers taking chloroquine or mefloquine (chemoprophylaxis with sporozoites)...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185296/a-report-of-cerebral-malaria-treated-with-automated-red-blood-cell-exchange
#9
Waseem Q Anani, Gerald P Smith, Mehraboon Irani, Kathleen E Puca
BACKGROUND: Adjunctive automated whole blood or red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) can rapidly decrease malarial hyperparasitemia. Several case reports and series suggest improvement in clinical symptomatology; however, recent Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations concluded that RBCEx has no efficacy as an adjunctive therapy. We present a case of mental status changes secondary to cerebral malaria treated with automated RBCEx resulting in rapid and dramatic neurologic improvement...
February 10, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182750/chemoprophylaxis-with-sporozoite-immunization-in-p-knowlesi-rhesus-monkeys-confers-protection-and-elicits-sporozoite-specific-memory-t-cells-in-the-liver
#10
Sathit Pichyangkul, Michele D Spring, Kosol Yongvanitchit, Utaiwan Kum-Arb, Amporn Limsalakpetch, Rawiwan Im-Erbsin, Ratawan Ubalee, Pattaraporn Vanachayangkul, Edmond J Remarque, Evelina Angov, Philip L Smith, David L Saunders
Whole malaria sporozoite vaccine regimens are promising new strategies, and some candidates have demonstrated high rates of durable clinical protection associated with memory T cell responses. Little is known about the anatomical distribution of memory T cells following whole sporozoite vaccines, and immunization of nonhuman primates can be used as a relevant model for humans. We conducted a chemoprophylaxis with sporozoite (CPS) immunization in P. knowlesi rhesus monkeys and challenged via mosquito bites. Half of CPS immunized animals developed complete protection, with a marked delay in parasitemia demonstrated in the other half...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175421/180%C3%A2-early-deep-vein-thrombosis-chemoprophylaxis-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Fabio Frisoli, Paul P Huang, Spiros Frangos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173862/pre-travel-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-counselling-in-a-public-travel-medicine-clinic-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#12
Tânia do Socorro Souza Chaves, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Jessé Reis Alves, Marcus Lacerda, Marta Heloisa Lopes
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world and represents a threat to travellers visiting endemic areas. Chemoprophylaxis is the prevention measure used in travel medicine, avoiding clinical manifestations and protecting against the development of severe disease and death. METHODS: Retrospective and descriptive analysis of malaria prevention data in travellers was recorded from a travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, between January 2006 and December 2010...
February 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170135/diagnostic-potential-of-interferon-gamma-release-assay-to-detect-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#13
Jameela Edathodu, Bright Varghese, Abdulrahman A Alrajhi, Mohammed Shoukri, Ahmad Nazmi, Hazem Elgamal, Hassan Aleid, Fahad Alrabiah, Attia Ashraff, Ihab Mahmoud, Sahal Al-Hajoj
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is screened by using clinical assessment, tuberculin skin test (TST), chest radiography, and recently by interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of QuantiFERON(®) -TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT) for diagnosing LTBI in patients planned for kidney transplantation. METHODS: All adult patients with end-stage renal disease, evaluated for kidney transplantation in a referral center from August 2008 till May 2013, were enrolled, after consenting in a prospective, observational, non-interventional study...
February 7, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161482/evaluation-of-a-standardized-risk-based-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-protocol-in-the-setting-of-thyroid-and-parathyroid-surgery
#14
Ryan Macht, Ivy Gardner, Stephanie Talutis, Pamela Rosenkranz, Gerard Doherty, David McAneny
BACKGROUND: An elevated odds ratio for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prompted development of a Caprini risk assessment and risk-based prophylaxis protocol for all general surgery patients. This system includes pre- and postoperative prophylactic heparin as well as extended courses of low molecular weight heparin for high-risk patients. This study evaluated the safety of this chemoprophylaxis program in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review was conducted of all general surgery patients undergoing thyroid or parathyroid operations after implementation of the Caprini prophylaxis protocol...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122576/response-to-fever-and-utilization-of-standby-emergency-treatment-sbet-for-malaria-in-travellers-to-southeast-asia-a-questionnaire-based-cohort-study
#15
Christof D Vinnemeier, Camilla Rothe, Benno Kreuels, Marylyn M Addo, Sabine Vygen-Bonnet, Jakob P Cramer, Thierry Rolling
BACKGROUND: Guidelines in several European countries recommend standby emergency treatment (SBET) for travellers to regions with low or medium malaria transmission instead of continuous chemoprophylaxis: travellers are advised to seek medical assistance within 24 h in case of fever and to self-administer SBET only if they are not able to consult a doctor within the time period specified. Data on healthcare-seeking behaviour of febrile travellers and utilization of SBET is however scarce as only two studies were performed in the mid-1990s...
January 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121894/evidence-based-recipes-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-a-practical-safety-guide
#16
Christopher J Pannucci
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article and viewing the videos, the participant should be able to: 1. Demonstrate an understanding of risk stratification for venous thromboembolism in surgical patients. 2. Calculate and interpret a 2005 Caprini score. 3. Give examples of modifiable risk factors for perioperative venous thromboembolism. 4. Propose a venous thromboembolism risk reduction strategy using mechanical and/or chemoprophylaxis and justify the risks and benefits of the proposed strategy...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115674/grammomys-surdaster-the-natural-host-for-plasmodium-berghei-parasites-as-a-model-to-study-whole-organism-vaccines-against-malaria
#17
Solomon Conteh, Charles Anderson, Lynn Lambert, Sachy Orr-Gonzalez, Jessica Herrod, Yvette L Robbins, Dariyen Carter, Stomy Bin Shamamba Karhemere, Pati Pyana, Philippe Büscher, Patrick E Duffy
Inbred mice are commonly used to test candidate malaria vaccines, but have been unreliable for predicting efficacy in humans. To establish a more rigorous animal model, we acquired African woodland thicket rats of the genus Grammomys, the natural hosts for Plasmodium berghei Thicket rats were acquired and identified as Grammomys surdaster by skull and teeth measurements and mitochondrial DNA genotyping. Herein, we demonstrate that thicket rats are highly susceptible to infection by P berghei, and moderately susceptible to Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium chabaudi: 1-2 infected mosquito bites or 25-100 sporozoites administered by intravenous injection consistently resulted in patent parasitemia with P...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108019/goal-directed-enoxaparin-dosing-provides-superior-chemoprophylaxis-against-deep-vein-thrombosis
#18
Tammy R Kopelman, Jarvis W Walters, James N Bogert, Usmaan Basharat, Paola G Pieri, Karole M Davis, Asia N Quan, Sydney J Vail, Melissa A Pressman
INTRODUCTION: Optimal enoxaparin dosing for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis remains elusive. Prior research demonstrated that trauma patients at increased risk for DVT based upon Greenfield's risk assessment profile (RAP) have DVT rates of 10.8% despite prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine if goal directed prophylactic enoxaparin dosing to achieve anti-Xa levels of 0.3-0.5IU/ml would decrease DVT rates without increased complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of trauma patients having received prophylactic enoxaparin and appropriately timed anti-Xa levels was performed...
November 3, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106607/individualized-venous-thromboembolism-risk-stratification-using-the-2005-caprini-score-to-identify-the-benefits-and-harms-of-chemoprophylaxis-in-surgical-patients-a-meta-analysis
#19
Christopher J Pannucci, Lukasz Swistun, John K MacDonald, Peter K Henke, Benjamin S Brooke
OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate benefits and harms of chemoprophylaxis among surgical patients individually risk stratified for venous thromboembolism (VTE) using Caprini scores. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Individualized VTE risk stratification may identify high risk surgical patients who benefit from peri-operative chemoprophylaxis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases were queried...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100282/optimal-regimens-of-sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim-for-chemoprophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-systemic-rheumatic-diseases-results-from-a-non-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Masako Utsunomiya, Hiroaki Dobashi, Toshio Odani, Kazuyoshi Saito, Naoto Yokogawa, Kenji Nagasaka, Kenchi Takenaka, Makoto Soejima, Takahiko Sugihara, Hiroyuki Hagiyama, Shinya Hirata, Kazuo Matsui, Yoshinori Nonomura, Masahiro Kondo, Fumihito Suzuki, Makoto Tomita, Mari Kihara, Waka Yokoyama, Fumio Hirano, Hayato Yamazaki, Ryoko Sakai, Toshihiro Nanki, Ryuji Koike, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Nobuyuki Miyasaka, Masayoshi Harigai
BACKGROUND: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) is a standard drug for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PJP) in immunosuppressed patients with systemic rheumatic diseases, but is sometimes discontinued due to adverse events (AEs). The objective of this non-blinded, randomized, 52-week non-inferiority trial was to quest an effective chemoprophylaxis regimen for PJP with a low drug discontinuation rate. Results at week 24 were reported. METHODS: Adult patients with systemic rheumatic diseases who started prednisolone ≥0...
January 18, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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