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Chemoprophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510693/sputum-microscopy-with-fluorescein-diacetate-predicts-tuberculosis-infectiousness
#1
Sumona Datta, Jonathan M Sherman, Marco A Tovar, Marjory A Bravard, Teresa Valencia, Rosario Montoya, Willi Quino, Nikki D'Arcy, Eric S Ramos, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
Background.: Sputum from patients with tuberculosis contains subpopulations of metabolically active and inactive Mycobacterium tuberculosis with unknown implications for infectiousness. Methods.: We assessed sputum microscopy with fluorescein diacetate (FDA, evaluating M. tuberculosis metabolic activity) for predicting infectiousness. M. tuberculosis was quantified in pre-treatment sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using FDA microscopy, culture and acid-fast microscopy...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498921/a-meta-analysis-of-the-use-of-rifaximin-to-prevent-travellers-diarrhoea
#2
Qin Xiang Ng, Collin Yih Xian Ho, Dongju Shin, Nandini Venkatanarayanan, Hwei Wuen Chan
Background: Travellers' diarrhoea affects tens of millions of people travelling to less developed countries or regions annually. There are positive reports of the use of rifaximin, a non-absorbed, gut-selective antibiotic to prevent travellers' diarrhoea. This study will critically review and analyse clinical trials on the subject. Methods: Using the keywords [diarrhoea OR diarrhoea OR travel*] AND [rifaximin OR xifaxan OR xifaxanta OR normix OR rifagut], a preliminary search on the PubMed and Ovid databases yielded 411 papers published in English between 1 January 1988 and 1 July 2016...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487213/long-term-health-outcomes-among-returned-peace-corps-volunteers-after-malaria-prophylaxis-1995-2014
#3
Kathrine R Tan, Susan J Henderson, John Williamson, Rennie W Ferguson, Thomas M Wilkinson, Paul Jung, Paul M Arguin
BACKGROUND: A primary reason for non-adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis is fear of latent side effects. We examined latent effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis among Returned Peace Corps Volunteers (RPCVs). METHODS: During July 18-September 16, 2016, RPCVs who served during 1995-2014 with an e-mail address in Peace Corps' RPCV database were invited to take an internet-based survey on malaria prophylaxis and medical diagnoses. "Good adherence" meant taking prophylaxis "as prescribed" or "most of the time...
May 6, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480275/characteristics-and-mortality-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-a-plea-for-timely-initiation-of-chemoprophylaxis
#4
Karlijn van Halem, Lucia Vrolijk, Alberto Martin Pereira, Markus Gerardus Johannes de Boer
In patients with Cushing's syndrome, development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with extreme cortisol production levels. In this setting, immune reconstitution after abrogation of cortisol excess appears to induce development of symptomatic PCP. The high mortality rate warrants timely initiation of chemoprophylaxis or even preemptive treatment of PCP.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475558/to-what-extent-does-posthospital-discharge-chemoprophylaxis-prevent-venous-thromboembolism-after-bariatric-surgery-results-from-a-nationwide-cohort-of-more-than-110-000-patients
#5
Jérémie Thereaux, Thomas Lesuffleur, Sébastien Czernichow, Arnaud Basdevant, Simon Msika, David Nocca, Bertrand Millat, Anne Fagot-Campagna
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, and the impact of posthospital discharge (PHD) chemoprophylaxis on venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS). BACKGROUND: VTE is a major concern after BS, especially during the PHD period. No large-scale study has previously focused on the clinical value of PHD chemoprophylaxis. METHODS: In this nationwide observational population-based cohort study, all data from patients undergoing BS were extracted from the French National Health Insurance database (SNIIRAM) from 1st January 2012 to 31st September 2014...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465184/comparing-imported-malaria-in-adults-and-children-presenting-to-an-italian-teaching-hospital-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#6
Dora Luise, Daniele Donà, Federica Visentin, Giulia Marini, Carlo Giaquinto, Annamaria Cattelan
BACKGROUND: Malaria is not endemic in Italy, but it still represents an important threat to the travelers' health. With this study we wanted to compare the characteristics of imported malaria between adults and children. METHOD: This retrospective observational study includes all patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit and in the Pediatric Department of Padua (Italy), and discharged with a diagnosis of malaria from 2005 to 2015. The variables considered are epidemiological and clinical...
April 29, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463661/group-b-streptococcal-bacteriuria-during-pregnancy-as-a-risk-factor-for-maternal-intrapartum-colonization-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Mar Olga Pérez-Moreno, Ester Picó-Plana, Jesús Grande-Armas, Mª José Centelles-Serrano, Mercé Arasa-Subero, Núria Colomé- Ochoa, Members Of The Study Group Gessagte Led By Mo Pérez-Moreno
PURPOSE: Current evidence is inconclusive regarding the intrapartum administration of chemoprophylaxis, merely based on the presence of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteriuria of any colony count, in the prevention of early-onset neonatal GBS infection. The aim of this study was to assess whether GBS bacteriuria is a risk factor for intrapartum colonization (IPC) regardless of urinary concentration or the results of late third-trimester rectovaginal screening cultures (RVSCs). METHODOLOGY: Six hundred and eight pregnant women, with urine specimens cultured between May 2011 and May 2013, were enrolled in this prospective cohort study...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459774/chemoprophylaxis-for-venous-thromboembolism-in-operative-treatment-of-fractures-of-the-tibia-and-distally-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Joseph T Patterson, Saam Morshed
OBJECTIVES: Clinical practice has shifted from therapeutic anticoagulation of any lower extremity venous thromboembolism (VTE) to only thromboses with risk of proximal extension or embolization - clinically important VTE (CIVTE). Isolated operative fractures of the tibia and distally are associated with low-to-intermediate VTE risk and there is wide variability in the choice to anticoagulate as well as anticoagulant. We sought to evaluate the role for chemoprophylaxis of VTE and CIVTE in these injuries by meta-analysis of Level I evidence...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456684/trend-analysis-of-imported-malaria-in-london-observational-study-2000-to-2014
#9
Eleanor Rees, Maria Saavedra-Campos, Martine Usdin, Charlotte Anderson, Joanne Freedman, Jane De Burgh, Hilary Kirkbride, Peter Chiodini, Valerie Smith, Marie Blaze, Christopher J M Whitty, Sooria Balasegaram
BACKGROUND: We describe trends of malaria in London (2000-2014) in order to identify preventive opportunities and we estimated the cost of malaria admissions (2009/2010-2014/2015). METHODS: We identified all cases of malaria, resident in London, reported to the reference laboratory and obtained hospital admissions from Hospital Episode Statistics. RESULTS: The rate of malaria decreased (19.4[2001]-9.1[2014] per 100,000). Males were over-represented (62%)...
April 26, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450186/rational-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-the-position-of-primaquine
#10
EDITORIAL
J Kevin Baird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450185/prophylactic-efficacy-of-primaquine-for-preventing-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-parasitaemia-in-travelers-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Goodarz Kolifarhood, Ahmad Raeisi, Mansour Ranjbar, Ali Akbar Haghdoust, Allan Schapira, Saeed Hashemi, Hossein Masoumi-Asl, Hossein Mozafar Sadati, Sara Azimi, Nasim Khosravi, Anatoly Kondrashin
BACKGROUND: With increased international travel over the world the need for safe and effective chemoprophylaxis for malaria is as great as ever. The choice of regimen is difficult, as effectiveness should be weighted against potential adverse effects. Although, some studies have reported high prophylactic efficacy of primaquine, there is no comprehensive evidence comparing its prophylactic effectiveness as well as toxicity. To fill the gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis study was carried out...
April 24, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444521/leprosy-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Fred Bernardes Filho, Moises Batista da Silva, John Stewart Spencer, Claudio Guedes Salgado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript aims to review the cutting-edge developments regarding to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of leprosy in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Leprosy transmission still occurs continuously in some endemic areas in the world. Leprosy in children below 15 years old is a robust indicator of active source of infection in the community where they live. A special focus on children to reduce disabilities and reduce transmission is one of the core areas of interventions of the global leprosy strategy 2016-2020...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439517/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-organ-space-infection-after-radiofrequency-assisted-hepatectomy-or-ablation-of-liver-tumors-in-a-single-center-more-than-meets-the-eye
#13
Ioannis Karavokyros, Stamatios Orfanos, Anastasios Angelou, Antonia Meropouli, Dimitrios Schizas, John Griniatsos, Emmanouil Pikoulis
INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infections (SSIs) and especially organ/space infection (O/SI) after resection or ablation of liver tumors are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A secondary blood stream infection (BSI) is considered an O/SI but the exact prevalence is unknown. We aimed to investigate the incidence of O/SI and BSIs in a cohort of consecutive patients after liver resection or ablation, to seek for a possible connection between them and to search for potential risk factors...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437215/contraceptive-use-and-pregnancy-incidence-among-women-participating-in-an-hiv-prevention-trial
#14
Carolyne A Akello, Katherine E Bunge, Clemensia Nakabiito, Brenda G Mirembe, Mary Glenn Fowler, Anupam Mishra, Jeanne Marrazzo, Zvavahera M Chirenje, Connie Celum, Jennifer E Balkus
BACKGROUND: Recent HIV prevention trials required use of effective contraceptive methods to fulfill eligibility for enrollment. We compared pregnancy rates in a subset of participants enrolled in the Microbicide Trials Network protocol (MTN-003), a randomized trial of chemoprophylaxis to prevent HIV acquisition among women aged 18-45 years who initiated depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or combined oral contraceptives (COCs) at enrollment, relative to those already using DMPA or COCs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426116/portuguese-expatriates-health-in-angola-and-mozambique-a-cross-sectional-study-increasing-awareness-and-need-for-more-surveillance
#15
Ana Glória Fonseca, Sara S Dias, João Luis Baptista, Jorge Torgal
Background: Increasing numbers of expatriates are working in sub-Saharan Africa. There is little published data on the complex population and this survey aimed at understanding expatriate morbidity by accessing self-reported health problems and malaria preventive practices. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted targeting Portuguese expatriates in Angola and Mozambique. Logistic regression analysis explored factors associated with self-reported health problems and psychological symptoms in the previous 3 months...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424139/lethal-trauma-pulmonary-embolism-is-a-black-swan-event-in-patients-at-risk-for-deep-vein-thrombosis-an-evidence-based-review
#16
REVIEW
C Michael Dunham, Gregory S Huang
We delineated the incidence of trauma patient pulmonary embolism (PE) and risk conditions by performing a systematic literature review of those at risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The PE proportion was 1.4 per cent (95% confidence interval = 1.2-1.6) in at-risk patients. Of 10 conditions, PE was only associated with increased age (P < 0.01) or leg injury (P < 0.01; risk ratio = 1.6). As lower extremity DVT (LEDVT) proportions increased, mortality proportions (P = 0.02) and hospital stay (P = 0.0002) increased, but PE proportions did not (P = 0...
April 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416153/a-critical-review-of-patient-safety-indicators-attributed-to-trauma-surgeons
#17
Nicole Fox, Rebecca Willcutt, Adrienne Elberfeld, John Porter, Anthony J Mazzarelli
BACKGROUND: The Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed patient safety indicators (PSIs) to identify events with a high likelihood of representing medical error. The purpose of this study was to validate PSIs attributed to trauma surgeons and compare validated PSIs to performance improvement (PI) and morbidity and mortality (M&M) data. We hypothesized that PSIs are not an indicator of quality of care in trauma. METHODS: PSI's attributed to trauma surgeons (n=9) at our institution were reviewed (Jan-Dec 2015)...
April 1, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410610/an-intricate-case-of-multidrug-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum-isolate-imported-from-cambodia
#18
Raffaele Dell'Acqua, Claudia Fabrizio, Francesco Di Gennaro, Sergio Lo Caputo, Annalisa Saracino, Michela Menegon, Mariangela L'Episcopia, Carlo Severini, Laura Monno, Francesco Castelli, Gioacchino Angarano
BACKGROUND: Imported cases of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and treatment failure with artemisinin-based regimens, although rare, have been described also in Western countries and their management is often challenging. This is also due to an inadequate knowledge and implementation of health prevention measures. CASE REPORT: A complex case of imported malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax/P. falciparum isolates in a patient who was not taking chemoprophylaxis while he was travelling in Cambodia is reported in this article...
April 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407772/the-end-of-a-dogma-the-safety-of-doxycycline-use-in-young-children-for-malaria-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Tiphaine Gaillard, Sébastien Briolant, Marylin Madamet, Bruno Pradines
Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails...
April 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395685/the-benefit-of-pharmacological-venous-thromboprophylaxis-in-foot-and-ankle-surgery
#20
N P Saragas, P N F Ferrao, B F Jacobson, E Saragas, A Strydom
BACKGROUND: Ten percent of patients with a deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) will develop a fatal pulmonary embolism (PE), often initially asymptomatic. The risks and benefits of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis are well documented in respect of total joint arthroplasty and hip fractures, but little is understood about the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) or the potential risks and benefits of chemoprophylaxis in foot and ankle surgery. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prophylactic chemoprophylaxis had any impact on the prevention of VTE in a cohort of foot and ankle surgical patients requiring the combination of below-knee cast immobilisation and non-weightbearing for ≥4 weeks...
March 29, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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