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Chemoprophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931142/malaria-prevention-strategies-and-recommendations-from-chemoprophylaxis-to-stand-by-emergency-treatment-a-10-year-prospective-study-in-a-swiss-travel-clinic
#1
Rim Boubaker, Annie Hérard Fossati, Pierrette Meige, Catherine Mialet, Chantal Ngarambe Buffat, Jacynthe Rochat, Manisinh Souvannaraj-Blanchant, Mediatrice Uwanyiligira, Francine Widmer, Sylvie Payot, Laurence Rochat, Serge de Vallière, Valérie D'Acremont, Blaise Genton
Background: There are several possible malaria prevention strategies for travellers. In Switzerland, chemoprophylaxis (CP) is recommended for persons visiting areas highly endemic for malaria and stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) for areas with moderate to low risk. Objective: To describe the type of malaria prevention prescribed to travel clinic attendees with a specific focus on changes over time following adaptation of recommendations. Methods: All pre-travel first consultation data recorded between November 2002 and December 2012 were included...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927555/comparative-study-of-clinical-presentation-and-hematological-indices-in-hospitalized-sickle-cell-patients-infected-with-severe-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#2
Prasanta Purohit, Pradeep Kumar Mohanty, Siris Patel, Padmalaya Das, Jogeswar Panigrahi, Kishalaya Das
BACKGROUND: Sickle-cell-gene has a high frequency in malaria endemic regions. In India, though the prevalence of both sickle-cell-gene and malaria are high, no study has been carried out. This study aims to find out the possible differences in hematological and clinical parameters in severe falciparum malaria with respect to sickle cell genotypes. METHODS: Five hundred fourteen adults with severe falciparum malaria hospitalized at Department of Medicine, Veer Surendra Sai Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Burla, between August, 2010 to December, 2014 were included and categorized on the basis of sickle cell genotypes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925647/aseptic-and-bacterial-meningitis-evaluation-treatment-and-prevention
#3
Hillary R Mount, Sean D Boyle
The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations for common pathogens that have reduced the incidence of meningitis worldwide. Aseptic meningitis is the most common form of meningitis with an annual incidence of 7.6 per 100,000 adults. Most cases of aseptic meningitis are viral and require supportive care...
September 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903777/modest-heterologous-protection-after-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoite-immunization-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Jona Walk, Isaie J Reuling, Marije C Behet, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Wouter Graumans, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Thorsten Janssen, Karina Teelen, Johannes H W de Wilt, Quirijn de Mast, André J van der Ven, Ernest Diez Benavente, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark, Martijn A Huynen, Cornelus C Hermsen, Else M Bijker, Anja Scholzen, Robert W Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 39 healthy participants of NF54-CPS immunization by bites of 45 NF54-infected (n = 24 volunteers) or uninfected mosquitoes (placebo; n = 15 volunteers) against a controlled human malaria infection with the homologous NF54 or the genetically distinct NF135...
September 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898610/-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-hiv-infected-patients-the-challenge-of-relapse-and-treatment-failure
#5
Patrícia Cipriano, Ana Cláudia Miranda, Isabel Antunes, Kamal Mansinho
INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disseminated infection, considered to be the third most frequent opportunistic parasitic infection in Europe. It is especially prevalent in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, in whom it poses a great therapeutic challenge due to increased risk of relapse. The goal of this study is to characterize a population of co-infected patients, as well as the efficiency of the adopted treatment strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study with a sample composed of all patients with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus admitted in an Infectious Diseases ward over a period of 10 years...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893258/epidemiological-and-clinical-assessment-of-a-shared-territorial-malaria-guideline-in-the-10%C3%A2-years-of-its-implementation-barcelona-north-metropolitan-area-catalonia-spain-2007-2016
#6
Josep M Mòdol, Sílvia Roure, Àlex Smithson, Gema Fernández-Rivas, Anna Esquerrà, Neus Robert, María Méndez, Javier Ramos, Anna Carreres, Lluís Valerio
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major source of morbi-mortality among travellers. In 2007, a consensual multicenter Primary Care-Hospital shared guideline on travel-prior chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis and clinical management of imported malaria was set up in the Barcelona North Metropolitan area. The aim of the study is to assess the evolution of malaria cases in the area as well as its clinical management over the 10 years of its implementation. RESULTS: A total of 190 malaria cases, all them imported, have been recorded...
September 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886099/serial-quantiferon-tb-gold-testing-in-patients-with-psoriasis-treated-with-ustekinumab
#7
Chuan-Yu Hsiao, Hsien-Yi Chiu, Ting-Shun Wang, Tsen-Fang Tsai
BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern about the risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reactivation during the use of biologics for psoriasis. Although ustekinumab had been documented with low risk of tuberculosis, the long-term follow-up of LTBI as determined by QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) testing in patients treated with ustekinumab is limited. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to use serial QFT-G testing as a screening method for detecting LTBI in patients with psoriasis from an intermediate tuberculosis burden country...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885461/vaccinations-and-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-of-adolescents-traveling-from-greece-to-international-destinations-a-nine-year-prospective-study
#8
Helena C Maltezou, Androula Pavli, Kalliopi Theodoridou, Panos Katerelos, Athina Spilioti, Anastasia Tedoma, Ioanna Lymperi, Maria Theodoridou
BACKGROUND: There are few publications focusing on vaccination and malaria chemoprophylaxis in adolescent travelers. We assessed pre-travel vaccinations and malaria chemoprophylaxis of adolescents 12-18 old traveling from Greece to international destinations. METHODS: We prospectively studied 239 adolescents 12-18 years old during 2008-2016. A standard questionnaire was used to collect data. RESULTS: Adolescents sought pre-travel services at a mean of 24...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885127/timing-and-risks-of-chemoprophylaxis-after-spinal-surgery-a-single-center-experience-with-6869-consecutive-patients
#9
Ekamjeet S Dhillon, Ryan Khanna, Michael Cloney, Helena Roberts, George R Cybulski, Tyler R Koski, Zachary A Smith, Nader S Dahdaleh
OBJECTIVE Venous thromboembolism (VTE) after spinal surgery is a major cause of morbidity, but chemoprophylactic anticoagulation can prevent it. However, there is variability in the timing and use of chemoprophylactic anticoagulation after spine surgery, particularly given surgeons' concerns for spinal epidural hematomas. The goal of this study was to provide insight into the safety, efficacy, and timing of anticoagulation therapy after spinal surgery. METHODS The authors retrospectively examined records from 6869 consecutive spinal surgeries performed in their departments at Northwestern University...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883977/management-of-plasmodium-vivax-risk-and-illness-in-travelers
#10
EDITORIAL
J Kevin Baird
Malaria poses an exceptionally complex problem for providers of travel medicine services. Perceived high risk of exposure during travel typically prompts prescribing protective antimalarial drugs. Suppressive chemoprophylactic agents have dominated strategy for that practice for over 70 years. This broad class of therapeutic agents kills parasites after they emerge from the liver and attempt development in red blood cells. The dominance of suppressive chemoprophylaxis in travel medicine stems largely from the view of Plasmodium falciparum as the utmost threat to the patient - these drugs are poorly suited to preventing Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale due to inactivity against the latent liver stages of these species not produced by P...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870681/the-association-of-venous-thromboembolism-chemoprophylaxis-timing-on-venous-thromboembolism-after-major-vascular-surgery
#11
Danielle C Sutzko, Patrick E Georgoff, Andrea T Obi, Mark A Healy, Nicholas H Osborne
OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is reported to occur in up to 33% of patients undergoing major vascular surgery. Despite this high incidence, patients inconsistently receive timely VTE chemoprophylaxis. The true incidence of VTE among patients receiving delayed VTE chemoprophylaxis is unknown. We sought to identify the association of VTE chemoprophylaxis timing on VTE risk, postoperative transfusion rates, and 30-day mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing major open vascular surgery...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864711/meningococcal-b-vaccine-failure-with-a-penicillin-resistant-strain-in-a-young-adult-on-long-term-eculizumab
#12
Sydel R Parikh, Jay Lucidarme, Coralie Bingham, Paul Warwicker, Tim Goodship, Ray Borrow, Shamez N Ladhani
We describe a case of invasive meningococcal disease due to a vaccine-preventable and penicillin-resistant strain in a fully immunized young adult on long-term complement inhibitor therapy and daily penicillin chemoprophylaxis. Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human complement C5 protein and inhibits the terminal complement pathway. It is currently recommended for the treatment of complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. An unwanted complication of inhibiting complement, however, is an increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease...
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863085/early-chemoprophylaxis-is-associated-with-decreased-venous-thromboembolism-risk-without-concomitant-increase-in-intraspinal-hematoma-expansion-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Ronald Chang, Michelle H Scerbo, Karl M Schmitt, Sasha D Adams, Timothy J Choi, Charles E Wade, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), there is increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but chemoprophylaxis (PPX) may cause expansion of intraspinal hematoma (ISH). METHODS: Single-center retrospective study of adult trauma patients from 2012-2015 with SCI. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: VTE diagnosis, death, or discharge within 48 hours. Patients were dichotomized based on early (≤48 hours) heparinoid and/or aspirin PPX. ISH expansion was diagnosed intraoperatively or by follow-up radiology...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863082/chemoprophylaxis-for-vte-prevention-in-spine-surgery-patients
#14
Ye Sun, Huilin Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836135/mandatory-risk-assessment-reduces-venous-thromboembolism-in-bariatric-surgery-patients
#15
Abdelrahman A Nimeri, Jejomar Bautista, Maha Ibrahim, Ruby Philip, Talat Al Shaban, Ahmed Maasher, Ajda Altinoz
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and chemoprophylaxis is recommended. METHODS: Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) is an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) member since 2009. We report the rates of VTE in bariatric surgery patients from 2010 to 2016 compared to ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs before and after switching from heparin to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), initiating mandatory risk assessment using Caprini scoring for VTE and adopting an aggressive strategy for high-risk patients regarding dosage of LMWH and chemoprophylaxis after discharge...
August 23, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831717/a-randomized-trial-of-brief-versus-extended-seizure-prophylaxis-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#16
Theresa Human, Michael N Diringer, Michelle Allen, Gregory J Zipfel, Michael Chicoine, Ralph Dacey, Rajat Dhar
BACKGROUND: Seizures occur in 10-20% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), predominantly in the acute phase. However, anticonvulsant prophylaxis remains controversial, with studies suggesting a brief course may be adequate and longer exposure may be associated with worse outcomes. Nonetheless, in the absence of controlled trials to inform practice, patients continue to receive variable chemoprophylaxis. The objective of this study was to compare brief versus extended seizure prophylaxis after aneurysmal SAH...
August 22, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820759/thromboprophylaxis-in-spinal-surgery
#17
William P Mosenthal, David C Landy, Haroutioun H Boyajian, Olumuyiwa A Idowu, Lewis L Shi, Edwin Ramos, Michael J Lee
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis OBJECTIVE.: Determine the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in spinal surgery patients receiving no thromboprophylaxis, mechanoprophylaxis, and chemoprophylaxis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The incidence of thromboembolic complications after spinal surgery is not well established. While a variety of effective mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis interventions exist, their role in spinal surgery remains unclear...
August 17, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814310/modelling-the-benefits-of-long-acting-or-transmission-blocking-drugs-for-reducing-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-by-case-management-or-by-mass-treatment
#18
Michael T Bretscher, Jamie T Griffin, Azra C Ghani, Lucy C Okell
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drugs are an important tool for malaria control and elimination. Alongside their direct benefit in the treatment of disease, drug use has a community-level effect, clearing the reservoir of infection and reducing onward transmission of the parasite. Different compounds potentially have different impacts on transmission-with some providing periods of prolonged chemoprophylaxis whilst others have greater transmission-blocking potential. The aim was to quantify the relative benefit of such properties for transmission reduction to inform target product profiles in the drug development process and choice of first-line anti-malarial treatment in different endemic settings...
August 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791279/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Sally J Lawrence, Manish Sadarangani, Kevan Jacobson
Immunosuppressive therapy is a known risk factor for opportunistic infections. We report the first case of severe Pneumocystis jirovecii infection requiring intensive care in a pediatric patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The literature was reviewed and there were 92 reported cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with IBD. Most sources were case reports and there was likely reporting bias toward patients receiving immunomodulators, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy, and those who died...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774810/preparedness-of-adolescents-departing-from-athens-international-airport-to-africa-or-asia-a-five-year-airport-based-prospective-study
#20
Helena C Maltezou, Androula Pavli, Kalliopi Theodoridou, Eleftherios Bournousouzis, Athanasios Minitsios, Panos Katerelos, Ioanna Lymperi, Maria Theodoridou
BACKGROUND: The number of adolescents who travel has increased. We estimated the preparedness of adolescents (12-18 years) departing from Athens to Africa and Asia. METHODS: An airport-based survey was conducted from 2011 to 2015. RESULTS: Sixty-eight adolescents participated; 27/68 (40%) had the Greek nationality. Their main destinations were the Indian subcontinent (37%) and South-East Asia (32%). Most adolescents planned to stay for <1 month (69%) or for 1-3 months (22%)...
August 1, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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