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Chemoprophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145631/rifaximin-fails-to-prevent-campylobacteriosis-in-the-human-challenge-model-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David A Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renee M Laird, Frédéric Poly, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, Yelizaveta Mochalova, Christina L Gariepy, Subhra Chakraborty, Patricia Guerry, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Mark S Riddle
Background: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of diarrheal disease globally with significant morbidity. Primary prevention efforts have yielded limited results. Rifaximin chemoprophylaxis decreases travelers' diarrhea rates and may be suitable for high risk persons. We assessed the efficacy of rifaximin in the controlled human infection model (CHIM) for Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were admitted to an inpatient facility and randomized to a twice daily dose of 550 mg rifaximin or placebo...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143663/dirofilaria-immitis-jyd-34-isolate-whole-genome-analysis
#2
Catherine Bourguinat, Francois Lefebvre, Johanna Sandoval, Brenda Bondesen, Yovany Moreno, Roger K Prichard
BACKGROUND: Macrocyclic lactone (ML) anthelmintics are used for chemoprophylaxis for heartworm infection in dogs and cats. Cases of dogs becoming infected with heartworms, despite apparent compliance to recommended chemoprophylaxis with approved preventives, has led to such cases being considered as suspected lack of efficacy (LOE). Recently, microfilariae collected from a small number of LOE isolates were used as a source of infection of new host dogs and confirmed to have reduced susceptibility to ML in controlled efficacy studies using L3 challenge in dogs...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143652/genetic-profiles-of-ten-dirofilaria-immitis-isolates-susceptible-or-resistant-to-macrocyclic-lactone-heartworm-preventives
#3
Catherine Bourguinat, Kathy Keller, Jianguo Xia, Pierre Lepage, Tom L McTier, Debra J Woods, Roger K Prichard
BACKGROUND: For dogs and cats, chemoprophylaxis with macrocyclic lactone (ML) preventives for heartworm disease is widely used in the United States and other countries. Since 2005, cases of loss of efficacy (LOE) of heartworm preventives have been reported in the U.S. More recently, ML-resistant D. immitis isolates were confirmed. Previous work identified 42 genetic markers that could predict ML response in individual samples. For field surveillance, it would be more appropriate to work on microfilarial pools from individual dogs with a smaller subset of genetic markers...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125431/the-timing-of-venous-thromboembolic-events-after-spine-surgery-a-single-center-experience-with-6869-consecutive-patients
#4
Michael B Cloney, Benjamin Hopkins, Ekamjeet S Dhillon, Nader S Dahdaleh
OBJECTIVE Venous thromboembolic events (VTEs), including both deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after spine surgery. Prophylactic anticoagulation, or chemoprophylaxis, can prevent VTE. However, the timing of VTEs after spine surgery and the effect of chemoprophylaxis on VTE timing remain underinvestigated. METHODS The records of 6869 consecutive spine surgeries were retrospectively examined. Data on patient demographics, surgical variables, hospital course, and timing of VTEs were collected...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117339/incidence-and-predictors-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-abdominoplasty
#5
Geoffrey R Keyes, Robert Singer, Ronald E Iverson, Foad Nahai
Background: The prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a high priority in aesthetic surgery. Abdominoplasty is the aesthetic procedure most commonly associated with VTE, yet the mechanisms for the development of VTE associated with this procedure are unclear. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and predictors of VTE in patients undergoing abdominoplasty procedures in outpatient surgery centers using data from the Internet Based Quality Assurance Program (IBQAP)...
October 8, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117324/intrapartum-antibiotic-chemoprophylaxis-policies-for-the-prevention-of-group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-systematic-review
#6
Kirsty Le Doare, Megan O'Driscoll, Kim Turner, Farah Seedat, Neal J Russell, Anna C Seale, Paul T Heath, Joy E Lawn, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Margaret Ip, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Beate Kampmann
Background: Intrapartum antibiotic chemoprophylaxis (IAP) prevents most early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. However, there is no description of how IAP is used around the world. This article is the sixth in a series estimating the burden of GBS disease. Here we aimed to review GBS screening policies and IAP implementation worldwide. Methods: We identified data through (1) systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean [LILACS], World Health Organization library database [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and unpublished data from professional societies and (2) an online survey and searches of policies from medical societies and professionals...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112671/travel-characteristics-and-pretravel-health-care-among-pregnant-or-breastfeeding-u-s-women-preparing-for-international-travel
#7
Stefan H F Hagmann, Sowmya R Rao, Regina C LaRocque, Stefanie Erskine, Emily S Jentes, Allison T Walker, Elizabeth D Barnett, Lin H Chen, Davidson H Hamer, Edward T Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To study characteristics and preventive interventions of adult pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seeking pretravel health care in the United States. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data (2009-2014) of pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seen at U.S. travel clinics participating in Global TravEpiNet. Nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding adult female travelers of childbearing age were used for comparison. We evaluated the prescription of malaria chemoprophylaxis and antibiotics for this population as well as the administration of three travel-related vaccines: hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107173/deaths-and-parasuicides-associated-with-mefloquine-chemoprophylaxis-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Maya Tickell-Painter, Rachel Saunders, Nicola Maayan, Vittoria Lutje, Alberto Mateo-Urdiales, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Mefloquine is recommended in international health guidelines for preventing malaria in travellers. Reports of psychosis and suicide are often alluded to but are not clearly established. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review to identify and critically appraise any death or parasuicide associated with mefloquine prophylaxis. We developed a comprehensive search that included publications up to 11 July 2017. We included case studies but excluded newspaper reports...
October 25, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101558/perioperative-bleeding-and-blood-transfusion-are-major-risk-factors-for-venous-thromboembolism-following-bariatric-surgery
#9
Alexander W Nielsen, Melissa C Helm, Tammy Kindel, Rana Higgins, Kathleen Lak, Zachary M Helmen, Jon C Gould
BACKGROUND: Morbidly obese patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) after bariatric surgery. Perioperative chemoprophylaxis is used routinely with bariatric surgery to decrease the risk of VTE. When bleeding occurs, routine chemoprophylaxis is often withheld due to concerns about inciting another bleeding event. We sought to evaluate the relationship between perioperative bleeding and postoperative VTE in bariatric surgery. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) dataset between 2012 and 2014 was queried to identify patients who underwent bariatric surgery...
November 3, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097086/extended-outpatient-chemoprophylaxis-reduces-venous-thromboembolism-after-radical-cystectomy
#10
John Schomburg, Suprita Krishna, Ayman Soubra, Katherine Cotter, Yunhua Fan, Graham Brown, Badrinath Konety
PURPOSE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism, is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after radical cystectomy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of extended outpatient chemoprophylaxis against VTE after radical cystectomy-with a focus on any reduction in the incidence of VTE, including DVT and pulmonary embolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Beginning in April 2013, we prospectively instituted a policy of extending inpatient VTE prophylaxis with subcutaneous heparin/enoxaparin for 30 days postoperatively...
October 30, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096964/international-travelers-receiving-pharmacological-immunosuppression-challenges-and-opportunities
#11
REVIEW
Belisa Tarazona, Marta Díaz-Menéndez, Gloria Mato Chaín
There is an increasing number of international travelers receiving immunosuppressive therapy due to the better life expectation and quality offered by this kind of treatment. The complexity of pre-travel counseling in these patients lies in their greater susceptibility to certain travel-related infections and the potential severity of these, as well as in the contraindications and interactions that may occur between certain vaccines and/or prophylaxis and their base therapy. Counseling the traveler represents a challenge for clinicians who have to tailor vaccinations and other recommended preventive measures to the immunosuppressed patients...
October 30, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095189/venous-thromboembolism-after-surgical-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#12
Arash Momeni, Justin P Fox
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a serious complication after the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Contemporary guidelines limit VTE chemoprophylaxis to the period of hospitalization. We conducted this study to evaluate the frequency of postdischarge VTE among surgically treated breast cancer patients and identify patient level factors associated with postdischarge VTE. METHODS: Using Arkansas, Florida, Nebraska, and New York state inpatient databases, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult women who underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer between October 1, 2008, and September 30, 2013...
October 31, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083344/invasive-meningococcal-disease-on-the-workplaces-a-systematic-review
#13
Matteo Riccò, Luigi Vezzosi, Anna Odone, Carlo Signorelli
Background and aims of the work: Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) represents a global health threat, and occupational settings have the potential to contribute to its spreading. Therefore, here we present the available evidences on the epidemiology of IMD on the workplaces. METHODS: The following key words were used to explore PubMed: Neisseria meningitidis, meningococcus, meningococcal, invasive meningococcal disease, epidemiology, outbreaks, profession(al), occupation(al). RESULTS: We identified a total of 12 IMD cases among healthcare workers (HCW), 44 involving biological laboratory workers (BLW), 8 among school personnel, and eventually 27 from other settings, including 3 large industrial working populations...
October 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068923/impact-of-patient-subtype-and-surgical-variables-on-abdominoplasty-outcomes-a-12-year-massachusetts-general-hospital-experience
#14
Akhil K Seth, Alex M Lin, William G Austen, Robert H Gilman, Gregory G Gallico, Amy S Colwell
BACKGROUND: The traditional abdominoplasty is one of the most common surgical procedures performed. This study evaluates the impact of different surgical techniques and clinical patient factors on abdominoplasty outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing abdominoplasty was performed. RESULTS: Seven hundred seventy-nine patients with a mean age of 43.7 years and a body mass index of 27 kg/m underwent abdominoplasty...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062817/primary-and-secondary-osteoporotic-fractures-prophylaxis-evaluation-of-a-prospective-cohort
#15
Bruno Gonçalves Schröder E Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vidal Assad de Carvalho, Luiz Felippe Mokdeci Martins de Oliveira, Anmy Gil Ferreira, Rita de Cássia Santana do Amaral, Valdeci Manoel de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of primary drug prevention of fractures due to osteoporosis in patients admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital, in a medium-sized city, admitted with osteoporotic fractures. Moreover, to identify the incidence of prescribing secondary prophylaxis after the first fracture event. At the same time, the prevalence of risk factors for such fractures as described in the literature was measured. METHODS: This longitudinal prospective study was based on a cohort of patients admitted in a tertiary teaching hospital from October 2015 to January 2016...
September 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056565/risk-factors-and-pharmacologic-prophylaxis-for-venous-thromboembolism-in-elective-spine-surgery
#16
Ryan P McLynn, Pablo J Diaz-Collado, Taylor D Ottesen, Nathaniel T Ondeck, Jonathan J Cui, Patawut Bovonratwet, Blake N Shultz, Jonathan N Grauer
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a known complication after spine surgery, but prophylaxis guidelines are ambiguous for patients undergoing elective spine surgery. PURPOSE: To characterize the incidence and risk factors for VTE and the association of pharmacologic prophylaxis with VTE and bleeding complications after elective spine surgery. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing elective spine surgery in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database and a retrospective cohort analysis at an academic medical center...
October 19, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037978/expected-immunizations-and-health-protection-for-hajj-and-umrah-2018-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Philippe Gautret, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: The annual Hajj and Umrah are one of the largest recurring religious mass gatherings across the globe drawing pilgrims from more than 185 countries. The living circumstances and activities of the pilgrims may create an environment for the occurrence and spread of communicable diseases. Each year, the Health authority of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in coordination with international health authorities, updates health requirements for pilgrims. The Hajj for 2017 took place from August 24 to September 5, 2017...
October 14, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035966/effectiveness-of-rifampicin-chemoprophylaxis-in-preventing-leprosy-in-patient-contacts-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#18
Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Tatiana Yonekura, Eliane Ignotti, Larissa Bertacchini de Oliveira, Juliana Takahashi, Cassia Baldini Soares
BACKGROUND: Individuals in contact with patients who have leprosy have an increased risk of disease exposure, which reinforces the need for chemoprophylactic measures, such as the use of rifampicin. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis for contacts with patients with leprosy, and to synthesize the best available evidence on the experience and acceptability of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis as reported by the contacts and health professionals involved in the treatment of leprosy or Hansen's disease...
October 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030093/estimating-past-inhalation-exposure-to-asbestos-a-tool-for-risk-attribution-and-disease-screening
#19
John W Cherrie, Damien McElvenny, Kevin G Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Late presentation is common in mesothelioma. Reliable assessment of past exposure to asbestos is a necessary first step for risk attribution and for the development of a future screening programme. Such a programme could maximise access to trials of novel therapies and would pave the way for development of novel chemoprophylaxis strategies. This paper describes a method for individual exposure reconstruction along with data from a validation study. METHODS: The exposure assessment method uses only descriptive information about the circumstances of the work that could be obtained from questioning the worker...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017798/recombinant-anticoccidial-vaccines-a-cup-half-full
#20
REVIEW
Damer P Blake, Iván Pastor-Fernández, Matthew J Nolan, Fiona M Tomley
Eimeria species parasites can cause the disease coccidiosis, most notably in chickens. The occurrence of coccidiosis is currently controlled through a combination of good husbandry, chemoprophylaxis and/or live parasite vaccination; however, scalable, cost-effective subunit or recombinant vaccines are required. Many antigens have been proposed for use in novel anticoccidial vaccines, supported by the capacity to reduce disease severity or parasite replication, increase body weight gain in the face of challenge or improve feed conversion under experimental conditions, but none has reached commercial development...
October 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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