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Chemoprophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768543/preventing-diseases-in-round-the-world-travelers-a-contemporary-challenge-for-travel-medicine-advice
#1
Karis Maria de Pinho Rodrigues, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Providing advice for travelers embarking on long-term trips poses a challenge in travel medicine. A long duration of risk exposure is associated with underuse of protective measures and poor adherence to chemoprophylaxis, increasing the chances of acquiring infections. Recently, in our clinic, we observed an increase in the number of travelers undertaking round-the-world trips. These individuals are typically aged around 32 years and quit their jobs to embark on one-to-two-year journeys. Their destinations include countries in two or more continents, invariably Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and mostly involve land travel and visiting rural areas...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766305/evaluation-of-vte-prophylaxis-and-the-impact-of-alternate-regimens-on-post-operative-bleeding-and-thrombotic-complications-following-bariatric-procedures
#2
Maria S Altieri, Jie Yang, Janos Hajagos, Konstantinos Spaniolas, Jihye Park, Antonios P Gasparis, Andrew T Bates, Salvatore Docimo, Mark Talamini, A Laurie Shroyer, Aurora D Pryor
BACKGROUND: Studies examining utilization and impact of venous thromboembolism (VTE) chemoprophylaxis for patients undergoing bariatric surgery are limited. Determination of the optimal prophylactic regimen to minimize complications is crucial. METHODS: The Cerner Health Facts database from 2003 to 2013 was queried using ICD-9 codes to identify patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). VTE chemoprophylaxis regimens were divided into pre-operative alone (PreP), post-operative alone (PostP), both pre-operative and post-operative (PPP), or no prophylaxis (NP)...
May 15, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764439/a-survey-on-outcomes-of-accidental-atovaquone-proguanil-exposure-in-pregnancy
#3
Kathrine R Tan, Jessica K Fairley, Mengxi Wang, Julie R Gutman
BACKGROUND: Malaria chemoprophylaxis options in pregnancy are limited, and atovaquone-proguanil (AP) is not recommended because of insufficient safety evidence. An anonymous, internet-based survey was disseminated to describe outcomes of pregnancies accidentally exposed to AP. Outcomes of interest included miscarriage (defined as pregnancy loss before 20 weeks), stillbirth (defined as pregnancy loss at or after 20 weeks), preterm birth or live birth prior to 37 weeks, and the presence of congenital anomalies...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764228/anti-infective-chemoprophylaxis-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#4
Paul J Deziel, Raymund Razonable
Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of opportunistic infections due to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic pathogens. Anti-infective prophylaxis is a time-tested proven strategy for the prevention of these infections after solid organ transplantation. Areas covered: The current recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, invasive fungal infections, and selected parasitic diseases are highlighted. Recent peer-reviewed publications on the prevention of infection after solid organ transplantation were reviewed and their significance was discussed in the context of the current recommendations for preventing infectious complications...
May 15, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763669/travel-related-health-problems-in-the-immunocompromised-traveller-an-exploratory-study
#5
Mariëlle van Aalst, Marella C E van Ruissen, Roos Verhoeven, Godelieve J de Bree, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised travellers (ICTs) are at increased risk of travel-related health problems. Therefore, they are advised to attend specialised pre-travel clinics for advise on vaccination, malaria chemoprophylaxis and on demand antibiotics. However, studies yield conflicting data regarding travel-related health problems encountered by ICTs; questioning the rationale for certain advises, and particularly the advice of on demand antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-reported travel-related health problems, antibiotic use, medical visits and risk behaviours in ICTs and controls...
May 12, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759925/metronidazole-in-the-prevention-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhoea-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-high-risk-hospitalised-patients
#6
Marco Tobar-Marcillo, Maria Guerrero-Duran, Ariana Avecillas-Segovia, Lillana Pacchiano-Aleman, Roberto Basante-Díaz, Hiram Vela-Vizcaino, Eduardo Espinosa-Aznar, Pedro Castorena García, Ricardo Santiago-Ramírez, Ixel Rivas-Bucio
BACKGROUND: In-hospital diarrhoea has a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates among hospitalised patients. Chemoprophylaxis with antibiotics in selected patients could be a cost-effective tool for prevention. METHODS: A prospective randomised, open-label study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Mexico City, selecting patients at high risk of acquiring in-hospital diarrhoea and assigning them to a group taking metronidazole 500mg orally every eight hours for seven days or an observation group...
May 11, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745099/incidence-and-risk-assessment-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-cancer-patients-admitted-to-intensive-care-unit-for-postoperative-care
#7
Jia-Xuan Xu, Jun Dong, Hong Ren, Xiao-Jie Chen, Yong Yang, Ren-Xiong Chen, Guo-Dong Wang, Hong-Zhi Wang
PURPOSE: Cancer patients undergoing surgery are at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The occurrence of VTE in Chinese cancer patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for postoperative care is poorly characterized. This study was designed to investigate the incidence of VTE in this population and to evaluate the utility of the Caprini score in risk stratification. METHODS: 2127 consecutive adult patients admitted to a 10-bed surgical ICU (SICU) in a tertiary care academic hospital during a 4-year period (January 1, 2013 - December 31, 2016) were enrolled...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743218/living-in-cold-spot-communities-is-associated-with-poor-health-and-health-quality
#8
Winston Liaw, Alex H Krist, Sebastian T Tong, Roy Sabo, Camille Hochheimer, Jennifer Rankin, David Grolling, Jene Grandmont, Andrew W Bazemore
PURPOSE: Little is known about incorporating community data into clinical care. This study sought to understand the clinical associations of cold spots (census tracts with worse income, education, and composite deprivation). METHODS: Across 12 practices, we assessed the relationship between cold spots and clinical outcomes (obesity, uncontrolled diabetes, pneumonia vaccination, cancer screening-colon, cervical, and prostate-and aspirin chemoprophylaxis) for 152,962 patients...
May 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736609/chemoprophylaxis-during-transrectal-prostate-needle-biopsy-critical-analysis-through-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Ahmed M Elshal, Ahmed M Atwa, Ahmed R El-Nahas, Mohamed A El-Ghar, Asaad Gaber, Essam Elsawy, Abdelwahab Hashem, Yasser Farag, Hashim Farg, Ali Elsorougy, Mohamed Fouda, Hossam Nabeeh, Ahmed Mosbah
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of three chemoprophylaxis approaches in prevention of post-transrectal biopsy infectious complications (TBICs). METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ciprofloxacin 3 days 500 mg B.I.D 3 days starting the night prior to biopsy (standard prophylaxis), augmented prophylaxis using ciprofloxacin and single preprocedure shot of 160 mg gentamicin IM (augmented prophylaxis) and rectal swab culture-based prophylaxis (targeted prophylaxis)...
May 7, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735521/the-complement-system-contributes-to-functional-antibody-mediated-responses-induced-by-immunization-with-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-sporozoites
#10
Marije C Behet, Liriye Kurtovic, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Celine M Haukes, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Wouter Graumans, Marga G van de Vegte-Bolmer, Anja Scholzen, Jeroen D Langereis, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, James G Beeson, Robert W Sauerwein
Long-lasting and sterile homologous protection against malaria can be achieved by exposure of malaria-naive volunteers under chemoprophylaxis to Plasmodium falciparum -infected mosquitoes (CPS-immunization). While CPS-induced antibodies neutralize sporozoite infectivity in vitro and in vivo , antibody-mediated effector mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, it was investigated whether complement contributes to CPS-induced pre-erythrocytic immunity.Sera collected before and after CPS-immunization in the presence of active or inactive complement were assessed for recognition of homologous NF54 and heterologous NF135...
May 7, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734269/improving-patient-compliance-with-mechanical-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis
#11
Deepti Nahar, Aaron Nizam, Monique Farrow, Andrea Restifo, Michael Nimaroff
Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) occurring in the postoperative period are serious yet preventable conditions. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the risk of postoperative VTE can be successfully reduced with mechanical prophylaxis and/or chemoprophylaxis. Patients are often noncompliant with mechanical prophylaxis in the postoperative period. We performed a prospective nonrandomized controlled study to determine if providing an educational pamphlet would increase knowledge and compliance with mechanical VTE prophylaxis...
May 2018: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726024/impact-of-nursing-interventions-on-adherence-to-treatment-with-antituberculosis-drugs-in-children-and-young-people-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Eva Maria Guix-Comellas, Librada Rozas-Quesada, Eneritz Velasco-Arnaiz, Ariadna Ferres-Canals, Joan Maria Estrada-Masllorens, Enriqueta Force-Sanmartín, Antoni Noguera-Julian
AIM: To evaluate the association of a new nursing intervention on the adherence to antituberculosis treatment in a pediatric cohort (<18 years). BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a public health problem worldwide. The risk of developing tuberculosis after primary infection and its severity are higher in children. Proper adherence to antituberculosis treatment is critical for disease control. DESIGN: Non-randomized controlled trial; Phase 1, retrospective (2011-2013), compared with Phase 2, prospective with intervention (2015-2016), in a referral center for pediatric tuberculosis in Spain (NCT03230409)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723168/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2015
#13
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin, Kathrine R Tan
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 4, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722501/-imported-malaria-in-geneva-between-2005-and-2016
#14
Romain Cordaillat, Elisabeth Delaporte, François Chappuis
As part of the epidemiological surveillance of malaria, cases reported in Geneva during the period 2005‑2016 were analyzed and compared to a similar retrospective study covering the period 1998‑2004. A total of 600 cases were reported, averaging 50 cases per year. African patients traveling to visit friends and relatives remain at particular risk. The disease was acquired in Africa in 89,6% of cases and Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species (84,2 %). 41% of patients did not benefit from a pre-travel consultation...
May 2, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717974/surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-meningitidis-strains-isolated-from-invasive-cases-in-brazil-from-2009-to-2016
#15
Maria Cecília Gorla, Juliana Maira Watanabe Pinhata, Ueslei José Dias, Camile de Moraes, Ana Paula Lemos
PURPOSE: To describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of Neisseria meningitidis isolates causing invasive disease in Brazil from 2009 to 2016. METHODOLOGY: Among 3548 N. meningitidis isolates received, 2888 (81.4 %) were analysed for antimicrobial resistance using the broth microdilution technique, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Isolates were tested for ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, penicillin G, ampicillin and rifampin...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716663/organization-or-community-based-outbreak-responding-to-cases-of-meningitis-under-epidemiologic-uncertainty
#16
Tea Burmaz, Vittorio Selle, Vincenzo Baldo, Elena Savoia
Six cases of serogroup C invasive meningococcal disease were identified in Treviso district, Veneto region, Italy between December 13 and 15, 2007. The afflicted patients were found to have attended the same Latin-dance clubs on the same nights, and chemoprophylaxis was provided to potentially exposed individuals. Despite these efforts, 2 cases caused by the same meningococcal strain subsequently occurred in the same area, without any apparent epidemiological correlation to the initial cases. This may have resulted from a failure to neutralize the meningococcal carrier/s...
May 2, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713591/low-uptake-of-preventive-interventions-among-malaria-cases-in-swaziland-towards-malaria-elimination
#17
K Makadzange, N Dlamini, Z Zulu, S Dlamini, S Kunene, W Sikhondze, P Owiti, E Geoffroy, R Zachariah, T K Mengestu
Settings: Swaziland is striving to achieve sustainable malaria elimination. Three preventive interventions are vital for reaching this goal: 1) effective household utilisation of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS), and 3) provision of chemoprophylaxis for those travelling to malaria-endemic areas. Objectives: To assess the uptake of preventive intervention among confirmed malaria cases. Design: A longitudinal study using nation-wide programme data from 2010 to 2015. Data on malaria cases from health facilities were sourced from the Malaria Surveillance Database System...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703848/should-empiric-antibiotic-therapy-be-withheld-when-aetiology-of-preterm-birth-is-non-infectious-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#18
Joanna Seliga-Siwecka, Mohammed Toseef Ansari, Judy Aschner, Margaret Sampson, Justyna Romańska
INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth (PTB) at <37 weeks of gestation is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The traditional approach has been based on the assumption that PTB is primarily a result of intrauterine infection, which triggers preterm labour and puts the newborn at risk of early onset sepsis (EOS). We are currently experiencing a rise in prematurity that results from maternal and fetal diseases unrelated to infection. We have designed a systematic review to assess whether chemoprophylaxis should be withheld when the aetiology of preterm birth is non-infectious...
April 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699807/weight-based-enoxaparin-dosing-and-deep-vein-thrombosis-in-hospitalized-trauma-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-pilot-study
#19
Annika Bickford Kay, Sarah Majercik, Jeffrey Sorensen, Scott C Woller, Scott M Stevens, Thomas W White, David S Morris, Margaret Baldwin, Joseph R Bledsoe
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Chemoprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin at a standardized dose is recommended. Conventional chemoprophylaxis may be inadequate. We hypothesized that a weight-adjusted enoxaparin prophylaxis regimen would reduce the frequency of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized trauma patients and at 90-day follow-up. METHODS: This prospective, randomized pilot study enrolled adult patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center between July 2013 and January 2015...
April 23, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685164/chemoprophylaxis-of-leprosy-with-rifampicin-in-contacts-of-multibacillary-patients-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Daiane Santos Dos Santos, Nádia Cristina Duppre, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Anna Maria Sales, José Augusto Da Costa Nery, Milton Ozório Moraes, Luiz Antônio Bastos Camacho
BACKGROUND: The annual new-case detection rate for leprosy, while generally stable over the last decade, shows that transmission rates have remained stagnant despite the successful worldwide administration of multidrug therapy since the 1980s. As such, novel control strategies are urgently needed. Focusing on managing leprosy patient contacts, the most susceptible to contracting the disease, has been seen as a potential strategy in limiting the spread of leprosy as shown by a number of recent epidemiological studies...
April 23, 2018: Trials
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