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Chemoprophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100282/optimal-regimens-of-sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim-for-chemoprophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-systemic-rheumatic-diseases-results-from-a-non-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Masako Utsunomiya, Hiroaki Dobashi, Toshio Odani, Kazuyoshi Saito, Naoto Yokogawa, Kenji Nagasaka, Kenchi Takenaka, Makoto Soejima, Takahiko Sugihara, Hiroyuki Hagiyama, Shinya Hirata, Kazuo Matsui, Yoshinori Nonomura, Masahiro Kondo, Fumihito Suzuki, Makoto Tomita, Mari Kihara, Waka Yokoyama, Fumio Hirano, Hayato Yamazaki, Ryoko Sakai, Toshihiro Nanki, Ryuji Koike, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Nobuyuki Miyasaka, Masayoshi Harigai
BACKGROUND: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) is a standard drug for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PJP) in immunosuppressed patients with systemic rheumatic diseases, but is sometimes discontinued due to adverse events (AEs). The objective of this non-blinded, randomized, 52-week non-inferiority trial was to quest an effective chemoprophylaxis regimen for PJP with a low drug discontinuation rate. Results at week 24 were reported. METHODS: Adult patients with systemic rheumatic diseases who started prednisolone ≥0...
January 18, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099311/aspirin-the-unsung-champion-of-deep-venous-thrombosis-chemoprophylaxis-a-historical-perspective-commentary-on-an-article-by-javad-parvizi-md-frcs-et-al-low-dose-aspirin-is-effective-chemoprophylaxis-against-clinically-important-venous-thromboembolism-following
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099298/low-dose-aspirin-is-effective-chemoprophylaxis-against-clinically-important-venous-thromboembolism-following-total-joint-arthroplasty-a-preliminary-analysis
#3
Javad Parvizi, Ronald Huang, Camilo Restrepo, Antonia F Chen, Matthew S Austin, William J Hozack, Jess H Lonner
BACKGROUND: Aspirin is a safe and effective prophylaxis for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following total joint arthroplasty. The optimal dose of aspirin prophylaxis is unknown. Our hypothesis was that lower-dose aspirin is as effective as higher-dose aspirin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism and is associated with fewer gastrointestinal side effects. METHODS: In a prospective, crossover study, we analyzed 4,651 primary total joint arthroplasty cases performed from July 2013 to June 2015...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065185/predictors-of-immunodeficiency-related-death-in-a-cohort-of-low-income-people-living-with-hiv-a-competing-risks-survival-analysis
#4
M F P M Albuquerque, D N Alves, C C Bresani Salvi, J D L Batista, R A A Ximenes, D B Miranda-Filho, H R L Melo, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053389/is-pre-operative-assessment-of-coagulation-profile-with-thrombelastography-teg-useful-in-predicting-venous-thromboembolism-vte-following-orthopaedic-surgery
#5
Apurve Parameswaran, Vignesh P Krishnamoorthy, Anil T Oommen, Anita Jasper, Ravi J Korula, Sukesh C Nair, Pradeep M Poonnoose
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiologic data on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Indian population vary widely. Most studies show that the incidence of VTE is lower in Asian patients than in Western population. Screening tools to identify high-risk patients should enable us to reduce this complication. METHODS: The incidence of VTE in 101 patients who underwent knee or hip arthroplasty, or surgery for hip fractures, without chemoprophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was documented...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044950/clinico-pathological-profile-and-surgical-outcome-of-patients-of-gastrointestinal-tuberculosis-undergoing-laparotomy
#6
Priyank Pathak, Shantanu Kumar Sahu, Saurabh Agrawal
: Tuberculosis is one of the earliest diseases affecting the mankind. Abdominal tuberculosis constitutes a common public health issue in developing countries like ours. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis often involves the ileocecal region. Surgery in case of abdominal tuberculosis is required to overcome the deleterious effects of the disease like tissue disorganization, obstruction and perforatio. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the various clinical profiles of gastrointestinal tuberculosis in patients undergoing laparotomy; 2...
November 2016: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043488/development-of-the-food-supplement-nyaditum-resae-as-a-new-tool-to-reduce-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-development
#7
Nestani Tukvadze, Paula Cardona, Sergo Vashakidze, Natalia Shubladze, Zaza Avaliani, Cris Vilaplana, Pere-Joan Cardona
Nyaditum resae (NR) is a galenic preparation of heat-killed Mycobacterium manresensis (hkMn). This is a new species that belongs to the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, and it is present in drinking water-thus, regulatorily speaking, it is considered a food supplement. Preclinical studies in the murine model of active tuberculosis (TB) in the C3HeB/FeJ strain have demonstrated that daily administration of NR containing 10(3)-10(6)hkMn for 14days was able to stop the progression toward active TB [1]. The mechanism of action was linked to the induction of low dose tolerance and was related to the increase of Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) memory-specific Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)CD39(+) cells) after ex vivo incubation of splenocytes for 7days...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043222/public-health-action-following-an-outbreak-of-toxigenic-cutaneous-diphtheria-in-an-auckland-refugee-resettlement-centre
#8
Gary E Reynolds, Helen Saunders, Angela Matson, Fiona O'Kane, Sally A Roberts, Salvin K Singh, Lesley M Voss, Tomasz Kiedrzynski
Global forced displacement has climbed to unprecedented levels due largely to regional conflict. Degraded public health services leave displaced people vulnerable to multiple environmental and infectious hazards including vaccine preventable disease. While diphtheria is rarely notified in New Zealand, a 2 person outbreak of cutaneous diphtheria occurred in refugees from Afghanistan in February 2015 at the refugee resettlement centre in Auckland. Both cases had uncertain immunisation status. The index case presented with a scalp lesion during routine health screen and toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035717/the-role-of-cd4-cell-count-as-discriminatory-measure-to-guide-chemoprophylaxis-against-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-negative-immunocompromised-patients-a-systematic-review
#9
Peter E Messiaen, Senne Cuyx, Tom Dejagere, Jeroen C Van der Hilst
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has increased in immunocompromised patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is highly effective in preventing PJP in both HIV-positive and -seronegative patients. In HIV-positive patients, the risk of PJP is strongly correlated with decreased CD4 cell count. The role of CD4 cell count in the pathogenesis of PJP in non-HIV immunocompromised patients is less well studied...
December 30, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031260/immunization-with-pca1-protects-mice-against-pneumocystis-pneumonia-and-generates-antibody-to-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#10
Brenda L Tesini, Terry W Wright, Jane E Malone, Constantine G Haidaris, Martha Harber, Andrea J Sant, Jennifer L Nayak, Francis Gigliotti
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a life-threatening infection that affects immunocompromised individuals. Nearly half of all PcP cases occur in those prescribed effective chemoprophylaxis, suggesting that additional preventive methods are needed. To this end, we have identified a unique mouse Pc surface protein, designated Pneumocystis cross-reactive antigen 1 (Pca1), as a potential vaccine candidate. Mice were immunized with a recombinant fusion protein containing Pca1. Subsequently, CD4(+) T cells were depleted and the mice were exposed to P...
December 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030525/adherence-to-antituberculosis-drugs-in-children-and-adolescents-in-a-low-endemic-setting-a-retrospective-series
#11
Eva-Maria Guix-Comellas, Librada Rozas, Eneritz Velasco-Arnaiz, Victoria Morín-Fraile, Enriqueta Force-Sanmartín, Antoni Noguera-Julian
Adherence to antituberculosis drug regimens is critical for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis in pediatrics. In a large retrospective series of children and adolescents in Barcelona, Spain, completion of treatment was worse among patients treated for latent infection, compared with those treated for active tuberculosis or receiving primary chemoprophylaxis. Toxicity and cultural and language barriers were identified as predictors of non-adherence.
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000225/topical-oral-cavity-chemoprophylaxis-using-isotretinoin-rinse-a-15-year-experience
#12
Sameep Kadakia, Arvind Badhey, Mary Milam, Thomas Lee, Yadranko Ducic
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the utility of isotretinoin oral rinses as a method of chemoprevention for recurrent oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), carcinoma in situ, and dysplasia. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: One hundred forty-three patients were initially enrolled in the study; however, 18 were excluded due to inability to tolerate therapy. The included patients were classified into four groups. Group 1 included patients with multiple early stage oral cavity lesions following initial resection...
December 21, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000089/the-peri-operative-bariatric-surgery-care-in-the-middle-east-region
#13
Abdelrahman Nimeri, Mohammed Al Hadad, Mousa Khoursheed, Ahmed Maasher, Aayed Al Qahtani, Talat Al Shaban, Hayssam Fawal, Bassem Safadi, Amer Alderazi, Emad Abdalla, Ahmad Bashir
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is common in the Middle East region. However, regional accreditation bodies and guidelines are lacking. We present the current peri-operative practice of bariatric surgery in the Middle East region. SETTING: Public and private practice in the Middle East region. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to study trends of peri-operative care in bariatric surgery. It was sent to members of the Pan Arab Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (PASMBS)...
December 20, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994886/does-obesity-predispose-medical-intensive-care-unit-patients-to-venous-thromboembolism-despite-prophylaxis-a-retrospective-chart-review
#14
Bradley J Peters, Ross A Dierkhising, Kristin C Mara
Background. Obesity is a significant issue in the critically ill population. There is little evidence directing the dosing of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis within this population. We aimed to determine whether obesity predisposes medical intensive care unit patients to venous thromboembolism despite standard chemoprophylaxis with 5000 international units of subcutaneous heparin three times daily. Results. We found a 60% increased risk of venous thromboembolism in the body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) group compared to the BMI < 30 kg/m(2) group; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance...
2016: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925424/evaluation-of-an-institutional-project-to-improve-venous-thromboembolism-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Christina A Minami, Anthony D Yang, Mila Ju, Eckford Culver, Kathryn Seifert, Lindsey Kreutzer, Terri Halverson, Kevin J O'Leary, Karl Y Bilimoria
BACKGROUND: Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) was historically a poor performer on the venous thromboembolism (VTE) outcome measure. As this measure has been shown to be flawed by surveillance bias, NMH embraced process-of-care measures to ensure appropriate VTE prophylaxis to assess healthcare-associated VTE prevention efforts. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an institution-wide project aimed at improving hospital performance on VTE prophylaxis measures...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918267/outbreak-of-neisseria-meningitidis-capsular-group-w-among-scouts-returning-from-the-world-scout-jamboree-japan-2015
#16
Alison Smith-Palmer, Ken Oates, Diana Webster, Sarah Taylor, Kevin J Scott, Gemma Smith, Benjamin Parcell, Ann Lindstrand, Anders Wallensten, Hans Fredlund, Micael Widerström, Jim McMenamin
The 23rd World Scout Jamboree was held in Japan from 28 July to 8 August 2015 and was attended by over 33,000 scouts from 162 countries. An outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease capsular group W was investigated among participants, with four confirmed cases identified in Scotland, who were all associated with one particular scout unit, and two confirmed cases in Sweden; molecular testing showed the same strain to be responsible for illness in both countries. The report describes the public health action taken to prevent further cases and the different decisions reached with respect to how wide to extend the offer of chemoprophylaxis in the two countries; in Scotland, chemoprophylaxis was offered to the unit of 40 participants to which the four cases belonged and to other close contacts of cases, while in Sweden chemoprophylaxis was offered to all those returning from the Jamboree...
November 10, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918260/factors-influencing-the-spread-of-pertussis-in-households-a-prospective-study-catalonia-and-navarre-spain-2012-to-2013
#17
Pere Godoy, Manuel García-Cenoz, Diana Toledo, Glòria Carmona, Joan A Caylà, Miquel Alsedà, Josep Àlvarez, Irene Barrabeig, Neus Camps, Pere Plans, María Company, Jesús Castilla, Maria-Rosa Sala-Farré, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Cristina Rius, Àngela Domínguez
We aimed to investigate transmission rates of pertussis in household contacts of cases and factors associated with transmission. A prospective epidemiological study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to determine the incidence of pertussis among household contacts of reported cases in Catalonia and Navarre, Spain. An epidemiological survey was completed for each case and contact, who were followed for 28 days to determine the source of infection (primary case) and detect the occurrence of secondary cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to estimate the effectiveness of vaccination and chemoprophylaxis in preventing new cases, using the formula (1 - OR) × 100...
November 10, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901494/efficacy-of-intermittent-pneumatic-compression-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-patients-undergoing-gynecologic-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Jian-Ping Feng, Yu-Ting Xiong, Zi-Qi Fan, Li-Jie Yan, Jing-Yun Wang, Ze-Juan Gu
We sought to comprehensively assess the efficacy of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression (IPC) in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery. A computerized literature search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Seven randomized controlled trials involving 1001 participants were included. Compared with control, IPC significantly lowered the deep vein thrombosis (DVT) risk [risk ratio (RR) = 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16 - 0.66]. The incidence of DVT in IPC and drugs group was similar (4...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898421/stimulation-of-erythrocyte-cell-membrane-scrambling-by-quinine
#19
Morena Mischitelli, Mohamed Jemaà, Mustafa Almasry, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The analkaloid drug quinine is utilized mainly for the chemoprophylaxis of malaria. The multiple side effects of quinine include hemolytic anemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome, disorders involving suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling contributing to stimulation of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide and D4476 sensitive casein kinase...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894845/thromboelastography-demonstrates-perioperative-hypercoagulability-in-hepato-pancreato-biliary-patients-and-supports-routine-administration-of-preoperative-and-early-postoperative-venous-thromboembolism-chemoprophylaxis
#20
Anh-Thu Le, Jennifer W Harris, Erin Maynard, Sean P Dineen, Ching-Wei D Tzeng
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgery patients are more likely to be hypercoagulable than hypocoagulable, and that bleeding risks from VTE chemoprophylaxis are low. This study sought to use thromboelastography (TEG) to compare coagulation profiles with bleeding/thrombotic events in HPB patients receiving standardized perioperative chemoprophylaxis. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing HPB resections by three surgeons at one institution (January 2014-December 2015) received preoperative and early postoperative VTE chemoprophylaxis and were evaluated with TEGs...
November 25, 2016: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
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