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Osmotic delivery systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916694/regenerated-cellulose-capsules-for-controlled-drug-delivery-part-iv-in-vitro-evaluation-of-novel-self-pore-forming-regenerated-cellulose-capsules
#1
Bhavik Bhatt, Vijay Kumar
In the present work, the release mechanisms of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) enclosed in self-pore forming regenerated cellulose (RC) two-piece hard shell capsules are described. The RC capsules were fabricated using a modified dip-coating approach, which yielded an assembled dosage form that was equivalent in size and shape to a conventional gelatin two-piece hard shell capsule. Drug release characteristics from RC capsules were evaluated using potassium chloride, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, tramadol hydrochloride, niacinamide, acetaminophen and ketoprofen as model APIs...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879551/no-superiority-of-treatment-with-osmotic-controlled-release-oral-delivery-system-methylphenidate-over-short-medium-acting-methylphenidate-preparations-in-the-rate-and-timing-of-injuries-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Pavel Golubchik, Arad Kodesh, Abraham Weizman
OBJECTIVES: Methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to reduce the risk for injuries. In the present study, the rate and timing of injuries were compared among the various MPH preparations (4 and 6-8 vs 12 hour-acting) in children with ADHD. METHODS: This real-world retrospective study covered the years 2011 to 2013. Participants included 2042 youngsters (aged 4-18 years, 13.01 ± 3.2 years; 71...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860265/osmogen-mediated-one-step-technique-of-fabricating-hollow-microparticles-for-encapsulation-and-delivery-of-bioactive-molecules
#3
Sharad Kharel, Wei Li Lee, Xuan Yi Lee, Say Chye Joachim Loo
Microparticulate systems composed of biodegradable polymers, such as poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), are widely used for controlled release of bioactive molecules. However, the acidic microenvironment within these microparticles, as they degrade, has been reported to perturb the configuration of most encapsulated proteins. In addition, these polymer particles are also reported to suffer from unrealistically slow and incomplete release of proteins. To address these drawbacks, hollow PLGA microparticles are fabricated through a novel one-step oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique, by capitalizing on the osmotic property of an osmogen...
November 16, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837534/elastic-liposomes-for-topical-and-transdermal-drug-delivery
#4
Heather A E Benson
Elastic liposomes have been developed and evaluated as novel topical and transdermal delivery systems. They share some similarities to conventional liposomes but their composition is designed to confer flexibility and elasticity in the lipid bilayer structure. Elastic liposomes are applied non-occluded to the skin and are reported to permeate through the stratum corneum lipid lamellar regions as a result of the hydration or osmotic force in the skin. They have been investigated as drug carriers for a range of small molecules, peptides, proteins, and vaccines, both in vitro and in vivo...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822929/once-daily-oros-hydromorphone-for-management-of-cancer-pain-an-open-label-multi-center-non-interventional-study
#5
Cheol Kyu Park, Hyun Wook Kang, In Jae Oh, Young Chul Kim, Yeo Kyeoung Kim, Kook Joo Na, Sung Ja Ahn, Tae Ok Kim, Young Jin Choi, Geun Am Song, Min Ki Lee
Extended-release osmotic extended-release oral delivery system (OROS) hydromorphone is a strong synthetic opioid designed to maintain a constant blood concentration by once daily dosing. The objective of this observational study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of OROS hydromorphone in patients with cancer pain of moderate to severe intensity. Patients with cancer pain who required strong opioids were administered with OROS hydromorphone for 4 weeks. We assessed changes in pain intensity using a numerical rating scale (NRS) as well as levels of sleep disturbance, breakthrough pain, end-of-dose failure, patient satisfaction, and overall assessment of drug effectiveness based on investigator evaluation...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822054/impact-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-on-blood-pressure
#6
REVIEW
James W Reed
SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP) lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin) on BP in patients with T2DM...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783857/magnocellular-neurons-and-posterior-pituitary-function
#7
Colin H Brown
The posterior pituitary gland secretes oxytocin and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone) into the blood system. Oxytocin is required for normal delivery of the young and for delivery of milk to the young during lactation. Vasopressin increases water reabsorption in the kidney to maintain body fluid balance and causes vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure. Oxytocin and vasopressin secretion occurs from the axon terminals of magnocellular neurons whose cell bodies are principally found in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777173/continuous-infusion-of-manganese-improves-contrast-and-reduces-side-effects-in-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#8
Dana S Poole, Nathalie Doorenweerd, Jaap J Plomp, Ahmed Mahfouz, Marcel J T Reinders, Louise van der Weerd
The ability to administer systemically high doses of manganese as contrast agent while circumventing its toxicity is of particular interest for exploratory MRI studies of the brain. Administering low doses either repeatedly or continuously over time has been shown to enable the acquisition of satisfactory MRI images of the mouse brain without apparent side effects. Here we have systematically compared the obtained MRI contrast and recorded potential systemic side effects such as stress response and muscle strength impairment in relation to the achieved contrast...
October 21, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610247/design-characterization-and-optimization-of-controlled-drug-delivery-system-containing-antibiotic-drug-s
#9
Apurv Patel, Hitesh Dodiya, Pragna Shelate, Divyesh Shastri, Divyang Dave
The objective of this work was design, characterization, and optimization of controlled drug delivery system containing antibiotic drug/s. Osmotic drug delivery system was chosen as controlled drug delivery system. The porous osmotic pump tablets were designed using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken factorial design to find out the best formulation. For screening of three categories of polymers, six independent variables were chosen for Plackett-Burman design. Osmotic agent sodium chloride and microcrystalline cellulose, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate and sucrose, and coating agent ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables...
2016: Journal of Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594163/dilutional-hyponatremia-during-hysteroscpic-surgery-prevention-and-treatment
#10
Ling Lan, Yu-Guan Zhang, Jin Wang, Ya-Hong Gong
<p>Dilutional hyponatremia caused by excess absorption of hypo-osmotic irrigation fluids is one of the severe complications during hysteroscopic surgery. Appropriate delivery system and distending media,proper distending pressure,and reducing destruction of uterine venous sinus may remarkably lower the morbidity. Meanwhile,early detection and timely treatment of moderate and severe hyponatremia to avoid the occurrence of secondary nervous system demyelination are particularly important during the surgery...
August 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580225/one-step-generation-of-cell-encapsulating-compartments-via-polyelectrolyte-complexation-in-an-aqueous-two-phase-system
#11
Sarah D Hann, Tagbo H R Niepa, Kathleen J Stebe, Daeyeon Lee
Diverse fields including drug and gene delivery and live cell encapsulation require biologically compatible encapsulation systems. One widely adopted means of forming capsules exploits cargo-filled microdroplets in an external, immiscible liquid phase that are encapsulated by a membrane that forms by trapping of molecules or particles at the drop surface, facilitated by the interfacial tension. To eliminate the potentially deleterious oil phase often present in such processes, we exploit the aqueous two phase system of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and dextran...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562708/three-dimensional-structural-insight-of-laser-drilled-orifices-in-osmotic-pump-tablets
#12
Li Wu, Lebing Wang, Shuxia Wang, Tiqiao Xiao, Min Chen, Qun Shao, Peter York, Vikaramjeet Singh, Xianzhen Yin, Jingkai Gu, Jiwen Zhang
The orifice drilled in the membrane as a channel for drug delivery is the key functional part of the osmotic pumps for a controlled drug release system. Reported conventional microscopic evaluations of these orifices have been limited to measurement of two-dimensional cross-section diameters. This study was aimed at establishing a novel method to measure quantitatively the three-dimensional architectures of orifices based on synchrotron radiation X-ray microcomputed tomography (SR-μCT). Quantitative analysis of architectures extracted from captopril osmotic pumps drilled by a range of operating parameters indicated that laser power correlated with the cross section area, volume, surface area and depth of the orifices, while scanning speed of laser beam showed inverse relationships with the above structure characters...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538949/nanowired-drug-delivery-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-cns-injury-and-repair
#13
Aruna Sharma, Preeti Menon, Dafin F Muresanu, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, José V Lafuente, Hari Sharma
The BBB is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within the narrow limit. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the fluid microenvironment of the CNS healthy. However, following any noxious insult to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins the function of the BBB is altered to small as well as to large molecules e...
August 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508715/-op-4c-10-clinically-important-differences-in-systolic-ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-patients-switched-between-alternate-nifedipine-osmotic-delivery-formulations
#14
P T Pollak, R J Herman, R D Feldman
OBJECTIVE: Anecdotal evidence suggested clinically important systolic blood pressure (SBP) differences occurred in our patients whose nifedipine was being switched by pharmacies between AdN (Adalat XL - a formulation providing zero order release from the GastroIntestinal Therapeutic System - GITS) and MyN (Mylan-nifedipine ER - a formulation providing a delayed first-order release from the Osmotic Release Oral System - OROS). In vitro dissolution studies showed greater lag time to initial release from MyN and declining release at end of dosing interval...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478341/differences-in-utilization-patterns-among-medications-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-36-month-retrospective-study-using-the-korean-health-insurance-review-and-assessment-claims-database
#15
Soo-Young Bhang, Jun-Won Hwang, Young-Sook Kwak, Yoo Sook Joung, Soyoung Lee, Bongseog Kim, Seok Han Sohn, Un Sun Chung, Jaewon Yang, Minha Hong, Geon Ho Bahn, Hyung Yun Choi, In-Hwan Oh, Yeon Jung Lee
We evaluated the differences in utilization patterns including persistence and adherence among medications in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was performed using data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment claims database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Our study sample consisted of 10,343 children and adolescents with ADHD who were not given their newly prescribed medication in 360 days before the initial claim in 2010...
August 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466708/extended-use-of-systemic-steroid-is-beneficial-in-preserving-hearing-in-guinea-pigs-after-cochlear-implant
#16
Yoon Chan Rah, Min Young Lee, Shin Hye Kim, Doo Hee Kim, Hayden Eastwood, Stephen J O'Leary, Jun Ho Lee
CONCLUSION: Seven-day administration of systemic steroids was more effective in preserving hearing for 12 weeks after cochlear implantation (CI) than a 3-day delivery. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of extended delivery of systemic steroids to preserve hearing in guinea pigs after CI. METHODS: Dexamethasone (4 mg/ml) was delivered parenterally via a mini-osmotic pump for either 3 or 7 days. A dummy CI electrode was inserted via cochleostomy approach in 8-week-old guinea pigs...
July 28, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444741/evidence-for-the-role-of-%C3%AE-2-nachr-desensitization-in-regulating-body-weight-in-obese-mice
#17
Ghazaul Dezfuli, Kenneth J Kellar, Kenneth L Dretchen, Yousef Tizabi, Niaz Sahibzada, Richard A Gillis
Nicotine's effect on food intake and body weight has been well documented; however, the relevant receptors underlying these effects have not been firmly established. The purpose of the present study was to: (1) identify the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype involved in food intake and body weight; (2) establish whether food intake and body weight reduction produced by nicotinic drugs are due to activation or desensitization of nAChRs; and, (3) assess the role of the melanocortin system in nicotinic drug effects on food intake and body weight...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440195/in-vivo-blockade-of-acetylcholinesterase-increases-intraovarian-acetylcholine-and-enhances-follicular-development-and-fertility-in-the-rat
#18
Javier Urra, Jan Blohberger, Michelle Tiszavari, Artur Mayerhofer, Hernan E Lara
Growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles are regulated by systemic and local factors, which may include acetylcholine (ACh). Granulosa cells (GCs) of growing follicles and luteal cells produce ACh and in cultured GCs it exerts trophic actions via muscarinic receptors. However, such actions were not studied in vivo. After having established that rat ovarian GCs and luteal cells express the ACh-metabolizing enzyme ACh esterase (AChE), we examined the consequences of local application of an AChE inhibitor, huperzine A (HupA), by osmotic minipump delivery into the ovarian bursa of hemiovariectomized rats...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390695/comparative-efficacy-of-methylphenidate-and-atomoxetine-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Golandam Rezaei, Seyed Alireza Hosseini, Ali Akbari Sari, Alireza Olyaeemanesh, Mohamad Hassan Lotfi, Mojtaba Yassini, Reza Bidaki, Bijan Nouri
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to directly compare efficacy of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in treatment of children and adolescents 6- 18 years. METHODS: All published, randomized, open label or double blind trials, comparing the efficacy of methylphenidate with atomoxetine in treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD, using DSM-IV criteria were included in this study; ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored (ADHDRS) scores was used...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314204/systemic-delivery-of-sirna-by-hyaluronan-functionalized-calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-for-tumor-targeted-therapy
#20
Chong Qiu, Wei Wei, Jing Sun, Hai-Tao Zhang, Jing-Song Ding, Jian-Cheng Wang, Qiang Zhang
In this study, hyaluronan (HA)-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs) were developed for an injectable and targetable delivery of siRNA, which were prepared by coating the alendronate-hyaluronan graft polymer (AHA) around the surface of calcium phosphate-siRNA co-precipitates. The prepared CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs had a uniform spherical core-shell morphology with an approximate size of 170 nm and zeta potential of -12 mV. The coating of hydrophilic HA improved the physical stability of nanoparticles over one month due to the strong interactions between phosphonate and calcium...
July 14, 2016: Nanoscale
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