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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535614/elucidating-bottlenecks-of-the-efficient-preparation-of-an-ab5-hexamer-mucosal-adjuvant-protein-ltm-by-genetic-engineering
#1
Di Liu, Fabiao Hu, Wenpeng Wang, Dong Wu, Xiujuan He, Wenyun Zheng, Haipeng Liu, Xingyuan Ma
Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and its non-toxic mutant (LTm) are well-known powerful mucosal adjuvants and immunogens. However, the yields of these adjuvants from genetically engineered strains remain at extremely low levels, thereby hindering their extensive application in fundamental and clinical research. Therefore, efficient production of these adjuvant proteins from genetically engineered microbes is a huge challenge in the field of molecular biology. In order to explore expression bottlenecks of LTm in E...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535583/molecular-testing-of-brain-tumor
#2
REVIEW
Sung-Hye Park, Jaekyung Won, Seong-Ik Kim, Yujin Lee, Chul-Kee Park, Seung-Ki Kim, Seung-Hong Choi
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors was revised in 2016 with a basis on the integrated diagnosis of molecular genetics. We herein provide the guidelines for using molecular genetic tests in routine pathological practice for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. While astrocytomas and IDH-mutant (secondary) glioblastomas are characterized by the mutational status of IDH, TP53 , and ATRX , oligodendrogliomas have a 1p/19q codeletion and mutations in IDH, CIC , FUBP1 , and the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase ( TERTp )...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535388/transgenerational-inheritance-perpetuating-rnai
#3
Kristen C Brown, Taiowa A Montgomery
Reversible changes in gene expression independent of the genetic code can be transmitted from one generation to the next via poorly understood mechanisms. In worms, a histone-modifying enzyme is necessary to keep small RNA-guided transgenerational gene silencing in check.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535287/a-flow-cytometry-based-screen-identifies-mbnl1-modulators-that-rescue-splicing-defects-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-i
#4
Fan Zhang, Nicole E Bodycombe, Keith M Haskell, Yumei L Sun, Eric T Wang, Carl A Morris, Lyn H Jones, Lauren D Wood, Mathew T Pletcher
Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) is a rare genetic disease caused by expansion of CTG trinucleotide repeats ((CTG)exp) in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene. The repeat transcripts sequester the RNA binding protein Muscleblind-like protein 1 (MBNL1) and hamper its normal function in pre-mRNA splicing. Overexpressing exogenous MBNL1 in the DM1 mouse model has been shown to rescue the splicing defects and reverse myotonia. Although a viable therapeutic strategy, pharmacological modulators of MBNL1 expression have not been identified...
May 23, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535261/recruitment-of-a-lineage-specific-virulence-regulatory-pathway-promotes-intracellular-infection-by-a-plant-pathogen-experimentally-evolved-into-a-legume-symbiont
#5
Delphine Capela, Marta Marchetti, Camille Clérissi, Anthony Perrier, Dorian Guetta, Carine Gris, Marc Valls, Alain Jauneau, Stéphane Cruveiller, Eduardo P C Rocha, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Ecological transitions between different lifestyles, such as pathogenicity, mutualism and saprophytism, have been very frequent in the course of microbial evolution, and often driven by horizontal gene transfer. Yet, how genomes achieve the ecological transition initiated by the transfer of complex biological traits remains poorly known. Here we used experimental evolution, genomics, transcriptomics and high-resolution phenotyping to analyze the evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum into legume symbionts, following the transfer of a natural plasmid encoding the essential mutualistic genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535256/epigenetic-and-genetic-contributions-to-adaptation-in-chlamydomonas
#6
Ilkka Kronholm, Andrew Bassett, David Baulcombe, Sinéad Collins
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation or histone modifications, can be transmitted between cellular or organismal generations. However, there are no experiments measuring their role in adaptation, so here we use experimental evolution to investigate how epigenetic variation can contribute to adaptation. We manipulated DNA methylation and histone acetylation in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii both genetically and chemically to change the amount of epigenetic variation generated or transmitted in adapting populations in three different environments (salt stress, phosphate starvation, and high CO2) for two hundred asexual generations...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535199/genotype-phenotype-correlation-in-patients-with-isovaleric-acidemia-comparative-structural-modelling-and-computational-analysis-of-novel-variants
#7
Osama K Zaki, George Priya Doss C, Salsabil A Ali, Ghadeer G Murad, Shaima A Elashi, Maryam Sa Ebnou, D Thirumal Kumar, Ola Khalifa, Radwa Gamal, Heba S A El Abd, Bilal N Nasr, Hatem Zayed
Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of leucine metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) enzyme. In this study, we investigated eight patients with IVA. The patients diagnoses were confirmed by urinary organic acid analysis and the blood C5-Carnitine value. A molecular genetic analysis of the IVD gene revealed nine different variants: five were missense variants (c.1193G>A; p. R398Q, c.1207T>A; p. Y403N, c.872C>T; p...
May 23, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535195/presence-of-type-i-f-crispr-cas-systems-is-associated-with-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-escherichia-coli
#8
Seyid Aydin, Yoann Personne, Enas Newire, Rebecca Laverick, Oliver Russell, Adam P Roberts, Virve I Enne
Background: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and their associated cas genes are sequence-specific DNA nuclease systems found in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR/Cas systems use RNA transcripts of previously acquired DNA (spacers) to target invading genetic elements with the same sequence, including plasmids. In this research we studied the relationship between CRISPR/Cas systems and multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli . Methods: The presence of Type I-E and Type I-F CRISPR systems was investigated among 82 antimicrobial-susceptible and 96 MDR clinical E...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535148/stochastic-gene-expression-conditioned-on-large-deviations
#9
Jordan M Horowitz, Rahul V Kulkarni
The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression can give rise to large fluctuations and rare events that drive phenotypic variation in a population of genetically identical cells. Characterizing the fluctuations that give rise to such rare events motivates the analysis of large deviations in stochastic models of gene expression. Recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics have led to a framework for analyzing Markovian processes conditioned on rare events and for representing such processes by conditioning-free driven Markovian processes...
May 23, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535079/the-tomato-kinase-pti1-contributes-to-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-response-to-two-flagellin-derived-peptides-and-promotes-resistance-to-pseudomonas-syringae-infection
#10
Simon Schwizer, Christine M Kraus, Diane M Dunham, Yi Zheng, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Marina A Pombo, Zhangjun Fei, Suma Chakravarthy, Gregory Martin
The Pti1 kinase was identified from a reverse genetic screen as contributing to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). This was unexpected because Pti1 was originally identified as an interactor of the Pto kinase and was implicated in effector-triggered immunity. The tomato genome has two Pti1 genes, referred to as Pti1a and Pti1b. A hairpin-Pti1 (hpPti1) construct was developed and used to generate two independent stable transgenic tomato lines, which had reduced transcript abundance of both genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534928/music-genetics-research-association-with-musicality-of-a-polymorphism-in-the-avpr1a-gene
#11
Luiza Monteavaro Mariath, Alexandre Mauat da Silva, Thayne Woycinck Kowalski, Gustavo Schulz Gattino, Gustavo Andrade de Araujo, Felipe Grahl Figueiredo, Alice Tagliani-Ribeiro, Tatiana Roman, Fernanda Sales Luiz Vianna, Lavínia Schuler-Faccini, Jaqueline Bohrer Schuch
Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype...
May 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534876/alpine-soil-carbon-is-vulnerable-to-rapid-microbial-decomposition-under-climate-cooling
#12
Linwei Wu, Yunfeng Yang, Shiping Wang, Haowei Yue, Qiaoyan Lin, Yigang Hu, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Lauren Hale, Xiangzhen Li, Jack A Gilbert, Jizhong Zhou
As climate cooling is increasingly regarded as important natural variability of long-term global warming trends, there is a resurging interest in understanding its impact on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we report a soil transplant experiment from lower to higher elevations in a Tibetan alpine grassland to simulate the impact of cooling on ecosystem community structure and function. Three years of cooling resulted in reduced plant productivity and microbial functional potential (for example, carbon respiration and nutrient cycling)...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534863/the-clinical-course-of-patients-with-preschool-manifestation-of-type-1-diabetes-is-independent-of-the-hla-dr-dq-genotype
#13
Christina Reinauer, Joachim Rosenbauer, Christina Bächle, Christian Herder, Michael Roden, Sian Ellard, Elisa De Franco, Beate Karges, Reinhard W Holl, Jürgen Enczmann, Thomas Meissner
INTRODUCTION: Major histocompatibility complex class II genes are considered major genetic risk factors for autoimmune diabetes. We analysed Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) DR and DQ haplotypes in a cohort with early-onset (age < 5 years), long term type 1 diabetes (T1D) and explored their influence on clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: Intermediate resolution HLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 typing was performed in 233 samples from the German Paediatric Diabetes Biobank and compared with a local control cohort of 19,544 cases...
May 19, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534829/variation-in-the-genetic-repertoire-of-viruses-infecting-micromonas-pusilla-reflects-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-links-to-their-environmental-distribution
#14
Jan F Finke, Danielle M Winget, Amy M Chan, Curtis A Suttle
Prasinophytes, a group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has a global distribution and is infected by large double-stranded DNA viruses (prasinoviruses) in the family Phycodnaviridae. This study examines the genetic repertoire, phylogeny, and environmental distribution of phycodnaviruses infecting Micromonas pusilla, other prasinophytes and chlorophytes. Based on comparisons among the genomes of viruses infecting M. pusilla and other phycodnaviruses, as well as the genome from a host isolate of M. pusilla, viruses infecting M...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534687/role-of-molecular-markers-in-thyroid-nodule-management-then-and-now
#15
Yuri E Nikiforov
OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution and clinical utility of molecular testing for thyroid nodules and cancer achieved over the last two decades. METHODS: Scientific reports on thyroid cancer genetics and molecular diagnostics in thyroid nodules. RESULTS: Over the last two decades, our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of thyroid cancer has dramatically expanded, such that most thyroid cancers now have known gene driver events. This knowledge provides the basis for establishing and further improving molecular tests for thyroid nodules and cancer and for the introduction of new entities such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)...
May 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534666/human-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-in-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#16
Jana Ognjenović, Miljan Simonović
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AaRSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that ensure accurate translation of the genetic information into functional proteins. These enzymes also execute a variety of non-canonical functions that are significant for regulation of diverse cellular processes and that reside outside the realm of protein synthesis. Associations between faults in AaRS-mediated processes and human diseases have been long recognized. Most recent research findings strongly argue that 10 cytosolic and 14 mitochondrial AaRSs are implicated in some form of pathology of the human nervous system...
May 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534535/the-potential-of-organoids-in-urological-cancer-research
#17
REVIEW
Shangqian Wang, Dong Gao, Yu Chen
Technical advances in the development of organoid systems enable cell lines, primary adult cells, or stem or progenitor cells to develop into diverse, multicellular entities, which can self-renew, self-organize, and differentiate. These 3D organoid cultures have proven to be of value in increasing our understanding of the biology of disease and offer the potential of regenerative and genetic therapies. The successful application of 3D organoids derived from adult tissue into urological cancer research can further our understanding of these diseases and could also provide preclinical cancer models to realize the precision medicine paradigm by therapeutic screening of individual patient samples ex vivo...
May 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534526/impact-of-genetic-polymorphisms-determining-leukocyte-neutrophil-count-on-chemotherapy-toxicity
#18
S J Glisovic, Y D Pastore, V Gagne, M Plesa, C Laverdière, J M Leclerc, D Sinnett, M Krajinovic
Neutropenia and infection are major dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. The risk of initial infection and subsequent complications are directly related to the depth and duration of neutropenia. Recent genome-wide association studies identified variants in DARC and CXCL2 genes, and in ORMDL3-GSDMA-CSF3 locus on chromosome 17q21 that influence white blood cell and neutrophil counts in healthy individuals. To investigate whether polymorphisms in these loci in conjunction with chemotherapy may modulate risk of treatment complications, we analyzed 21 SNPs across these genes for an association with chemotherapy-related neutropenia and infection in 286 Caucasian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
May 23, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534511/stromal-derived-igf2-promotes-colon-cancer-progression-via-paracrine-and-autocrine-mechanisms
#19
C Unger, N Kramer, D Unterleuthner, M Scherzer, A Burian, A Rudisch, M Stadler, M Schlederer, D Lenhardt, A Riedl, S Walter, A Wernitznig, L Kenner, M Hengstschläger, J Schüler, W Sommergruber, H Dolznig
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)2/IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling axis has an important role in intestinal carcinogenesis and overexpression of IGF2 is an accepted risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Genetic amplifications and loss of imprinting contribute to the upregulation of IGF2, but insufficiently explain the extent of IGF2 expression in a subset of patients. Here, we show that IGF2 was specifically induced in the tumor stroma of CRC and identified cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as the major source...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534505/proteomic-identification-of-erp29-as-a-key-chemoresistant-factor-activated-by-the-aggregating-p53-mutant-arg282trp
#20
Y Zhang, Y Hu, J-L Wang, H Yao, H Wang, L Liang, C Li, H Shi, Y Chen, J-Y Fang, J Xu
Mutation of the TP53 gene represents a prevalent genetic alteration in human cancers, and a subset of p53 mutants may form amyloid-like aggregates that contribute to the gain of oncogenic functions (GOFs) and chemoresistance. Here we identify the pathways that may mediate the aggregation-associated GOF by using combined proteomic analysis and genome-wide recruitment profiling. Mass spectrometry revealed activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29) in (R282W)TP53-expressing cells that were exposed to cisplatin stress...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
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