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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236286/corticosteroids-for-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Anat Stern, Keren Skalsky, Tomer Avni, Elena Carrara, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials...
December 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236245/-relevance-of-type-of-diagnosis-and-occupational-status-for-the-results-of-psychiatric-rehabilitation
#2
Friedrich Riffer, Manuel Sprung, Lore Streibl, Elmar Kaiser
OBJECTIVE: The specific effectiveness of psychiatric rehabilitation has been confirmed in numerous studies. Of particular interest is to what extend different results can be observed regarding the occupational status and type of mental illness of patients. Unemployment at the start of treatment is generally deemed to be a disadvantage for treatment outcome. Weaker treatment effects have also been reported for some types of mental illnesses, such as pain- und somatoform disorders. METHODS: Results from the evaluation of a sample of 2260 patients form the psychiatric rehabilitation clinic Gars am Kamp were analyzed, with regard to the occupational status and type of mental illness of patients...
December 13, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236145/-non-coding-rna-innovative-regulators-with-therapeutic-perspective
#3
A Bührke, C Bär, T Thum
As a result of the Human Genome Project it became evident that only 1-3% of all gene transcripts encode proteins. The vast majority of gene transcripts are in fact characterized as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These ncRNAs have a huge impact on diverse physiological and pathological mechanisms within an organism. In particular, microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are differentiated by their size and function, are involved in the regulation and development of many illnesses. In the context of heart and cardiovascular diseases numerous ncRNAs have also already been described in some detail...
December 13, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236097/a-randomized-cohort-controlled-trial-to-compare-intern-sign-out-training-interventions
#4
Soo-Hoon Lee, Christopher Terndrup, Phillip H Phan, Sandra E Zaeh, Kwame Atsina, Nicole Minkove, Alexander Billioux, Souvik Chatterjee, Idoreyin Montague, Bennett Clark, Andrew Hughes, Sanjay V Desai
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have investigated the efficacy of specific sign-out protocols (such as the illness severity, patient summary, action list, situation awareness and contingency planning, and synthesis by reviewer [I-PASS] bundle), the implementation of a bundle can be time consuming and costly. We compared 4 sign-out training pedagogies on sign-out quality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate training interventions that best enhance multidimensional sign-out quality measured by information exchange, task accountability, and personal responsibility...
December 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236095/health-literacy-and-hospital-length-of-stay-an-inpatient-cohort-study
#5
Ethan G Jaffee, Vineet M Arora, Madeleine I Matthiesen, David O Meltzer, Valerie G Press
BACKGROUND: Associations between low health literacy (HL) and adverse health outcomes have been well documented in the outpatient setting; however, few studies have examined associations between low HL and in-hospital outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To compare hospital length of stay (LOS) among patients with low HL and those with adequate HL. DESIGN: Hospital-based cohort study. SETTING: Academic urban tertiary-care hospital. PATIENTS: Hospitalized general medicine patients...
December 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236052/micrornas-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-novel-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approaches
#6
REVIEW
Loredana Leggio, Silvia Vivarelli, Francesca L'Episcopo, Cataldo Tirolo, Salvo Caniglia, Nunzio Testa, Bianca Marchetti, Nunzio Iraci
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent central nervous system (CNS) movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disease overall. PD is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) within the midbrain, accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) in Lewy bodies and neurites and excessive neuroinflammation. The neurodegenerative processes typically begin decades before the appearance of clinical symptoms. Therefore, the diagnosis is achievable only when the majority of the relevant DAergic neurons have already died and for that reason available treatments are only palliative at best...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236043/stress-induced-endocrine-and-immune-dysfunctions-in-caregivers-of-people-with-eating-disorders
#7
Ángel Romero-Martínez, Luis Moya-Albiol
Caregivers have to cope repeatedly with acute stressors in their daily lives, and this is associated with disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system. Such disturbances could contribute to the development of health problems in informal caregivers of people with chronic illnesses, such as eating disorders (EDs). The main objective of this study was to examine endocrine (salivary cortisol levels (Csal)), immune (immunoglobulin-A (IgA)), and psychological (anxiety, mood, and anger feelings) responses to an acute psychological stressor in a sample of informal caregivers of individuals with EDs compared to a sample of non-caregivers...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235968/mycobacterial-blood-culture-as-the-only-means-of-diagnosis-of-disseminated-tuberculosis-in-advanced-hiv-infection
#8
Alice Joan Mathuram, Joy Sarojini Michael, Vijay Prakash Turaka, Sudha Jasmine, Ronald Carey, I Ramya
The diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis (TB) in advanced HIV infection is often delayed because of difficulty in obtaining suitable specimens for culture. A total of 32 such patients from South India with positive mycobacterial blood cultures were studied over ten years. Almost all (90%) had a febrile illness and the majority (68.7%) had clinical lung involvement, but only 27.3% had positive sputum smears. Liver biopsy yielded a positive diagnosis in only 1/7. Cytopenia was almost universal (96.9%). Bone marrow cultures were, however, positive in 54...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235535/seasonal-pattern-of-influenza-activity-in-a-subtropical-city-china-2010-2015
#9
Xu-Xiang Liu, Yahong Li, Yibing Zhu, Juanjuan Zhang, Xiaoru Li, Junqing Zhang, Kefu Zhao, Mingxia Hu, Guoyou Qin, Xi-Ling Wang
Influenza seasonality study is critical for policy-makers to choose an optimal time for influenza vaccination campaign, especially for subtropical regions where influenza seasonality and periodicity are unclear. In this study, we explored the seasonality and periodicity of influenza in Hefei, China during 2010 to 2015 using five proxies originated from three data sources of clinical surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI), laboratory surveillance of influenza and death registration of pneumonia and influenza...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235264/reconceptualizing-motivation-for-smoking-cessation-among-people-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-as-incentives-and-facilitators
#10
Megan E Gath, Lisa K Stamp, Pip Aimer, Simon Stebbings, Gareth J Treharne
OBJECTIVES: Smokers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may have different motivations for, and barriers to, quitting. Understanding the motivations of smokers and ex-smokers with RA will help in the design and implementation of targeted smoking cessation interventions for people with RA that are not based solely on extrapolation from the general population or populations with other chronic illnesses. METHODS: Twenty-nine smokers and 10 recent ex-smokers with RA participated in semi-structured interviews via telephone 18 months after being offered a smoking cessation intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand...
December 13, 2017: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235240/gender-differences-in-first-self-perceived-signs-and-symptoms-in-patients-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-and-first-episode-psychosis
#11
Ulrike Heitz, Erich Studerus, Stephanie Menghini-Müller, Martina Papmeyer, Laura Egloff, Sarah Ittig, Astrid Navarra, Christina Andreou, Anita Riecher-Rössler
AIM: Gender differences in the current symptomatology of patients with psychotic disorders have previously been described in the literature. However, it has not yet been investigated whether gender differences exist in the very first self-perceived signs or symptoms of illness onset. The aim of this study was to investigate this aspect in at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: ARMS and FEP were recruited via the early detection of psychosis (FePsy) clinic Basel, Switzerland...
December 13, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235234/-holding-on-to-life-an-ethnographic-study-of-living-well-at-home-in-old-age
#12
Kristin Bjornsdottir
In recent years, much attention has been paid to how older people living at home can remain independent and manage their illness themselves, while less attention has been given to those who have become frail and need assistance with challenges of everyday life. In this article, I drew on Latimer's formulation of care for frail older people as relational and world-making and on Foucault's work related to the care of the self in developing an understanding of how frail older persons manage to live well at home in the final years of their lives...
December 13, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234919/-soft-skills-somewhat-different-doping
#13
REVIEW
H J Heppner
Doping actually means the taking of illegal substances or the use of forbidden methods to increase or maintain performance. Diseases associated with age and functional decline can lead to constraints in the activities of daily living and this leads to loss of autonomy; therefore, doping in its different variations is used to try to achieve performance, which would not otherwise be possible. A somewhat different method is soft skills, i.e. personal, social and methodological competences, which are adopted to remain fit with the help of selection and compensation...
December 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234609/outcomes-of-open-repair-of-mycotic-aortic-aneurysms-with-in-situ-replacement
#14
Hyo-Hyun Kim, Do Jung Kim, Hyun-Chel Joo
Background: Mycotic aortic aneurysms are rare and life-threatening. Unfortunately, no established guidelines exist for the treatment of patients with mycotic aortic aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the midterm outcomes of the open repair of mycotic thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms and suggest a therapeutic strategy. Methods: From 2006 to 2016, 19 patients underwent open repair for an aortic aneurysm. All infected tissue was extensively debrided and covered with soft tissue...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234548/steroid-responsive-encephalopathy-associated-with-autoimmune-thyroiditis-presenting-with-fever-and-confusion
#15
Chiranthi Kongala Liyanage, Tilak Manthi Janake Munasinghe, Adsareswary Paramanantham
Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis (SREAT) is a diagnostic conundrum as it may present with a myriad of nonspecific clinical features and laboratory and neuroimaging investigations are not diagnostic. We report a case of a 65-year-old female who presented with an acute febrile illness associated with headache and confusion, tangential thoughts, and loose association. Based on neutrophil leukocytosis in the full blood count and elevated inflammatory markers, she was commenced on empirical intravenous antibiotics suspecting meningoencephalitis...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234525/invasive-candida-infection-after-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-surgery-for-gastric-cancer
#16
Evgeni Brotfain, Gilbert Sebbag, Michael Friger, Boris Kirshtein, Abraham Borer, Leonid Koyfman, Dmitry Frank, Yoav Bichovsky, Jochanan G Peiser, Moti Klein
Upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) surgical procedures are more likely to cause nosocomial Candida peritonitis than lower GIT procedures and they thus constitute an independent risk factor for mortality. Because of the severity of postsurgical fungal infections complications, intensivists and surgeons need to be extremely aware of their clinical importance in critically ill postsurgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We analyzed the clinical and microbiological data of 149 oncologic patients who were hospitalized in the ICU at Soroka Medical Center between January 2010 and January 2015 after undergoing upper GIT surgery for gastric cancer...
2017: International Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234514/mental-capacity-act-northern-ireland-2016
#17
REVIEW
Gerard Lynch, Catherine Taggart, Philip Campbell
Mental health legislation in Northern Ireland has always been separate from legislation in the rest of the UK; the Mental Health (Northern Ireland) Order (MHO) had been in place since 1986. In common with other jurisdictions, this legislation utilises the presence of mental disorder and risk as criteria for detention and involuntary treatment. The MHO has been replaced by the Mental Capacity Act (Northern Ireland) 2016 (MCA), an example of 'fusion' legislation in which impairment of decision-making capacity and best interests are the only criteria to be used when making decisions across health and social care...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234510/a-service-evaluation-of-outcomes-in-two-in-patient-recovery-units
#18
Rob Macpherson, Claudia Calciu, Chris Foy, Kim Humby, Dave Lozynskyj, Charles Garton, Hannah Steer, Helen Elliott
Aims and method To evaluate outcomes for patients during their admission or in the first year of treatment in two in-patient recovery units. Changes in health and social functioning, service use and need (rated by patients and staff) were evaluated. Results In 43 patients treated, there was a large (30%) increase in patients discharged to their own tenancies, rather than supported accommodation. There was minimal change in Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) scores in the course of the admission but staff- and patient-rated unmet needs reduced and met needs increased...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234507/implementation-of-a-novel-primary-care-pathway-for-patients-with-severe-and-enduring-mental-illness
#19
Frank Röhricht, Gopal Krishan Waddon, Paul Binfield, Rhiannon England, Richard Fradgley, Lise Hertel, Paul James, Judith Littlejohns, David Maher, Matthew Oppong
Aims and method New collaborative care models with an emphasis on primary care are required for long-term management of patients with severe and enduring mental illness (SMI). We conducted a descriptive evaluation of clinical outcomes of the first 3 years of a novel enhanced primary care (EPC) service. Data from 2818 patients and staff survey results were analysed. Results 2310 patients were discharged to EPC (508 not assessed as clinically suitable or patients/general practitioners declined the transfer); mean length of stay with secondary care service of the cohort was 9...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234506/newspaper-depictions-of-mental-and-physical-health
#20
Marian Chen, Stephen Lawrie
Aims and method Media portrayals of mental illness have long been recognised as being misleading and stigmatising. Following the campaigns of several advocacy groups to address this issue, we aimed to evaluate the impact on mental health reporting over time. We repeated a survey we did 15 years ago using the same methods. Nine UK daily newspapers were surveyed over a 4-week period and coded with a schema to analyse the reporting of mental health compared with physical health. Results In total, 963 articles - 200 on mental health and 763 on physical health - were identified...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
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