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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897206/the-incidence-and-drug-resistance-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mainland-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Chenjie Tang, Lunbiao Cui, Yuqiao Xu, Le Xie, Pengfei Sun, Chengcheng Liu, Wenying Xia, Genyan Liu
It has been widely reported that the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased dramatically in North America and Europe. However, little is known about CDI in Mainland China. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of CDI and the main epidemic and drug-resistant strains of C. difficile in Mainland China through meta-analysis of related studies published after the year 2010. A total of 51 eligible studies were included. The pooled incidence of toxigenic C. difficile among patients with diarrhoea was 14% (95% CI = 12-16%)...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860531/two-clusters-of-fluoroquinolone-and-clindamycin-resistant-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-001-strain-recognized-by-capillary-electrophoresis-ribotyping-and-multilocus-variable-tandem-repeat-analysis
#2
Otakar Nyc, Renata Tejkalova, Zdenek Kriz, Filip Ruzicka, Lubos Kubicek, Jana Matejkova, Ed Kuijper, Marcela Krutova
AIM: To perform a retrospective analysis of the high occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection in the surgical department of a Czech tertiary care hospital and to identify weaknesses in C. difficile infection (CDI) prevention and control policies. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological data on eleven CDI cases were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized by capillary electrophoresis ribotyping, multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), gyrA gene fragment sequencing, and erm(B) fragment PCR amplification...
November 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856724/variability-in-antibiotic-use-across-ontario-acute-care-hospitals
#3
Charlie Tan, Marian Vermeulen, Xuesong Wang, Rosemary Zvonar, Gary Garber, Nick Daneman
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship is a required organizational practice for Canadian acute care hospitals, yet data are scarce regarding the quantity and composition of antibiotic use across facilities. We sought to examine the variability, and risk-adjusted variability, in antibiotic use across acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada's most populous province. METHODS: Antibiotic purchasing data from IMS Health, previously demonstrated to correlate strongly with internal antibiotic dispensing data, were acquired for 129 Ontario hospitals from January to December 2014 and linked to patient day (PD) denominator data from administrative datasets...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842877/identification-of-a-novel-mutation-at-the-primary-dimer-interface-of-gyra-conferring-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile
#4
Micheál Mac Aogáin, Shauna Kilkenny, Claire Walsh, Sinéad Lindsay, Geraldine Moloney, Trefor Morris, Sophie Jones, Thomas R Rogers
The aim of this study was to determine whether alternative resistance mechanisms, other than mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of DNA gyrase, could confer fluoroquinolone resistance in Clostridium difficile. An in vitro-generated C. difficile mutant exhibiting increased fluoroquinolone resistance was isolated through antibiotic selection on ciprofloxacin. The QRDR of this mutant was investigated by chain-termination sequencing and was found to be devoid of mutation. To determine the nature of the non-QRDR resistance mechanism in this strain, the genomes of the mutant and wild-type strains were sequenced...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620311/antibiotic-treatment-of-hospitalized-patients-with-pneumonia-complicated-by-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
K Zycinska, M Chmielewska, B Lenartowicz, M Hadzik-Blaszczyk, M Cieplak, Z Kur, R Krupa, K A Wardyn
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common gastrointestinal complication after antimicrobial treatment. It is estimated that CDI after pneumonia treatment is connected with a higher mortality than other causes of hospitalization. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the kind of antibiotic used for pneumonia treatment and mortality from post-pneumonia CDI. We addressed the issue by examining retrospectively the records of 217 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of CDI...
September 13, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374808/high-fiber-and-high-protein-diets-shape-different-gut-microbial-communities-which-ecologically-behave-similarly-under-stress-conditions-as-shown-in-a-gastrointestinal-simulator
#6
Massimo Marzorati, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Julie Vanden Bussche, Pilar Truchado, Ruy Jauregui, Racha Ahmad El Hage, Dietmar H Pieper, Lynn Vanhaecke, Tom Van de Wiele
The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the structure of gut microbial communities fed with different diets (i.e. high-protein-HP- versus high-fiber-HF-diet) and their functional stability when challenged with mild and acute doses of a mix of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. We made use of the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®)-a continuous model of the gastrointestinal tract-coupled with 16S-targeted Illumina and metabolomics (i.e. UHPLC-HRMS) analyses...
July 4, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295915/pleural-empyema-caused-by-salmonella-enteritidis-in-a-patient-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#7
Miroslav Kojić, Darko Nozić, Olivera Tarabar, Nenad Perisić
INTRODUCTION: Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal salmonellosis are usually seen in patients with cellular immunodeficiency. Pleural empyema caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella is very rare clinical presentation of salmonellosis and there are just a few cases described in a literature. We presented a very rare case of pleural empyema caused by Salmonella enteritidis in a patient with non-Hodgkin limphoma. CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old male with low grade B-cell lymphoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type in IV clinical degree, manifested with infiltration of stomach, bronchus, pleura and peritoneum was admitted to the hospital...
March 2016: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165560/predominance-and-high-antibiotic-resistance-of-the-emerging-clostridium-difficile-genotypes-napcr1-and-nap9-in-a-costa-rican-hospital-over-a-2-year-period-without-outbreaks
#8
Diana López-Ureña, Carlos Quesada-Gómez, Mónica Montoya-Ramírez, María del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, Teresita Somogyi, César Rodríguez, Evelyn Rodríguez-Cavallini
Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks...
2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091232/do-piperacillin-tazobactam-and-other-antibiotics-with-inhibitory-activity-against-clostridium-difficile-reduce-the-risk-for-acquisition-of-c-difficile-colonization
#9
Sirisha Kundrapu, Venkata C K Sunkesula, Lucy A Jury, Jennifer L Cadnum, Michelle M Nerandzic, Jackson S Musuuza, Ajay K Sethi, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Systemic antibiotics vary widely in in vitro activity against Clostridium difficile. Some agents with activity against C. difficile (e.g., piperacillin/tazobactam) inhibit establishment of colonization in mice. We tested the hypothesis that piperacillin/tazobactam and other agents with activity against C. difficile achieve sufficient concentrations in the intestinal tract to inhibit colonization in patients. METHODS: Point-prevalence culture surveys were conducted to compare the frequency of asymptomatic rectal carriage of toxigenic C...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011211/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-human-subjects-and-the-environment
#10
Tian-tian Tian, Jian-hong Zhao, Jing Yang, Cui-xin Qiang, Zhi-rong Li, Jing Chen, Kai-yue Xu, Qing-qing Ciu, Ru-xin Li
Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, gram-positive, anaerobic bacillus that can cause C. difficile infection (CDI). However, only a few studies on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of C. difficile in healthy individuals in China have been reported. We employed a spore enrichment culture to screen for C. difficile in the stool samples of 3699 healthy Chinese individuals who were divided into 4 groups: infants younger than 2 years of age and living at home with their parents; children aged 1 to 8 years of age and attending three different kindergarten schools; community-dwelling healthy adult aged 23-60 years old; and healthcare workers aged 28-80 years old...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811648/role-of-antibiotics-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
Orna Nitzan, Mazen Elias, Avi Peretz, Walid Saliba
Inflammatory bowel disease is thought to be caused by an aberrant immune response to gut bacteria in a genetically susceptible host. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis and complications of the two main inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. Alterations in gut microbiota, and specifically reduced intestinal microbial diversity, have been found to be associated with chronic gut inflammation in these disorders. Specific bacterial pathogens, such as virulent Escherichia coli strains, Bacteroides spp, and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, have been linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease...
January 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26616410/incidence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-receiving-high-risk-antibiotics-with-or-without-a-proton-pump-inhibitor
#12
D Gordon, L R Young, S Reddy, C Bergman, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Considering the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), risk reduction strategies are crucial. Prior studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use can increase the risk of CDI over antibiotics alone; however, data and guidelines have been conflicting. AIM: The aim was to compare CDI incidence in patients receiving high-risk antibiotics, comparing rates in those prescribed a PPI versus those without overlapping PPI exposure...
February 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26583825/-recent-antibiotic-use-in-german-acute-care-hospitals-from-benchmarking-to-improved-prescribing-and-quality-care
#13
W V Kern, M Fellhauer, M Hug, T Hoppe-Tichy, G Först, M Steib-Bauert, K de With
BACKGROUND: In view of increasing rates of bacterial resistance and Clostridium difficile infections efforts to enhance appropriate and intelligent antibiotic prescribing have become important. A prerequisite is the availability of reliable antibiotic use data. So far antibiotic consumption data in this country had only a very limited coverage of acute care hospitals. METHODS: We obtained drug dispensing data from 109 German acute care hospital pharmacies and calculated yearly antibiotic use density values stratified for hospital size and type of service / department...
November 2015: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26447730/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-rural-ontario-a-retrospective-multisite-population-based-study
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Ken Babey, Stephen Kelton, William K Milne, Jill Muileboom, Brenda Voth, Len Kelly, William C Brintnell, Tammy Dickins, Callie Armitage
INTRODUCTION: We conducted a retrospective, population-based study to assess the prevalence of Clostridium difficile infections and the associated risk factors among inpatients and outpatients in our region. METHODS: We used laboratory data over a 2-year period to identify inpatient and outpatient cases of C. difficile infection. Data were collected from 3 local catchment areas for rural hospital laboratories in Sioux Lookout, Mount Forest and the South Huron Hospital Association in Exeter...
2015: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26385434/identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-obligate-anaerobic-bacteria-from-clinical-samples-of-animal-origin
#15
Melissa Mayorga, Evelyn Rodríguez-Cavallini, Diana López-Ureña, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Carlos Quesada-Gómez
The etiology of veterinary infectious diseases has been the focus of considerable research, yet relatively little is known about the causative agents of anaerobic infections. Susceptibility studies have documented the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and indicate distinct differences in resistance patterns related to veterinary hospitals, geographic regions, and antibiotic-prescribing regimens. The aim of the present study was to identify the obligate anaerobic bacteria from veterinary clinical samples and to determinate the in vitro susceptibility to eight antimicrobials and their resistance-associated genes...
December 2015: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26256807/antibiotic-profiling-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-176-a-multidrug-resistant-relative-to-c-difficile-ribotype-027
#16
Marcela Krutova, Jana Matejkova, Jan Tkadlec, Otakar Nyc
Antibiotic profiling of twenty Czech Clostridium difficile PCR-ribotype 176 isolates revealed a high level of resistance to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin (n = 20) and to rifampicin (n = 13). Accumulation of resistance mechanisms to multiple antibiotics highlight that PCR-ribotype 176 belong to problematic epidemic strains.
December 2015: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26243960/toxinotyping-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-enterotoxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-isolates-from-mutton-beef-and-chicken-meat
#17
Madiha Khan, Jawad Nazir, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Mansur-Ud-Din Ahmad, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir
A total of 300 meat samples comprising mutton, beef, and chicken meat (n = 100) collected from either local butcher shops or large meat outlets situated at various areas of Lahore City located in Punjab province of Pakistan were tested for the isolation of Clostridium perfringens. Prevalence of the organism was highest in the chicken (6 %) followed by mutton (5 %) and beef (1 %). Contamination level was high (10/150) in the samples collected from local butcher shops in comparison to the samples collected from large meat outlets (2/150)...
August 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26174721/mode-of-action-of-closthioamide-the-first-member-of-the-polythioamide-class-of-bacterial-dna-gyrase-inhibitors
#18
Alina Iulia Chiriac, Florian Kloss, Jonas Krämer, Cuong Vuong, Christian Hertweck, Hans-Georg Sahl
OBJECTIVES: The spread of MDR bacteria represents a serious threat to human society and novel antibiotic drugs, preferably from new chemical classes, are urgently needed. Closthioamide was isolated from the strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum and belongs to a new class of natural products, the polythioamides. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of closthioamide. METHODS: For assessing the antimicrobial activity of closthioamide, MIC values and killing kinetics were determined...
September 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26048022/association-of-tcda-tcdb-clostridium-difficile-genotype-with-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-strains-conferring-metronidazole-resistant-phenotype
#19
Farahnaz-Sadat Shayganmehr, Masoud Alebouyeh, Masoumeh Azimirad, Mohammad Mehdi Aslani, Mohammad Reza Zali
BACKGROUND: Reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to antibiotics is problematic in clinical settings. There is new evidence indicating the cotransfer of toxin-encoding genes and conjugative transposons encoding resistance to antibiotics among different C. difficile strains. To analyze this association, in the current study, we evaluated the frequency of toxigenic C. difficile among the strains with different multidrug-resistant (MDR) profiles in Iran. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the isolates were determined against metronidazole, imipenem, ceftazidime, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin by agar dilution method...
2015: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26022983/toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-in-edible-marine-bivalve-molluscs-in-italy
#20
Tiziana Troiano, Celine Harmanus, Ingrid M J G Sanders, Vincenzo Pasquale, Stefano Dumontet, Federico Capuano, Vincenza Romano, Ed J Kuijper
Even though food of animal sources and different foodstuffs are well known to be potentially carrier of Clostridium difficile, few data are available on the occurrence of C. difficile in seafood. This work investigated the occurrence of C. difficile in edible bivalve molluscs in southern Italy. Out of the 925 investigated samples, 3.9% contained C. difficile. Eighteen strains harboured both genes for toxins A and B whereas 1 only had toxin B gene. Binary toxin genes were found in 22.2% of the isolates. The most frequently ribotypes found were 078/126 (22...
September 2, 2015: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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