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Kamil E Barbour, Susan Moss, Janet B Croft, Charles G Helmick, Kristina A Theis, Teresa J Brady, Louise B Murphy, Jennifer M Hootman, Kurt J Greenlund, Hua Lu, Yan Wang
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Cao Son Trinh, Hyeri Lee, Won Je Lee, Seok Jin Lee, Namhyun Chung, Juhyeong Han, Jongyun Kim, Suk-Whan Hong, Hojoung Lee
Pseudomonas nitroreducens: strain IHB B 13561 (PnIHB) enhances the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa via the stimulation of cell development and nitrate absorption. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant development through various mechanisms; they improve the uptake of soil resources by plants to greatly promote plant growth. Here, we used Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and Lactuca sativa to screen the growth enhancement activities of a purified PGPR, Pseudomonas nitroreducens strain IHB B 13561 (PnIHB)...
March 14, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Martin C S Wong, Willie Hamilton, David C Whiteman, Johnny Y Jiang, Youlin Qiao, Franklin D H Fung, Harry H X Wang, Philip W Y Chiu, Enders K W Ng, Justin C Y Wu, Jun Yu, Francis K L Chan, Joseph J Y Sung
Oesophageal cancers (adenocarcinomas [AC] and squamous cell carcinomas [SCC]) are characterized by high incidence/mortality in many countries. We aimed to delineate its global incidence and mortality, and studied whether socioeconomic development and its incidence rate were correlated. The age-standardized rates (ASRs) of incidence and mortality of this medical condition in 2012 for 184 nations from the GLOBOCAN database; national databases capturing incidence rates, and the WHO mortality database were examined...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jennifer L Guthrie, Clare Kong, David Roth, Danielle Jorgensen, Mabel Rodrigues, Patrick Tang, Maichael Thejoe, Kevin Elwood, Victoria J Cook, James Johnston, Jennifer L Gardy
Prospective universal genotyping of tuberculosis (TB) isolates is used by many laboratories to detect clusters of cases and inform contact investigations. Prior to universal genotyping, most TB prevention programs genotyped isolates on request only, relying on requests from public health professionals whose knowledge of a patient's clinical, demographic, and epidemiological characteristics suggested potential transmission. To justify the switch from on-request to universal genotyping - particularly in the public health domain, with its limited resources and competing priorities - it is important to demonstrate the additional benefit provided by a universal genotyping program...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Loren Collingwood, Ben Gonzalez O'Brien, Sarah Dreier
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Washington and Colorado became the first U.S. states to legalise recreational marijuana. By 2016, eight states and the District of Columbia had legalised recreational marijuana, with more expected to consider it in 2018. Despite this trend, little academic research explains what drives ballot-initiative vote choice on marijuana legalisation. METHODS: This paper uses a pre-election random sample voter survey to examine the individual characteristics that correlated with Washington voters' support for legal recreational marijuana...
March 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jonathan B Imran, Robyn E Richmond, Tarik D Madni, Kimberly Roaten, Audra T Clark, Emily Huang, Ali A Mokdad, Luis R Taveras, Kareem R Abdelfattah, Michael W Cripps, Alexander L Eastman
BACKGROUND: Trauma patients may be at elevated risk for subsequent suicide; however, it is unclear whether patients at risk can be identified during their initial presentation following injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a standardized clinical decision support system for suicide risk screening developed by our hospital system and to determine the incidence of positive suicide screenings in our trauma population. METHODS: Adult trauma patient screenings were performed by nursing staff during the triage process using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, Clinical Practice Screener, Recent (C-SSRS)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Veronica Restelli, Annemarie Taylor, Douglas Cochrane, Michael A Noble
BACKGROUND: This article reports on the findings of 12,278 laboratory related safety events that were reported through the British Columbia Patient Safety & Learning System Incident Reporting System. METHODS: The reports were collected from 75 hospital-based laboratories over a 33-month period and represent approximately 4.9% of all incidents reported. RESULTS: Consistent with previous studies 76% of reported incidents occurred during the pre-analytic phase of the laboratory cycle, with twice as many associated with collection problems as with clerical problems...
June 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Carla T Hilario, John L Oliffe, Josephine P Wong, Annette J Browne, Joy L Johnson
Distress among young immigrant and refugee men has drawn increasing research attention in recent years. Nuanced understandings of distress are needed to inform mental health and public health programming. The purpose of this research was to examine distress from the perspectives of young immigrant and refugee men living in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-three young men (aged 15-22 years) from diverse immigrant and refugee backgrounds participated in interviews, which were conducted between 2014 and 2015...
March 1, 2018: Health (London)
William Becker, Philippe Hujoel, Burton E Becker
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies indicate implants placed immediately after extraction or with minimally invasive procedures have excellent long-term success and survival rates. There is general agreement that implants must be stable after implant placement. This study evaluated implant stability changes from the time of implant placement to second stage (prior to restoration). Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was determined for two commercially available units (Osstell, Osstell USA, Columbia, MD and Penguin, Penguin Integration Diagnostics, Sweden)...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Riyad B Abu-Laban, Sharla Drebit, Ronald R Lindstrom, Chantel Archibald, Kim Eggers, Kendall Ho, Afshin Khazei, Adam Lund, Carolyn MacKinnon, Ray Markham, Julian Marsden, Ed Martin, Jim Christenson
As generalists, emergency practitioners face challenges in providing state-of-the-art care owing to the broad spectrum of practice and the rapid rate of new knowledge generation. Networks have become increasingly prevalent in health care, and it was in this backdrop, and the resulting opportunity to advance evidence-informed emergency care in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), that a new "Emergency Medicine Network" (EM Network) was launched in 2017. The EM Network consists of four programs, each led by a physician with expertise and a track record in the domain: (1) Clinical Resources; (2) Innovation; (3) Continuing Professional Development; and (4) Real-time Support...
January 4, 2018: Curēus
Samuel Mullinax, Christen E Chalmers, Jesse Brennan, Gary M Vilke, Kimberly Nordstrom, Michael P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Suicide screening scales have been advocated for use in the ED setting. However, it is currently unknown whether patients classified as low-risk on these scales can be safely discharged from the emergency department. This study evaluated the utility of three commonly-used suicide screening tools in the emergency department to predict ED disposition, with special interest in discharge among low-risk patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled a convenience sample of patients who answered "yes" to a triage suicidal ideation question in an urban academic emergency department...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Rebecca Nash, Kevin C Ward, Ahmedin Jemal, David E Sandberg, Vin Tangpricha, Michael Goodman
BACKGROUND: Transgender people and persons with disorders of sex development (DSD) are two separate categories of gender minorities, each characterized by unique cancer risk factors. Although cancer registry data typically include only two categories of sex, registrars have the option of indicating that a patient is transgender or has a DSD. METHODS: Data for primary cancer cases in 46 states and the District of Columbia were obtained from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) database for the period 1995-2013...
March 9, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Patrick Drake, Anne K Driscoll, T J Mathews
Maternal tobacco use during pregnancy has been linked to a host of negative infant and child outcomes, including low birthweight, preterm birth, and various birth defects (1-5). The 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth included new and modified items on maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. The 2016 natality data file is the first for which this information is available for all states and the District of Columbia (D.C.). This report presents the prevalence of cigarette smoking at any time during pregnancy among women who gave birth in 2016 in the United States by state of residence as well as maternal race and Hispanic origin, age, and educational attainment...
February 2018: NCHS Data Brief
Kyla A McKay, Helen Tremlett, John D Fisk, Tingting Zhang, Scott B Patten, Lorne Kastrukoff, Trudy Campbell, Ruth Ann Marrie
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that comorbidity may influence disability outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS); we investigated the association between psychiatric comorbidity and MS disability progression in a large multiclinic population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study accessed prospectively collected information from linked clinical and population-based health administrative databases in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Nova Scotia...
March 9, 2018: Neurology
M F Rodrigues, P T Truong, E C McKevitt, L M Weir, M A Knowling, E S Wai
PURPOSE: Phyllodes tumors of the breast are uncommon fibroepithelial lesions for which optimal management remains unclear. This retrospective population-based study reports treatment and outcomes for patients with phyllodes tumors and evaluates characteristics that influence outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were analysed on 183 patients with newly diagnosed phyllodes tumors from 1999 to 2014. Five-year Kaplan-Meier local recurrence and survival were compared between cohorts with benign (n=83), borderline (n=50) and malignant phyllodes tumor (n=49) histology...
March 7, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Benjamin Tuyp, Kasra Hassani, Cynthia Thurston, Kathleen Fyvie, Lisa Constable
The recovery process from traumatic injuries, and the potential for complications, extends beyond the time of hospital discharge. In 2014, the Fraser Health Trauma Network established outpatient clinics to provide follow-up care for trauma patients after discharge from hospital. The following research questions were asked: Which services were commonly performed by our trauma clinics and how satisfied were patients with the care they received at our clinics? A survey was distributed to patients after their clinic visit to assess overall satisfaction and areas for improvement...
March 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Victoria Hall, William L Walker, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer A Lehman, Jonathan Kolsin, Kimberly Landry, Ingrid B Rabe, Susan L Hills, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Carolyn V Gould, Stacey W Martin
Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections also have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-3). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or result in mild clinical illness, characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and severe thrombocytopenia rarely have been associated with Zika virus infection (1)...
March 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Laura Schummers, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Michele R Hacker, Tyler J VanderWeele, Paige L Williams, Thomas A McElrath, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
BACKGROUND: First deliveries in women older than 35, 40, or 45 are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with those in younger women. However, specific relationships between each additional year of maternal age and pregnancy risks remain unclear, and absolute risks at each maternal age are not known. METHODS: Using a population-based cohort of nulliparous women in British Columbia, Canada, from 2004-2014 (n=203,414), We examined relationships between maternal age (modeled flexibly to allow curvilinear shapes) and pregnancy outcomes using logistic regression...
March 6, 2018: Epidemiology
Elizabeth A F Schaefer, Rebecca E H Whiting, Jacqueline W Pearce, Bruce H Grahn, Charles W Hamm, Cecil P Moore, Kristina L Narfström
A 11-year-old neutered male Labrador retriever-cross dog was presented to the University of Missouri-Columbia Veterinary Ophthalmology Service for subtle visual deficits. Indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed a smooth, bullous elevation in the superior-temporal retina OU. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) performed OU showed inner retinal separation consistent with retinoschisis. Electroretinography (ERG) revealed markedly reduced b-wave amplitudes in the more severely affected eye (OD) compared with the less severely affected eye (OS)...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Héctor A Velásquez García, Boris G Sobolev, Carolyn C Gotay, Christine M Wilson, Caroline A Lohrisch, Agnes S Lai, Kristan J Aronson, John J Spinelli
PURPOSE: The association between high mammographic density (MD) and elevated breast cancer risk is well established. However, the role of absolute non-dense area remains unclear. We estimated the effect of the mammographic non-dense area and other density parameters on the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: This study utilizes data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, with 477 female postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 588 female postmenopausal controls...
March 7, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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